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University Degree: Psychometrics

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  1. Experiment methodology

    The age group was 16-20. The experiment sample included 8 girls and 8 boys which were the first eight picked from a pile of filled in questionnaires by males and female participants. Apparatus The apparatus used in were the questionnaire containing the scale, and the photographs in which the participants rated the couples, three sheets in total by which 2 sheets had separate male and females labelled 1-10 randomly and the third with the couple. (Appendices A,B, and C).

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  2. Describe a study which investigates either conformity or obedience This essay is going to talk about a study on The Stanford Prison Experiment on Conformity by Zimbardo

    After conferring with the British Psychological Society he began to set up his experiment. (www.zimbardo.com) Participants were picked by maturity, intelligence, on their physical and mental health history and also their criminal history. The twenty-four participants selected were given consent forms to sign and a contract (with legal advice) stating they would receive a daily payment of fifteen Dollars for various tasks and work activities within the prison. Zimbardo split participants into two groups; half prisoners who were given rules they had to comply with or they'd be punished.

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  3. obedience to authority.In 1963, Milgram submitted the results of his Milgram experiments in the article 'Behavioural study

    There is also the implication that the person receiving the order is made to respond in a way he or she would not otherwise have done without the order. Situational factor: is anything in the environment, including the behaviour of other people. Dispositional factor: is an enduring aspect of an individual's behaviour - his or her disposition or personality. A study which has investigated obedience to authority is Milgram 1963. It makes sense to be obedience in some situations; obedience is a healthy and necessary social behaviour.

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  4. Personality and Stress

    This behaviour pattern is characterised by constant time-pressure, doing several tasks at once, being intensely competitive in work and social situations, and being easily hostile to others. This has been known as the Type A personality. Type B, on the opposite, is the relaxed and carefree personality. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between Type A personality and CHD. Over 3000 men aged between 39 and 59 took part in the study. They were assessed over eight and a half years.

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  5. Psychology experiment I am investigating Chunking and the effect it has on the Short Term Memory

    My research is an adaptation of a study by Miller and Selfridge, in their study they gave participants sentences of varying lengths, where I've used grouped and ungrouped letters instead of sentences. * Aim My aim is to find out whether chunking can help improve recall in the STM. * Hypothesis(es) Experimental Hypothesis - In a memory test, participants will recall more letters that have been presented in meaningful chunks, compared to letters not presented in chunks. Null Hypothesis - There will be no significant difference in the number of letters recalled by participants who have learnt letters in chunks and those who have not.

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  6. The differences in memory performance when using recall and recognition as measures of memory.

    This group will be known as group two. Hypothesis for the experiment Group two will recall more of the 25 words than group one. Null hypothesis for the experiment There will be no significant difference between the two groups. Experimental design The experimental design I have used is Independent groups design. There are two main reasons for this; firstly I only have to come up with one set of words to remember. This means that setting the experiment up is easier and faster.

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  7. "From your knowledge of the ethical issues involved in social influence research to what extent can such research be justified?"

    No electric shocks were actually administered and the learner was an accomplice of the experimenter. The main finding was that 65% of the participants gave a lethal electric shock of 450 volts if told to do so. Milgram concluded that most people would obey orders if someone in authority issued them. The ethical issues arising from Milgram's experiment were protection from harm and deception. Participants could have been psychologically damaged and they were not aware that the learner was an accomplice and that the electric shocks were not real.

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  8. Classical Conditioning and Response.

    This repetition of patterns and the proper response is known as classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is a major phenomenon which has been the topic of experimental procedures for several decades. From animals, to babies, to adults, conditioning has been shown to be evident in several forms of life. Although there are several types of classical conditioning, this experimental report focuses mainly on the phenomenon of extinction. The main focus of extinction is how one is conditioned to respond distinctly to a certain indicator, but then the associated response diminishes over time as the certain indicator is removed (Nairne, 245).

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  9. Discuss theories of impression formation.

    This showed that the people watching the act had built up schemata on black people and saw them to be more aggressive than white people. As every person is different we have no way of telling exactly what a person or situation is like just from the framework we have in our minds. However the use of schemata helps us to simplify situations in every day life and help us make judgement on the correct way to behave with certain types of people and situations.

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  10. Set Up an Experiment That Examines and Compares the Relationship Between Vital Lung Capacity Between a Variety of Individuals

    Take a deep breath and blow hard through the spirometer. Do this 3 times in total to ensure reliable data and use the highest of the 3 results in your table. Spirometer measurements should be in millimetres. A comparison needs to be done of the data collected from all of the subjects. APPARATUS MOUTHPIECE SUBJECTS PAPER PEN WIPES SPIROMETER CLASSROOM RESULTS FOR RESULTS TABLE SEE APPENDIX 1 FOR GRAPH SEE APPENDIX 11 CONCLUSION My conclusion for this experiment was not as I had expected. I was expecting the subjects who did exercise to have an obviously higher vital lung capacity but this was not proved from my results.

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  11. An investigation to study the effects of relationships between words and the ability to recall groups for words

    INTRODUCTION Human memory has been studied by many different psychologists in various different ways. Memory is generally defined as "the capacity to store and later recall or recognise events that were previously experienced" Atkinson and Schriffon's multistore model of memory suggests that memory has three separate stores of which information is passed through. The primacy and recency effect supports the multistore model. Twenty words were given to participants and the data showed that words at the beginning were likely to be recalled as they were stored in the long term memory (primacy effect). Also words at the end were likely to be recalled as they are still present in the short term memory (recency effect).

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  12. Investigating some critical spatial parameters of text Involved in the judgement of its clarity.

    Wilkins (1995) observed a 14-year-old girl with epilepsy, who suffered absences only when she was exposed to striped patterns. An electroencephalograph (EEG) was used to determine specific types of pattern that induced the electroencephalographic precursors of seizures. Further investigation suggested that pattern sensitivity in epilepsy was not as rare as first thought and subsequentially led to studies that determined the stimulus characteristics responsible for the EEG abnormalities in patients with epilepsy (Wilkins et al., 1975, 1979a, 1980, 1981; cited in Wilkins, 1995).

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    A well known reversible figure is Boring's "Old/Young Woman. The picture of the woman can be perceived as the profile of a young woman's face or an old woman's face. The object of showing the picture to a group of people is to determine whether men, see a young woman in the picture or an old woman , and whether women see a young woman in the picture or an old woman. In this experiment carried out in the past, the results have been that men (especially young men)

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  14. Social Influence.

    The psychologist will then be dealt with accordingly. Deception is one of the many ethical issue that have been raised by social influence research. The BPS say that 'intentional deception of participants over the purpose and general nature of the investigation should be avoided whenever possible. Participants should never be deliberately misled without extremely strong scientific or medical justification.'. Some forms of deception involve lying to participants about the nature of a study, such as Milgram's study on obedience to authority.

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  15. Critique of Philip G. Zimbardo's "The Stanford Prison Experiment".

    Zimbardo and his team constructed a simulated prison in the basement of a Stanford University building. He wanted see the effects of becoming a prisoner and becoming a prison guard within the walls of a makeshift prison. The ad he placed in a local Palo Alto newspaper attracted 75 potential participants, of which he chose 21(314). To insure the "prisoners" and "guards" were medically, physically, and mentally fit, the applicants were tested and interviewed. Zimbardo stresses the fact that the applicants were randomly split into 2 groups: prisoners and guards (314).

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  16. Stress in the workplace will become the epidemic of the 21st century.

    During a replication of Glass et al.'s research, Gardener (1978) found no negative effects for controllability, he then realised that he had given consent forms to his participants saying that they agreed their rights as a participant. He wondered if this had given them a sense of control so he performed a test in which he gave consent forms to only half of the participants. He found that those without the forms experienced stress and the others didn't. Marmot et al.

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  17. Experiment in cognition.

    Experiment in Cognition One facet of creativity research explores how memory contributes to the products of creativity (e.g. drawings, inventions, songs, etc.). A standard finding is that people tend to incorporate elements of recently experienced stimuli in creative products. More specifically, Smith, Ward, and Schumacher (1993) and Marsh, Landau, and Hicks (1996) have shown the standard conformity effect - that participants will incorporate shared features from examples into novel drawings more frequently than participants who are not shown any examples Smith et al. (1993) conducted an experiment to "demonstrate that merely presenting individuals with examples in a creative generation task would bias their creations to contain the shared properties of those examples."

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  18. To what extent can the validity of obedience research be defended?

    and external validity (how well the findings generalise to other settings, both ecological and temporal). In 1974, Milgram conducted a study to see whether participants would obey an experimenter - a person of authority, when instructed to administer potentially dangerous electric shocks to another person. The "learner" was connected to the shock equipment and asked a series of questions in which wrong answers resulted in a shock given by the participant. No shocks were actually given though, since the learner was a confederate of the experimenter and was pretending to receive the shocks. Obedience rates indicated that 65% of the participants were willing to give a potentially lethal shock to the learner.

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  19. "Milgram's and Zimbardo's studies provoked public outcry partly because of the actual findings but also because of the ethical issues raised" - To what extent can social influence research studies be justified in terms of the ethical issues they raised.

    Guards had uniforms and reflective dark glasses which made them more impersonal. The study was abandoned after six days bacuase the guards were too brutal. This experiment carries alot of negative ethical issues which combined with many 'faults' in the methodology has made many people question the true worth of the experiment and whether the ends justify the means. The problems became evident in this experiment when the true aim of the research was hidden from the partcipants and they did not know what was going to happen to them within it's duration.

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  20. In psychology, there are many different ways to study theories. The two ways that are rather interesting are correlational and experimental research.

    The research would then try to find the connection between the variables if any. The problem with correlational research is that you have to stop and see that the obvious interpretation could be wrong. There could be another variable playing a factor in the case you are studying. Therefore, it is difficult to come to a conclusion on the cause and effect. Correlational research has its strengths. The research can be useful to a researcher who wants to describe the naturally occurring similarities in a large number of individuals or groups. An example of correlational research could be studying the aging of elderly people.

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  21. Explain two Psychological processes that may be involved in obedience to authority.

    Participant's felt they were helping in a scientific experiment and the authority appeared to be academic experts at a top university, people would have trusted them and obeyed. In contrast Hofling et al's (1966) experiment, participants were studied to investigate obedience in American hospitals, they found that 21 out of 22 of the nurses obeyed an unknown doctor's telephone instructions to administer twice the maximum allowed dose of a drug. Warnings against such an action were clear, warnings on labels and the fact that the drug was not on the stock list for that day, they knew the amount they were to give would have been an overdose.

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  22. The ethical issues in Psychological experiments.

    Asch, Milgram and Zimbardo all carried out different experiments on conformity. The line test (Asch 1956). Electric shock test (Milgram 1974). Stanford prison experiment (Zimbardo 1973). Each test was different but looked at the same idea conformity and obedience. It was said in the Asch test because the participant did not know that only he was being tested and that also the same in Milgrams test, as the other people there were confederates. They did not give their fully informed consent. This can be justified so not to influence the outcome.

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  23. The study I will be investigating is that of "Perceptual set".

    Contingency Table Perpetual set study using the Leeper Lady stimulus Young Face Old Face Marginal Totals Young People 1 0=32 E=26.09 2 0=1 E=6.9 33 Older People 3 0=33 E=41.9 4 0=17 E=11.09 53 Marginal Totals 68 18 Grand Total 86 E values are calculated by multiplying marginal totals and then dividing by the grand total. Cell 1 33x68/86 = 26.09 Cell 2 33x18/86 = 6.9 Cell 3 68x53/86 = 41.9 Cell 4 18x53/86 = 11.09 Chi-squared formula X = (0-E) /E for each cell. Cell 1 (32-26.09) /26.09 = 1.3 Cell 2 (1-6.9) /6.9 = 5.0 Cell 3 (36-41.9)

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  24. To what extent can the ethical guidelines ensure that the major ethical issues involved in social influence research are properly dealt with?

    With long term effects also evident with such symptoms of anxiety, stress and damaged self-esteem. Within the BPS there are various consenting instructions and rules to the manner in which consent should be asked. However this proves impossible with some social influence research such as Milgram, as the essential element is the deception involved. With this ruling there are also many ways in which scientist can go around the rulings with asking consent in other manners. Such manners in which to avoid direct consent include presumptive consent asking large random members of the general public and introducing them to the research design and see if they would agree with the experiment if they were in the position of the participant.

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  25. Identify the basic elements of an experiment. Discuss how using a control group in an experiment allows the researcher to make causal interpretations.

    A hypothesis is a predicted relationship between variables and a tentative solution to researchers' problems (Mcguigan, 1993). If the hypothesis is proved as true, a theory is established. The hypothesis is true if independent variable produces lawful changes in dependent variable (Mcguigan, 1993). Independent variable is a stimulus or circumstance presented in the experiment and is manipulated by experimenters. The response or participant's behavior change which the experimenters measured is the dependent variable (Liebert, 1995). The stimulus-response relationship may influences by extraneous variable that operates in the experiment in addition to the independent variable, causing incorrectness of data.

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Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "From your knowledge of the ethical issues involved in social influence research to what extent can such research be justified?"

    "To conclude, a cost benefit analysis could be applied to weigh up whether the benefits to society outweigh the participants distress during the study. It could be argued that certain ethical issues such as informed consent and deception can be endorsed but only when a cost benefit analysis has been undertaken and where alternative procedures that take into account ethical guidelines have been explored. Dinaz Trudeau October 2002 1"

  • sociology influence.Outline the procedures used in social influence research, and discuss whether the use of these procedures

    "In the conclusion in Milgrams study the procedures cannot be justified, this is because the participants could have been disturbed psychologically, which could have been from the shocks administrated or from hearing the confederates screaming. In Zimbardo's study he deceived the participants by arresting them at their homes, also the procedure could have caused distress from the way they were treated. Finally in Aschs study he also deceived his participants for example the participants were not aware that they were been tricked, because they were unaware of the real purpose of the experiment."

  • The aim of the experiment is to investigate the extent to which conformity occurs in the presence of previous estimations.

    "Conclusion The main findings supported previous research and formed a basis for further research. Expected results were gained with no major limitations to the experiment. Participants were found to conform to stooges estimates as previous research suggested they would Abstract The main aim of this study was to follow up on previous research such as Asch's(1956), and Crutchfield's(1955) studies to see if the same trends of conformity would still be present today in 6th form students. The way this was done was by asking 24 6th form students of similar trends to estimate how many dots they thought was on a page of A4 paper. As there was 2 conditions (A and B) 12 of the students made their estimations in the presence of stooges estimations and 12 made estimations without this guidance. The aim was to see if the participants in the condition A conformed to the stooges estimates. It was found that in condition A 91% of participants seemed conformed to stooges estimations. The results were very significant."

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