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University Degree: Genetics

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  1. Genetic-Fingerprint or DNA-profiling

    Therefore it is important to choose some that show the most variation between people. Making a DNA fingerprint There are 4 main steps for making a DNA fingerprint: Extraction � digestion � separation � hybridisation Extraction A sample of tissue containing cells with a nucleus (e.g. blood, a hair root or s***n containing a few sperm cells) is taken to the laboratory where DNA is extracted by shaking the sample in a mixture of water-saturated phenol and chloroform. Proteins precipitate out, leaving pure DNA dissolved in the water layer. Some facts: Required amount of tissue: - 0.5 cm� of blood - 0.005 cm� of s***n - one hair root Digestion Certain restriction enzymes are added to the DNA to cut it.

    • Word count: 1010
  2. Ethical essay on Human Cloning

    Arguments for Human Cloning: - For the people who agree with human cloning, it is miracle where many couples have difficulties having children, and sometimes it is impossible for couples because they are infertile. So cloning will allow these couples to have children. It will increase the number of embryos transferred and avoid subsequent egg retrieval during in vitro-fertilization (IVF) procedures. ''Smith is licensed to experiment on human stem cells in Britain because his objective is to improve infertility treatment - one of five categories of research for which human embryos up to 14 days old can legally be used.

    • Word count: 1420
  3. Sequencing the Human Genome

    Beginning the Human Genome Project Imagine that the human genome, which consists of over 3 billion nucleotide pairs, is the earth. In order to produce a map of its surface, it is essential to break it down into smaller, more manageable areas. To attempt to find a specific location on the earth, without any information on area, landmarks, etc. would be virtually impossible. Thus, the earth is split into continents, countries, and then progressively smaller sub-divisions, ending with a house number on a specific road in a specific part of the country.

    • Word count: 1174
  4. Lab #7 : Electrophoresis

    Alpha1 globulin is predominantly alpha1-antitrypsin, an enzyme produced by the lungs and liver. Alpha2 globulin, which includes serum haptoglobin, is a protein that binds hemoglobin to prevent its excretion by the kidneys. Various other alpha globulins are produced because of inflammation, tissue damage, autoimmune disorders, or certain cancers. Beta globulins include low-density substances involved in fat transport (lipoproteins), iron transport (transferring), and blood clotting (plasminogen and complement). Gamma globulins are all antibodies-proteins produced by the immune system in response to infection, allergic reactions, and organ transplants. If serum protein electrophoresis has demonstrated a significant rise at the gamma-globulin level, immunoelectrophoresis is done to identify the specific globulin that is involved.(1)

    • Word count: 1231
  5. Bloom's Syndrome

    Carriers of Bloom's Syndrome do not manifest symptoms of the disease. Individuals affected with Bloom's Syndrome have inherited two copies of the Bloom's Syndrome gene mutation. Typically they have certain features which don't look phenotypically normal. Most individuals are of an unusually small size at birth but otherwise have a normal degree of maturation. Most have a very short stature after birth, only rarely reaching five feet in height. There is a redness of the skin on the face, mainly the lower eyelids, the bridge of the nose and the adjoining upper cheek area, and the lower lip.

    • Word count: 1628
  6. The Battle Against HIV.

    Each different strain of the HIV virus has different proteins on its envelope. This is part of the reason why HIV is so hard to fight. I will discuss the fact that there are different strains of the virus later in this essay. (Bibliography part three) (Bibliography part three) The human immunodeficiency virus attaches to a CD4 protein on the surface of a white blood cell, and the envelope fuses with the cell membrane. The HIV virus fuses to the T-lymphocyte white blood cell.

    • Word count: 1106
  7. The Lambda Protocol Physics Investigation

    EcoR1, BamH1 and HindIII So, from this, the bands and smears that appear could be predicted. It would also be reasonable to show that the column with no restriction enzymes present would have no fragmentation of the ?-DNA, as the ?-DNA would not be broken down. For EcoRI: There will be one band near the start (21 226 base pairs fragment) as it is the biggest and so will travel the shortest in the gel electrophoresis. There will be another band about 2-3 times as far as the first, which is the 7 421 base pair fragment. I'm reasoning it will be about 2-3 times as far because it is around a third of the size.

    • Word count: 1598

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