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University Degree: Psychometrics
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In this analysis four different assessment tests are going to be measured and evaluated, two intelligence, Test of Memory and Learning and Primary Test of Nonverbal intelligence and two achievements, Canadian Achievement Test and Basi
Definitions of Intelligence Sir Francis Galton was the first person to publish how heredity can influence intelligence. Believed as well that the prevalent of intelligent people were outfitted with the unsurpassed sensory abilities. Galton also viewed intelligence as a quantity of diverse methods or aptitudes that could only be assessed by separate tests (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 279). Alfred Binet was responsible at the turn of the century for the testing movement for intelligence. Binet believed that you could not separate methods because sometimes they interacted with another and produce a solution. Since more then one method can be used at one time Binet suggested for a more multifaceted measurement of testing intelligence (Cohen & Swerdlik, 2010, pg 280).
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Evaluate the contribution made by psychoanalysis to the scientific understanding of human behaviour.
and turning themselves against him, ended up to the conclusion that there is a s****l attraction between his fellow and Irma, something that was difficult to understand and accept but Freud had to assume that was true in order to continue interpret his dream. After " Irma's injection" Freud believed that many dreams if not all can be interpreted in the same way and that there is a connection between dreams and hysterical symptoms. Further, dream images and individual hysterical symptoms seemed to represent different unconscious ideas, for example Freud's dream of Irma's injection had a large number complex of ideas, same as when different pathogenic ideas underlie a single hysterical symptom.
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Both biological and humanistic factors have influences on ones personality development. One major issue that arises in this discipline is nature vs. nurture.
He argued that these biological temperaments influence a person's personality. For example, someone classified as extroversion-introversion are either outgoing and impulsive or the latter, quiet and reserved; Those in the dimension of neuroticism often respond to situations very emotionally; and if classified in the psycoticism group are frequently described as egocentric or impulsive (Burger, 2008). Many believe that people are born with general behavior dispositions called temperaments. These temperaments develop into personality over time. If someone's personality is their "nature," can "nature" be influenced by the environment they are in? According to the humanistic approach to personality, one's personal responsibility in life is the determinant of his or her personality.
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Psychoanalytic and Trait Approaches to Personality There are several different aspects of analyzing a persons personality. No two people will be the exact same.
The pleasure principle (id) is what drives us until the reality principle (ego) can develop as we get older. From there, the superego develops to keep the two in check. This theory seems to cover a lifetime of development. The most unappealing theory is Freud's Psychosexual stages. Grasping the notion that one's well being and motivation is only based on a s****l drive and sensual satisfaction is very difficult. The Human race is far more in-depth and sophisticated than Freud's Psychosexual theory suggests (Blewitt & Broderick, 2006).
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they could not be observed explanations of human behaviour as they could not be observed directly/objectively, this earns this approach a lot of criticism as little research was done into cognitive psychology until the 1950's. Watson claimed he could raise an infant to be anything, regardless of the infant's ancestor's talents, tendencies, and abilities. Behaviourists now hold a strong confidence about our capability to change human behaviour by changing the environment we grow up. (E.Smith, et al 2003) The behaviouristic approach comes the nearest to meeting the criteria of the scientific approach.
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Thorndike also claimed the opposite happens, that if a negative trait was identified for an individual then they would generalise it to create other, unrelated negative traits, for example, unattractiveness can be generalised to unintelligence and unpopularity. Nisbett & Wilson (1977) pioneered research into this field by presenting individuals with one of two videotaped interviews. Half the participants were presented with an interviewer who was cold and distant whilst the other half was presented with the same interviewer but behaving warm and friendly.
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triangulation - This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between the degree of punishment and the mental state of criminals. Thus, the degree of punishment is dependent on the mental condition of the criminal.
EXPERIMENT PROPOSAL: This experiment is designed to investigate the relationship between the degree of punishment and the mental state of criminals. Thus, the degree of punishment is dependent on the mental condition of the criminal. This experiment will enable the court of law to make a wise judgment and to give justice to the criminal as it is against the human rights to penalize a mentally challenged criminal with a harsh punishment (the weaker the criminal's mental state, the less harsh the punishment given).
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Previous research into this has shown that "the inferential process leads to participants forming implicit personality theories (stereotypes)" Bruner and Tagiuri. I have selected for the hypothesis to be directional, because, ultimately, I am predicting a specific direction, that "chavs" will be rated less trustworthy than someone dressed formally. In the media today is a lot of controversy and emphasis on 'chavs' and their culture. "Chav is a mainly derogatory slang term in the United Kingdom for a subcultural stereotype fixated on fashions derived from American Hip-Hop (African-American) and Guido (Italian-American) fashions and stereotypes such as gold jewellery and designer clothing combined with elements of working class British street fashion.
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was checked and exceeded which gives the researchers a high level of confidence in their results as this level of validity on the mann-whitney-U test is highly stringent and therefore it is less likely the results are due to chance, as the probability is less than or equal to 1%. However, just because the results are said to not be down to chance does not mean that they are 100% valid due to the possibility of confounding variables, such a weather, unfairly affecting the results.
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Triangulation as mentioned earlier is the process of combining three or more research methodologies when investigating a certain idea or issue.
An example of a confounding variable encountered in this experiment could be: presence of noise by other students leading to low concentration of the participants. To conduct this particular experiment, the experimenter can combine three different methodologies as a process of triangulation and can carry out the experiment using these three research methods. The three methodologies the experiment could use are: 1. Experimental Method (Carry out an experiment) Conducting experiments is one of the most important tools in developing and testing theories.
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To what extent do the 'ends' justify the 'means' in ethically objectionable experiments such as Milgram's study of obedience?
An authoritative figure commanded them to dispense agonizing electric shocks to another participant who had volunteered for the experiment, who was actually Milgram's associate. Milgram's associate, known as the learner was strapped to a chair with electrodes attached to him (Brehm & Kassin 2005). The learner and teacher communicated in separate rooms, in which the teacher asked the learner questions (Glassman & Hadad 2004). In response to every wrong answer the teacher administered an electric shock, which increased by 15V for every wrong answer that followed (Eysenck 1998).
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The attended message is the finally sent to the response process stage, where the final product is made. Research evidence for Broadbent's model has come from Cherry. In Cherry's 'dichotic listening task', after participants were played two messages simultaneously. Cherry found that participants were able to notice if the voice was male or female. If the volume had changed from loud to soft, and so on. Basically participants were able to recognise certain physical characteristics of the unattended message, even though they didn't really know what the message was. The findings support Broadbent as it fits with the idea that both messages do receive minimal processing, to distinguish between the two channels.
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Kassin, Ellsworth & Smith (1989) suggested that there is a 5% chance that eyewitnesses tend to overestimate the duration of events and a 27% chance that the testimony is affected by how the questions are worded. Plenty of research was done by Loftus & Palmer but an experiment which played an important role was their study in 1974. Bird (1927) says that most people are inaccurate in reporting numerical details and the inaccuracy tends to be an overestimate. Loftus & Palmer decided to study the causes of these inaccuracies. Wording of a question plays an important role when eyewitness are questioned about a particular incident.
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Due to the outcome and intense nature of this study, it has obtained an internationally wide-spread audience. However, a great deal of criticism has been attributed to the ethical procedures that were in place during the study. Although a number of ethical guidelines were integrated within the experiment many guidelines were broken, bestowing a negative representation on the study. Many psychologists are in deliberation regarding the justification for the experiment. Researchers argue between the great amount of knowledge acquired from the findings of the study and the detrimental impact laid upon the subjects involved. The first ethical guideline implemented in the study involved a contractual statement where participants agreed to sign a temporary loss of civil rights together with the assurance of "humane conditions"; an adequate diet, clothing, housing and medical care (Adams 2004).
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This causes great stress, as it is an ambient stressor, meaning it is always present in the mind of the individual. However we usually adapt and learn to live with them. Another ambient stressor is role ambiguity; this is when different the different roles and responsibilities of individual staff are not made clear. For example, if one worker presumes they have to do more work than another worker, it could lead to a work overload, this can lead the individual to suffer from stress and experience a 'burnout' which is when physical and emotional exhaustion are accompanied by feelings of low self worth.
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sociology influence.Outline the procedures used in social influence research, and discuss whether the use of these procedures
This is because the participants could have said "no one likes me" or "everybody all ways lies to me". Some more procedures that Milgram did, was he misled his participants into believing they were randomly allocated to the role of the teacher or learner on the basis of the toss of a coin. Which was rigged as the participants always was the teacher, the participants then watched the learner being strapped to a chair in a adjoining room, the task for the learner was to (confederate)
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Determine whether facial expression is asymmetrical which might indicate that is it processed in one particular hemisphere of the brain.
These two terms relate closely to the research study. There has been an endless amount of research conducted on facial expression on different sides of the face. Over the years, interest has been shown towards the different aspects of functional asymmetries in the human brain. It has been suggested that emotional processes are controlled asymmetrically by the right and left brain hemispheres. Research done into emotion based on neurological factors has also used facial expressions of emotion to help the understanding of asymmetrical dominance in emotional processes.
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None of us are immune to social influences and most instances to conformity are beneficial to all of us. Many scientists have researched on conformity throughout the years, Asch (1951) was the beginning of such experiments and probably the most influential was his procedure "The Asch Paradigm". Asch gave participants a simple task of matching one line with another, were one line being on a standard line and the other in a comparison line. Each participant had to state which of A, B, or C was the same length as the line on the standard line.
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Method Design Using a between-participants design a dual task study was conducted. The independent variable was made up of 2 conditions; condition 1 was a visual task and consisted of a list of words. The participants were asked to tick the words that were the name of a colour. At the same time simple mathematical questions were asked to the participant as they worked through the tick list. Condition 2 was also a visual task comprising of a list of words and the participant was asked to tick the words that were a number.
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It is easier for people to see themselves taking these steps than others, and so it leads to unrealistic optimism. This was shown in McKenna's (1993) study, as the results showed people perceived themselves to be much less likely to be involved in a road accident when they were driving compared to being a passenger, thus indicating the importance of control, in relating to unrealistic optimism. Additionally research indicates that as a person's perceived controllability of events increases so does their unrealistic optimism (Weinstein, 1980; McKenna, 1993).
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These were extraversion-introversion and neuroticism-emotional stability, and finally the addition of psychoticism-superego. Eysenck devised a psychometric test for measuring personality, known as the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. One of the key categories in his research is the cause of extraversion-introversion, he believed that there were individual genetic differences in cortical arousal (which is controlled by the ascending reticulocortical activating system (ARAS) thought to be involved in alertness and arousal) resulting in us being either introvert or extrovert. The Limbic system is the part of the brain that organises responses and is the biological basis of the neuroticism-emotional stability side.
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An Investigation into the effect of gender or having a sibling on knowledge of developmental norms in children
Introduction It is important to study development as without devising developmental 'norms' (i.e. a universally accepted 'normal' age for a child to be able to complete a particular task) children with developmental disorders such as autism or learning difficulties would not be diagnosed until much later on in life. Additionally it helps put parents' minds at rest knowing that they're child is progressing at the correct speed and will be able to identify the further help required if this is not the case.
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Introduction (Provided) Method Design A between-participants design was employed in this experiment. The independent variable was the nature of responses of the participant on the dual tasks presented. A visual task and an auditory task were presented to the participant. Visual task for condition 1 was that participants were requested to place a tick near the words of color on a list of words. For condition 2, instead, participants were requested to place a tick near the words of number.
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A critical review of Pamela Coxon and Tim Valentine's (1997) study on "The effects of the age of eyewitnesses on the accuracy and suggestibility of their testimony".
The experiment employed by Coxon and Valentine had a factorial design that was between participants. The participants were divided into three groups aged 7-9 (children), 16-19 (young adults) and 60-85 (elderly). All participants watched a short video. They answered seventeen questions based on the video, four of which were misleading for those in the experimental condition (where misleading questions were introduced). The participants' accuracy was assessed by the number of correct and incorrect answers given to the non-critical (non-misleading) questions asked.
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The aim of this essay is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of combining the two methodologies, qualitative and quantitative, when designing research in relation to the study of drug use
The quantitative analysis of research can compliment the findings of qualitative methods by adding words to numbers and vice versa as it allows the findings to be viewed from two different perspective's using two different data sources. It can also assist researches by helping to indicate the extent to which the findings can be applied to the overall population that is being studied, for example drug users. By using a questionnaire on drug use the findings from the questionnaire can be used to support what was found in an in-depth study of an individual who uses drugs.
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