"Is Our Reaction To Stressful Events Innate or Learnt?" To be blunt the answer is both, but to different degree's. Everybody has a pre-ordained response to stress on a purely physical level. When we are put into a stressful situation are body goes through a whole host of changes that aid in dealing with stress, or rather physical stress. The so called flight or fight response is useful when you suddenly need a lot of energy but if you are at work and this response activates you have no need of sudden energy. This then becomes a problem when the stress becomes chronic. The pioneer of stress research was Selye. In 1936 he conducted experiments on rat's attempting to discover a new sex hormone. During the procedures he noticed a physiological reaction but he knew that no known hormone produced such effects. Therefore he assumed he had discovered a new hormone but when he injected another substance the same reaction was observed. Selye did not give up there though, he changed his direction. "It suddenly stuck me that one could look (at the experiments) from an entirely different angle. (Perhaps) there was such a thing as a non-specific reaction of the body to damage of any kind" (Selye, 1976, Psychology: A New Introduction, pg 68). Selye later confirmed that when rats are exposed to adverse conditions such an electric shocks, cold and surgical procedures the same reactions took
"Language change is too diverse to be susceptible to generalised analysis." Discuss Change affects all aspects of language and can occur in a variety of ways. Meaningful analysis must depend on detecting patterns in these changes; some of these aspects can be easier to measure and therefore submit to analysis more easily than others. It must also be noted that language change can only be truly assessed retrospectively, and therefore in this essay I will make a distinction between the study of the historical facts of language change, which can be viewed in context, and that of recent and ongoing changes in language, a more precise science, relying on prediction and making patterns difficult to discern. An area in which it is at least partly possible to attempt analysis of language change is in the clear patterns that govern the differences and similarities in the vocabulary, grammar and sound changes in the descendants of Proto-Indo-European. These regularly occurring similarities can be most easily discerned between Latin and its descendants, the Romance languages: Latin Spanish French Portuguese pater padre père pai candela chandelle candeia It was however from the Latin of the common people and not classical Latin that these Romance languages developed. Such similarities are not confined to the Romance
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) the developer of psychotherapy had originally trained to be a doctor. He became interested in explaining and curing things such as paralysis with no known medical cause and phobias. The theory that he developed expanded and he eventually developed a therapy used to cure these illness' his theory also started of what is called the psychodynamic approach in psychology. He developed his theory by looking at his life and childhood experiences and at case studies such as that of 'Little Hans.' His practices are still widely used today and his terms used by many psychologists. Freud believed that there were three levels to the human mind; the unconscious, conscious and pre-conscious. * The conscious - every action thought or feeling which we are aware of. * The pre conscious - things we are aware of only at certain times when they are made readily available * The unconscious is the underlying part of our psyche that we are not aware of and is difficult if not impossible to retrieve. He believed that all these levels are active at all times and that we are very much affected by what lies in our mind at these levels. He stated that the most important of the three was the unconscious. Freud believed that there were two innate drives that play a big role in everything we do and those are; * Eros- the urge to carry on the species and
How Do Babies Learn To Communicate Before They Can Talk? On average, children say their first word at around twelve months of age, with a range of eight to eighteen months (Berk, 2000). Nevertheless, preceding this is a period of communicative development which has led to an array of research (Keenan, 2002). Research into the phenomenon of language acquisition is grounded on the assumptions that communication is useful for all animals living in social groups, primate communication is adaptable rather than a fixed pattern and that change from infancy to adulthood requires an advanced capacity for learning. The preverbal period of infant development is hypothesised to last from birth to approximately one year, and it is primarily nonverbal communication that takes place in this period which sets the stage for language development and is characterised by the development of early communicative and cognitive abilities (Berk, 2000). These include the development of attention, gestures, gaze, turn-taking, causality, intentionality, relating to objects and the development of vocal patterns, for instance, babbling (Fogel, 1993) and, crucially, the experiencing joint attention with a social partner, which often speeds up language development (Berk, 2000). For the purpose of brevity the current piece will focus on the roles of gestures and early vocalisations to illustrate how babies
"Classical Piagetian theory is outdated and no longer useful."Critically evaluate this statement in relation to life-span development.
Developmental Psychology Essay Submitted to: Conor McGuckin Submitted by: Ruth Lennon Student No.: 1061022 "Classical Piagetian theory is outdated and no longer useful." Critically evaluate this statement in relation to life-span development. Life-span development is the scientific study that seeks to understand the ways in which all people change and how they do not change from conception to death. Until recently developmental psychology focused mainly on childhood and adolescence but, as a greater understanding of adult "crises" arose, developmental psychology has "enlarged to encompass the entire lifespan." (Bee & Boyd, 2003). One of the most influential theorists in the realm of development was Swiss born psychologist Jean Piaget. Piaget specifically studied the cognitive development of children and adolescents. Unfortunately Piaget failed to recognise that development continued past adolescence and right the way through an individual's entire life. It is because of this omission that many criticise and question the validity of Piaget's theories. Classical Piagetian theory is a theory of cognitive development centred on adaptation, accommodation and assimilation. Unlike Locke's proposal of the "tabula rasa", Piaget believed that a child's mind is not a blank slate. "On the contrary, the child has a host of ideas about the physical and natural world, but
Foundations of psychology 1 Critically assess the value of behaviourism as a psychological approach? In his essay I will provide information related to the assessment criteria. I will demonstrate my understanding of behaviourism from a psychological approach. The behaviourists that I have chosen to compare and discuss are, Watson, Pavlov, Thorndike and Skinner. From a psychological approach I will seek into the different behaviour therapies. The value of behaviour changes as a result of experience. The behaviourists approach to psychology started in America in the early years of the twentieth century. John Broadus Watson (1878-1955) was the founding father of behaviourism. Watson believed that the most important thing for psychology was that it should be scientific. His idea of this was that introspection was too broad and confusing. To study the mind would be time consuming and virtually impossible, because we cannot see directly into it. All that we can see is physical skin behaviour. Watson's approach rested on five fundamental assumptions. His first assumption was the most important factor in understanding behaviour, so understanding learning would lead to understanding of all behaviour. Secondly, that learning arose from the association between an external stimulus and a behavioural response. Thirdly that only measurable information counted as valid scientific data
How do children develop a Theory of Mind? You will need to discuss the kinds of knowledge, experiences and understanding that children need in order to acquire this skill.
How do children develop a Theory of Mind? You will need to discuss the kinds of knowledge, experiences and understanding that children need in order to acquire this skill. Theory of mind is defined as the ability of normal children to attribute mental states (e.g. desires, intentions, beliefs, understanding...) to themselves and others, (Homer & Lee, 1999). They must make sense of these attributes, in themselves and others, and this will enable them to predict behaviour of others. From research gathered it has been possible to pin point what a child needs in order to acquire a theory of mind. Clearly, to develop a theory of mind a child needs the experience of social interactions through which they can develop knowledge and understanding of their own thoughts and feelings and those of others. By 18 months children develop self-metarepresentation (Lewis & Brooks-Gunn, 1979). For example, a mother puts a spot of chocolate on the child's nose and place them in front of a mirror. By two years children are able to recognise the image is of themselves and they reach for their own nose. By eight months, children begin to understand that their gestures activate a response from others (Bates, 1976). A theory of mind is seen as a special stream of human reasoning. Study of autistic patients gives researchers an insight into the aspects involved in possessing a theory of
Psychoanalysis, like psychology, studies mind and behaviour in a very radical yet structural and in depth manner. The difference between the two, however, is that psychology considers the conscious processes as opposed to psychoanalysis, which also concerns itself with the unconscious. The concept of the unconscious arose from Sigmund Freud's creation of the psychodynamic approach to personality. Freud once likened personality to an iceberg with the visible tip above the surface of the water and a large part remaining hidden underneath (Bernstein,1997). From this simplistic introduction to classical psychoanalysis subsequent theories have evolved. Alongside these theories developments in therapeutic technique have arisen, which both coincide with and are a contrast to Freud's original theory. This relationship between classical psychoanalysis and its contemporary variations will be examined, paying particular attention to geo analysis, interpersonal therapy and object relations therapy. Freud opened his extensive career in psychoanalysis with a background in medicine and a period of research at the Institute of Cerebral Anatomy. It was an interest in nervous diseases, which led him to work with a man named Charcot in Paris, who was considering the idea of hysteria (Patterson and Watkins,1996). Hysteria can be described as the root from which psychoanalysis grew and
Are twins more similar who grow up together than twins raised apart? - Introduction Sigelman & Rider (2003) stated that it is clearly evident that genetic influences are consistent throughout the development of identical twins. However, Matlin (1999) argues that environmental factors encounter for half of these characteristics. Exploring both of these arguments I will investigate the development of identical twins being raised together and raised apart, comparing these results with the development of fraternal twins. Identical twins originate from a single fertilised egg, when the cell divides they are an exact replica of each other. Fraternal twins originate from two different eggs and are fertilised by a different sperm cell (Gleitman, 1999). Sigelman et al (2003) stated that measuring differences of identical and fraternal twins, raised together or raised apart, showed no varying correlation's at birth. Although correlation's between the both were visible in their early teens. Gender is not an issue in this essay, as identical twins are always of the same sex, although fraternal twins may be of the opposite sex. Throughout this essay I will only focus on twins of the same gender. This study can be characterised in two different areas: The Biological Theory, throughout this theory theorists believe that human development is determined by our genes (Matlin, 1999).
Briefly describe three models of human development. How well does each account for the development of language?
Language Development Running Head; Human Development and Language Briefly describe three models of human development. How well does each account for the development of language? Student No 10390319 Thames Valley University Word Count 2208 Language Development Briefly describe three models of human development. How well does each account for the development of language? So much of human development involves interaction with others therefore the medium of language whether spoken, written or gestured, plays a central role in our lives. But what is language, how can it be defined and what are its major components? How does a human develop and acquire language. What do three of the main models in Psychology think of language acquisition? In this essay I will briefly discuss the three main models of human development and then will attempt to answer the question of how language is developed and acquired using the views of the main models and their theorists. Models within Developmental Psychology include Nativists, Empiricists, Transactionalists and Interactionists. Nativists can either be pre formationists who argue that you are born with pre set patterns and nothing can change this, or, pre determinists who do not deny the importance of environmental stimuli, but they say language acquisition cannot be accounted for on the basis of environmental factors only. Noam