• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How do we switch between tasks? In everyday life, numerous cognitive tasks occur simultaneously which require us to implement in parallel, or in prompt alternation (Hallowell, 2007).

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

How do we switch between tasks? In everyday life, numerous cognitive tasks occur simultaneously which require us to implement in parallel, or in prompt alternation (Hallowell, 2007). The ability to rapidly switch between two or more cognitive tasks is known as task switching (Allport, Styles & Hsieh, 1994). For the last century, various of task switching paradigms have been established in the laboratory setting and uncover relevant function of executive control processes: executing new or partially learned tasks (Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977), prohibiting unwanted overlearned responses to Stroop stimuli (Monsell, 1996) and in shifting from competing one task to another ( Allport, Styles, & Hseih, 1994; Rogers &Monsell, 1995); These paradigms usually require subjects to accomplish a set of simple tasks in a repeating or alternating sequence(e.g., Jersild, 1927). Many task-switching paradigm studies (e.g. Monsell, 2003; Allport, Styles & Hsieh, 1994) found there are some consistently basic phenomena of task switching revealed as longer reaction time (RT) and more error-prone performances when subjects respond to switching (AB/BA) than repetition trials(AA/BB).These deficits in latencies of RT and accuracy are known as the 'switch cost' (Sohn , Ursu , Anderson, Stenger & Carter, 2000),which can be reduced by preparing upcoming tasks ('preparation effect') but cannot be abolished ('residual cost') ...read more.

Middle

It is widely considered that disparity between colour word and its display colour, the colour words naming interfere much less than the display colour naming (van Maanen, van Rijn & Borst, 2009). So word naming task is more proficient which possesses 'stronger' task-set (Cohen et al, 1990; as cited in Monsell, 2003), and the result suggests that switching to the stronger task increasing the switch cost. This asymmetric switch cost is also found in language Stroop study (Meuter & Allport, 1999), subjects were asked to name Number either using second language or mother language. The RT switch cost is increased when switching to a task of using second language to name numbers, compared with switching to a task of using mother language to name numbers (1999). The easier shift in less familiar task is showed. These findings raise a question to TSR model that why it requires extended time to reconfigure for the more practised task? Although the theory provides explanation of switch cost in studies with congruent stimuli (Rogers & Monsell, 1995), it does not account for incongruent switch cost but the TSI theory do. It proposes that subjects must conduct additional inhibition to the practised task-set in order to implement the unskillful task (Allport & Wylie, 2000). ...read more.

Conclusion

The positivity wave in switching task reflects the processes for rules set up and activation during preparation, whereas the negativity wave reflects the inhibition of carryover effect or irrelevant interference. So the result illustrated that the TSR and TSP processes performed in the CSI and RSI respectively. Limitation & conclusion In conclude, this essay suggests that the three types of processes (TSR, TSI&TSP) are all contributing to the magnitude of switch costs. Each theory can partially explains the switch costs, but the integrated processes which includes all three types of processes seems to better account for the behavioural effects of task switching (e.g., asymmetric switch cost). The experimental evidences were provided to support that one process is not enough to clarify the mechanism of task switching. Then the neuroimage studies were presented to indicate the active regions of operating TSR and TSI processes. However, the active region of the TSP is unknown. The neuroinage evidence also located the performing intervals of the TSR and TSP processes. The further studies in neuroimaging are required to discover more active regions of task switching processes, so the how physically behavour of brain when implementing switching will be clear. Furthermore, the studies in locating the task switching processes to corresponding interval are also demanded. Importantly, even combined three task-switching processes, the residual cost still remains (Koch,2001), other contributors of switch cost require exploring. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. What have studies of people with brain damage injury and/or neuroimaging studies told us ...

    However Damasio et al (1996) provided one of the most convincing pieces of evidence for category specific organisation from a large sample of patients with brain lesions.

  2. Selective attention and the Stroop effect: automatic processing interference of controlled processing in a ...

    Confounding variables were reduced by screening participants for dyslexia, visual impairment, reading ability and colour blindness. Additionally, participants were kept naive to the experimental hypothesis. Moreover, both conditions were identical in delivering the same instructions, matching words for length, containing the same colour sequence and layout.

  1. The Stroop effect and selective attention: intrusion of automatic semantic processing on the performance ...

    The rationale for using this design was that it would detect any significant differences between the involuntary responses of the participants to the two experimental conditions, also considering the limited number of data subjects available which would be insufficient for a conclusive unrelated structure.

  2. Maslow, Rogers and Humanistic Psychology. Their work into the self-actualisation principle paved the way ...

    Fromm (1947) however disputes these arguments regarding love for others and self-love as complementary of each other whereby self love can become unconditional love for others. Whitson (1991) goes one step further to identify self-actualising individuals who have constructively contributed to society e.g.

  1. The ADHD-Combined subtype exhibits problems with attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity whereas the ADHD-I subtype ...

    locations at the beginning of the list or they used a combination of the two. The memory test results were then evaluated within these contexts. The researchers hypothesized that participants with ADHD would score lower on primary or secondary or both types of memory performance.

  2. The effect of context, and the relationship of cue and target, in word recognition ...

    a contextual cue may be more useful than a copy of the target- which may well lead to the assumption that an episodic trace- the existing representation of the memory- is not necessarily a copy of the target in recognition memory, but may also be the end result of operations

  1. This simple stimulus learning paper will analyze the forms of simple stimulus learning. The ...

    Both negative and positive stimuli need to be given so that the dependent can determine the difference from one stimulus and an alternative stimulus. Going from easy to hard stimuli is not easy at all. Initially with easy discrimination, sometimes it can cause the discrimination to be more difficult.

  2. Quatitative Project The Stroop effect and selective attention: Effect of ...

    Methods Design A within-participants design was employed. The independent variable was represented by two conditions; two word lists printed in various coloured inks. One list consisted of colour-related and the other of colour-neutral words. The dependent variable was the time needed to name the ink colours. This was measured to the nearest whole second.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work