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University Degree: Psychometrics

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  1. Pychology C/W

    Walster realized that there were many reasons why someone would want to be with an attractive person, one of them being prestige. Walster claimed that some couples are physically mismatched, and proponents of the hypothesis argue that these couples balance out in other areas. On the other hand, the less attractive the person would feel insecure and jealous of their other half, thus mismatching threatens the success of a long term relationship. As well as Walster, Murstien in 1972 also carried out a research study to do with the matching hypothesis Murstien compared photographs of engaged or 'steady' couples with random couples.

    • Word count: 2206
  2. This report outlines the aims and procedures of a study conducted into the effectiveness of focus groups as a social research method. As social research students we were to observe a focus group selected by the lecturer

    This exercise examines the value of focus groups as a tool for social researchers and considers their potential and their limitations. The aim was to find out if focus groups are an effective social research method. The aim of the participants were different to those of the researchers, the participants had to focus on their questions and contribute towards discussing the topic issues, while the researchers or observants were to carefully examine the focus group and it's effectiveness in social research.

    • Word count: 2199
  3. Does the paranormal exist because we believe or do we believe because it exists?

    My view is that the field of parapsychology is still in its earliest stages and obviously with the abstract nature of the expression of the paranormal it has been very difficult to scrutinize in a laboratory. Hence I will review the most successful study (Ganzfeld, 1970) that has indicated the presence of psi phenomenon and has not received complete dismissal from the critics. Also in contrast highlight the uncertainty of the public, the role of the media, the educational system and our cultures philosophies.

    • Word count: 2373
  4. Cognitive processes effecting Heart Rate: Testing Lacey's Intake-Reject Hypothesis

    Instinct tells us tells that heart rate increases when we encounter difficult situations, or does it? Lacey (1967) argued that in some cases, this was not necessarily true. He offered a theory (1967) that proposed that when solving problems in your head (for example mental arithmetic), heart rate would indeed increase (the more complex the problem the higher the heart rate). Lacey argues that the reason for this is because this type of task requires participants to concentrate on their mental operations and to reject irrelevant information coming from the surrounding environment. In contrast, the theory predicts the tasks that do require mental intake of environmental stimuli, for example when performing a visual search task (the more difficult the visual search the lower the heart rate)

    • Word count: 2240
  5. Is psychology a science? Should it be? Do different parts of psychology need different answers to this question?

    There are several aims of science - description, prediction, understanding, and control (Malim, Birch & Wadeley, 1992). Description involves working towards an objective description, or account, of events and phenomena. Personal beliefs, values, or interests should not cloud this description. When enough information is gained about events or phenomena, predictions become possible. Predictions add support and credibility to the knowledge obtained in the description phase, which in turn allows for understanding of the cause and effect relationship. Once understanding of these factors is complete, control is possible. The first problem with psychology is that the psychological theories that underlie research in the discipline are based on beliefs.

    • Word count: 2023
  6. "The Barnum Effect" states that individuals are likely to accept general personality descriptions, this study aims to test this theory and further the research

    Reliable and valid personality measures have been developed as a requirement to further studies into underlying personality characteristics and the variables that mediate them. One such type of personality assessment is multiple-choice or true/false judgements within tests, allowing the items to be scored objectively (Anastase & Urbina, 1997). An example of such a test would be to present a respondent with a series of statements about their personality and ask them to rate their accuracy. Early studies examining the acceptance of personality descriptions showed a tendency amongst individuals to believe generalised and ambiguous statements as being true (Forer, 1949).

    • Word count: 2278
  7. Ironic effects in memory: Does being told to ignore a list of words lead to better memory for such a list

    Ironic effects occur when you are deliberately trying to do something, and find yourself doing completely the opposite, e.g. staying awake when you desperately want to sleep. They also occur when you are trying not to do something, which you inevitably end up doing, e.g. worrying when trying not to. Ironic processes have been around for a long time, but an explanation for them has recently been proposed by Dan Wegner (1994). Wegner and his colleagues have identified certain conditions which appear to increase the likelihood of ironic effects occurring. Wegner (1994) has argued that when we deliberately try to do something or try not to do something, two mental processes are set in motion.

    • Word count: 2827
  8. The 'Glass Cliff': An investigation into the effect of gender and performance of company on perceived suitability for a leader

    Although studies by psychologists such as Davidson and Cooper (1992) have suggested that more women are being able to break past this, a new problem seems to have emerged: the glass cliff (Haslam and Ryan, 2005). This refers to the opinion that if women are appointed to leadership positions, these are likley to be far more risky than those men are appointed to, leading to a much higher chance of failure. This failure has been interpreted by those such as Judge (2003)

    • Word count: 2304
  9. Construction of a questionnaire to measure

    argued that openness to experience consists of six factors; fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, action, ideas, and values. Fantasy is defined as imaginative; aesthetic in philosophical terms means art and beauty; and feelings are mental and physical awareness's of emotional issues. Actions are ways of successfully completing tasks; ideas are "a persons perception of something" (Webster's 1999 pg161); and values are an individuals moral principles. Openness to experience is essential to the chosen job, as the probation service core values are centred around treating people fairly, openly, and with respect. Other important issues are valuing diversity; having a strong belief in the principle that people can change; to learn from experience; have the ability to relate to others; and to work in difficult situations with sensitivity.

    • Word count: 2909
  10. An experiment into the stroop effect

    This idea has been researched by a number of researchers. Kanheman (1973) devised a model of divided attention, which was based around the idea of mental effort. He proposed that some tasks might be relatively autonomic; so make fewer demands in terms of mental effort, such as a reading task. Several activities can be carried out at the same time, provided that their total effort does not exceed the available capacity. So usually an autonomic task will not require much mental effort and so often can be carried out automatically.

    • Word count: 2854
  11. An investigation to identify whether there is a difference in the time taken to read colour words written in different colour inks than to read neutral words written in varying ink colours

    Hypothesis Having carried out this research into automatic processing in general, the following experimental hypothesis has been stated: It will take significantly longer to read colour words written in different colour inks than to read neutral words written in varying ink colours. This one tailed hypothesis has been derived by referring back to the Dunbar and Macleod study (1984). This study found that participants took longer to read the ink colour of colour words written in different colour inks than neutral words written in various ink colours.

    • Word count: 2595
  12. The sheep-goat effect - A study on how extra-sensory perception belief affects repetition avoidance.

    t (84)=0.11, p>0.05. This result contradicted and failed to replicate Brugger's (1990) finding and it was concluded that belief or disbelief in ESP did not affect avoidance of repetitions. Introduction Many studies have been carried out on the subject of repetition avoidance. Experiments have shown that people find it difficult to generate true random sequences even when instructed to do so. The most frequent problem with generating these random numbers is avoidance of repetitions. One of the most frequently studied variables, which may affect repetition avoidance is the belief in extra-sensory perception (ESP).

    • Word count: 2155
  13. Has family life become better Or Wose?

    I am also interested in the way families are socialised to conform to the society's values and attitudes. I also want to discuss the debate about PATRIARCHY (male-domination). The aspects of ethnic diversity are also one of the issues I am interested in, because my family and me are part of this section of families. SOURCES: Recent patterns of family and whether family life has become better or worse are big and complex debate. This is one of the reasons that have encouraged me to study it.

    • Word count: 2216
  14. Analyzing the work of Ann Oakley and Liz Kelly. Both The sociology of housework and Surviving s****l violence are texts which are familiar in the feminist field.

    Kelly focuses on how women describe there incidents of the different forms of s****l violence and how they build up approaches to oppose and deal with it. Kelly explains the importance of feminist analysis, and involvement in theses practices by emphasizing how the criminal justice system and media add to the belittling of s****l violence. The text includes the findings of the study and draws attention to the significance for women to identify the occurrence of s****l violence in their lives and not to perceive themselves as victims.

    • Word count: 2057
  15. The influence of adaptation duration to our perception of a spatial pattern.

    They suggested that adapting to one spatial frequency changes our perception of others. The spatial frequency is the frequency with which a periodic pattern changes over time. The methodology has been improved for this experiment and instead of using a method of adjustment, a method of constant stimuli was used. The experiment will systematically measure the effect of adapting to one spatial frequency on our perception of other frequencies. Systematically measuring the Motion Aftereffects, will enable us to understand how the brain processes motion. By studying the effects of adaptation, psychologists can find out exactly how the brain processes information and in this case, spatial information.

    • Word count: 2553
  16. The Effect of Colour Clothing and Skin Colour on Impression Formation.

    People often express themselves through their clothing. The main ideologies behind the Punk Revolution in 1976, originated by Malcolm Maclaren, were to dress in a stereotypical way to illustrate their disagreement with the ways of the then government and society and their narrow-minded views. The revolution began as a fight against conformity yet Punk has turned into one of the largest stereotypes of the twentieth century because the pre-requisites for being classed as a punk have evolved to become a stereotype in itself.

    • Word count: 2555
  17. The purpose of this study was to construct a simplified model of previous experiments in which pinnae convolutions were demonstrated to affect the accuracy of sound localisation in the vertical plane.

    Notwithstanding, recent research studies into sound localisation have established that the pinnae play an important role in the localisation of sound (Batteau, 1967; Butler, 1969; Gardner & Gardner, 1973). The pinnae are considered by many to be especially important when determining the location of a sound source in the vertical plane (Butler, 1969; Gardner & Gardner, 1973). Batteau (1967) was one of the first to demonstrate the effects of the pinnae on localisation accuracy. This was illustrated by recording sounds, received by small microphones inserted into casts of pinnae (either normal pinnae or occluded pinnae, e.g.

    • Word count: 2538
  18. What does an understanding of biological processes offer to psychological explanations? Support your argument with research evidence from Chapter 4 and/or Chapter 5 of Book 1.

    For example, psychological processes can be explained as caused by actions of genes, hormones or any other low-level entities. There exists, however, an opposing view that this kind of analysis is not sufficient to fully explore the true nature of all psychological matters. This is where the principle of emergent property comes into use (Toates, 2002). This principle refers to a characteristic of a system that derives from the interaction of its parts and is not apparent or inherent in the parts considered in isolation.

    • Word count: 2387
  19. The aim of the study is to find out if males score higher than females when asked to estimate their IQ.

    In 1905, Binet and Simon produced a test that measured comprehension, memory and other cognitive abilities. Later on in 1916, the Stanford-Binet test was devised to measure several aspects of intelligence, mainly in children. Intelligence was measured in vocabulary, maths and grammar. This test was standardised by being given to a large group of representative people of whom the test was intended for. This allows specific and general comparisons to be made. It was and still is used in many countries today. The general measurement of intelligence found from the test was intelligence quotient, also known as IQ.

    • Word count: 2125
  20. A Correlation investigation conducted to analyse self ratings and peer ratings on extraversion.

    The Q-sort method was generally used to examine an individual's self-concept, it involved giving the participant cards which contained statements on the personality, such as ' I find it hard to get over things'. The participant works through the cards dividing them into three separate sets: one which best describes the participant; one for the less applicable statements and one for those statements which are not consistent with their ideas about their self. The participant then rates his/her self, using the grouped statements.

    • Word count: 2271
  21. An investigation to study the number of words recalled from a list of categorised words in contrast to a list of non-categorised words?

    In 1953 Bousfield carried out an investigation on organisation in the memory allowing free recall. He gave participants a list of sixty items to learn, within the list were fifteen names of animals, fifteen names of people, fifteen professions and fifteen vegetables all mixed up together. Participants were asked to recall as many of the words as possible in any order. Despite the categories being all mixed together participants presented them in clusters of words belonging to the same category. Bousfield concluded that such categorical clusters are indicative of semantic organisation in memory. The aim of this experiment is to test the affect of memorising words from a list of categorised words in comparison to a list of non-categorised words.

    • Word count: 2825
  22. An Investigation looking at whether males cause more road accidents than females and if this is caused by high risk behaviour on the part of males.

    A study conducted by Furnham and Saipe (1993) named "Personality Correlates of Convicted Drivers." indicated that accidents were correlated to certain personality types. Furnham & Saipe (1993) used 73 participants: of which 25 males and 25 females, admitted to no driving convictions and 16 males and 4 females, admitted to having driving convictions. The participants were given a number of questionnaires such as the Driver Behavior Questionnaire, Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Questionnaire, and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Each questionnaire was designed to inquire about different aspects of driving.

    • Word count: 2175
  23. Letter Matching Reaction Times.

    Experimental evidence suggests that an increase in time occurs with increased level of abstraction in processing. Letter matching involves the subject making Same-Different judgements about pairs of letters. The following conditions are possible when asking subjects to make a same judgement about pairs of letters. Physical identity - A A or g g Nominal identity - A a or G g Semantic identity - A E (both vowels) or g K (both consonants) Posner, et al, (1969) suggested that difference between conditions can be used as a direct measure of the mental processes behind it, but he & Raichle, (1994)

    • Word count: 2880
  24. 'Personality assessment has been used for some time now in personnel selection.' Critically discuss the methods and merits of personality assessment. In light of your evaluation, which method would be the most valuable in personnel selection.

    Count: Institute: Australian Institute of Public Safety I hereby declare that this written submission is my original work, unless otherwise indicated by the use of footnoting. Signed................................................... Warning The Institute will not tolerate academic dishonesty. Please refer to Section 10.3.4 in the Student Diary about plagiarism, including the Institute's strategies for detection. This page must be: 1. typed (NOT handwritten); 2. completed fully; 3. stapled to the front of your hard copy essay prior to submission to Student Administration; and 4.

    • Word count: 2817
  25. Females Versus Males: Who is More Ethical Depends on the Situation.

    When one encounters a situation where quick judgment is made, this is often an unconscious thought process because these types of "social judgments" are already formed in memory and one does not have to recollect specific memories to form a judgment (Hewstone, Stroebe, & Stephenson, p.151). When people are required to make a conscious decision and/or judgment it is often based upon various factors. This could involve whether society would deem the decision made as acceptable or unacceptable and also, whether it is a decision that would reflect well upon one's self (Hewstone et al, p.169).

    • Word count: 2768

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "From your knowledge of the ethical issues involved in social influence research to what extent can such research be justified?"

    "To conclude, a cost benefit analysis could be applied to weigh up whether the benefits to society outweigh the participants distress during the study. It could be argued that certain ethical issues such as informed consent and deception can be endorsed but only when a cost benefit analysis has been undertaken and where alternative procedures that take into account ethical guidelines have been explored. Dinaz Trudeau October 2002 1"

  • sociology influence.Outline the procedures used in social influence research, and discuss whether the use of these procedures

    "In the conclusion in Milgrams study the procedures cannot be justified, this is because the participants could have been disturbed psychologically, which could have been from the shocks administrated or from hearing the confederates screaming. In Zimbardo's study he deceived the participants by arresting them at their homes, also the procedure could have caused distress from the way they were treated. Finally in Aschs study he also deceived his participants for example the participants were not aware that they were been tricked, because they were unaware of the real purpose of the experiment."

  • The aim of the experiment is to investigate the extent to which conformity occurs in the presence of previous estimations.

    "Conclusion The main findings supported previous research and formed a basis for further research. Expected results were gained with no major limitations to the experiment. Participants were found to conform to stooges estimates as previous research suggested they would Abstract The main aim of this study was to follow up on previous research such as Asch's(1956), and Crutchfield's(1955) studies to see if the same trends of conformity would still be present today in 6th form students. The way this was done was by asking 24 6th form students of similar trends to estimate how many dots they thought was on a page of A4 paper. As there was 2 conditions (A and B) 12 of the students made their estimations in the presence of stooges estimations and 12 made estimations without this guidance. The aim was to see if the participants in the condition A conformed to the stooges estimates. It was found that in condition A 91% of participants seemed conformed to stooges estimations. The results were very significant."

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