Mammalian cell structure

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In this essay I would like to talk about the compartmentalisation of the cell and some important processes happen within the cell that requires the corporation of different organelles.

Eukaryotic cells (from the Greek meaning truly nuclear) can be easily distinguished through a membrane-bound nucleus.

Mammalian cells are one of the two types of eukaryotic cells, in which contains many internal membrane bounded structures called organelles, they are separated into different groups in order to increase their efficiency at bringing out particular function, and this is called compartmentalization, however there is processes that requires different organelles working together in order to take place, such as respiration (involves the cytoplasm and mitochondria) and Protein Synthesis (Nucleus, Ribosomes).

Mammalian cells are different to Plant cells (which are also eukaryotic), they do not have a cellulose cell wall, and they are bounded by only plasma membrane, so they are sensitive to Osmotic lysis (the bursting or rupturing of the plasma membrane due to osmotic movement of water into the cell when the cell is in a hypotonic environment.

The command centre of the cell, usually the largest is the nucleus; it contains the DNA information (chromosomes) of the cell and is the site where DNA replication and RNA transcription take place, while the nucleolus is located in the centre of the nucleus containing ribosomes in various stages of synthesis, the nucleolus is also responsible for the manufacture of the ribosomes. Surrounding the nucleus is the nuclear envelope that separates the contents of nucleus from the cytoplasm; the nuclear envelope is formed by a double membrane with nuclear pores. These pores regulate the in and out of substances between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, such as macromolecules like proteins and RNA, however water, ions , ATP and other small molecules can freely move in and out between them. In this way the nuclear envelop exerts a sense of control over the DNA information flow, since information is carried by the macromolecules.

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Ribosomes are typically composed of two subunits, a large and a small subunit, forming a figure of a ‘snowman’ they are organelles that exist in a large amount, it is because they are responsible for the assembling of proteins which is a very important role within the cell, mRNA will be read by them and protein would be synthesis through translation by allowing tRNA to carry amino acids according to the codons on mRNA. Ribosomes exist within the cell as free ribosomes that free floats within the cytoplasm or fixed ribosomes that are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum.


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