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University Degree: Psychometrics

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  1. Ethical codes

    Codes of ethics provide guidance for researchers and codifying thinking (Neuman, 2003). Davidson and Tolich (1999) postulate that most codes of ethics can be reduced to a collection of common principles. These are: * First do no harm * All participation needs to be voluntary * Preserve the anonymity or confidentiality of participants * Avoid deceit * Analyse and report data faithfully This framework will be used to discuss the similarities and differences between two ethical codes: the Sociological Association of Aotearoa (1999) code of ethics and the American Psychological Association (200)

    • Word count: 2282
  2. An experiment to measure the effect Baroque and Renaissance music have on problem solving ability

    Another factor that has been proven comparatively recently to affect problem solving is the presence of music. This study follows the report of the "Mozart effect" by Rauscher Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995). They indicated that problem solving related skills are enhanced after listening to music composed by Mozart. These reports were published in Science (Holden, 1994) and the APA Monitor (Martin, 1994). The accepted press specified that scientists and the general public are seriously contemplating the possibility that listening to Mozart improve problem solving interrelated capabilities.

    • Word count: 5069
  3. Investigation to Determine the Current Level of Conformity and the Difference Between Males and Females

    Although most people think of themselves as autonomous individuals, they nevertheless are inclined to conform to the social norms that individuals, groups and societies have developed. The social norms that designate as a way of behaving may be implicit or explicit. There have been a number of theories to clarify exactly why people conform. Deutsch and Gerard (1955) established the Dual Process model, which states that there are two prevailing psychological needs that lead people to conform to social norms.

    • Word count: 5432
  4. Hemispheric Lateralization: Is the Right Hemisphere quicker at Visual Spatial Processing?

    Since the corpus callosum enables the both hemispheres to share their information, patients with no corpus callosum have trouble recognising words (requiring language processing) that are presented to their left visual field as the information registered by the retina will be first sent to right hemisphere, which does not have the ability to "speak" to the participant and will not be able to identify the word. After little or no success at recognition the information will try to cross to the left for help with processing.

    • Word count: 2874
  5. An Experiment Investigating Whether We Do, or Do Not Use Stereotyping When It Comes To Groups We Have Never Been In Social Contact With.

    The seemingly random result cannot prove that the participants used stereotyping. It rather strengthens the opposite view. Introduction: Stereotyping, as a psychological concept was first introduced in 1922 by Lippman. According to him stereotyping meant, "pictures in our heads". 1994 Oakes defined the same concept as "the process of ascribing characteristics to people on the basis of their group membership". Stereotyping has been described as a three-step process... 1. We assign someone to a particular group (on the basis of their physical appearance). 2. We bring into play the belief that all members of the group share certain characteristics 3.

    • Word count: 2026
  6. An Examination into the ways Different Age groups Hold Stereotypical Views

    Stereotyping is underlined by categorisation. Categorisation can lead to positive effects. In society people's self-esteem can be enhanced because they can gain support from people categorised as similar to themselves. Stereotypes generally offer a way of quickly processing information related to both individuals and social groups. It is often over-generalised views and beliefs that lead to an overlook of variety and detail of individuals within a stereotyped group. Schemas are developed during life and are organised pockets that hold information about the world within long-term memory; Bower et al (1979) showed that people often hold similar schemas about everyday things such as a restaurant meal.

    • Word count: 1337
  7. Milgram Evaluation

    None of the subjects stopped before 300 volts. It is valuable because Milgram's findings suggest that significant numbers of ordinary people were prepared to obey orders that could do others serious harm. Milgram discovered that different types of people have different obedience rates. Participants with a military background tended to be more obedient, and participants who had gone onto higher education were less obedient.

    • Word count: 353
  8. The present experiment aimed to demonstrate that group discussion modifies personal opinion

    Sherif's experiment involved a subject, first individually describing how far a light had apparently moved in a dark room, over 100 trials. This was followed by three group sessions (100 trials each). During group sessions, subjects each verbally related how far they thought the light had apparently moved. Sherif found that after the fourth trial, participants were unanimous in their estimation of how far the light had travelled, despite large differences in initial individual estimates (Lab Manual, Psychology 111/112, 2002).

    • Word count: 3196
  9. The phenomenon of mental rotation, and its effects on response time.

    This was a conclusion shared by Shepard and Metzler (1971) (as cited in Cooper and Shepard, 1973) based on their initial mental rotation experiments. They reported that Reaction Time (RT), when comparing two, same shape, three-dimensional line drawings, increased linearly with the angular difference between the two (Koriat & Norman, 1985). Shepard and Metzler took this to mean that the increasing delay in responding was due to the time taken to rotate the stimulus in the subjects mind increasing in relation to the "complexity" of the stimulus (Cooper & Shepard, 1973).

    • Word count: 2380
  10. To investigate whether there is a correlation (positive or negative) between daily stress in humans and common illnesses.

    I think that, by not telling my participants the exact nature of the study before we begin, I will receive correct results, the participant will not try to alter them to give me the answers I'm looking for. Hopefully I will find that as the stress levels go up, the susceptibility to illness will also increase. Procedure: Firstly, I wrote a brief introduction to read to participants, which involved me telling them the general gist of the exercise (although not giving away the true nature of the study), and reading them their rights as participants (for example they could withdraw their results at any time).

    • Word count: 634
  11. Attention and Distraction.

    will result in an increase of incorrect calculations whereas without the presence of the random numbers being played the rate of correct calculations will be higher. Previous Research: Selective Attention: This is the theory of how we concentrate on one source of information while ignore another source. An example of this is Broadbents' theory of attention named the 'Filter-Theory'. Broadbent believed that human attention is made up of four individual parts. Each part had a specific role to play in attention and they all worked together in a chain.

    • Word count: 4543
  12. Outline the main assumptions of Batson’s empathy altruism hypothesis.

    For empathy to occur perspective taking has to occur. Batson proposed that any help we do offer will be egoistic and will be purely offered in order to diminish our own personal distress. Batson et al (1981) asked female university students to watch up to ten trials while a confederate (posing as a student) received random electric shocks. In order to produce emotional reactions, participants were told that were either very alike to the person receiving the electric shock - the high empathy condition or very different - the low empathy condition.

    • Word count: 731
  13. Discuss Psychological research which has been carried out into interpersonal attraction

    "Average" males preferred "Attractive" partners, but most of them with "Average" partners were happy to date them again. Most "Average" participants with "ugly" partners didn't want another date or rate their partners highly. "Attractive" participants with "Attractive" partners were most likely to have another date. Walster and Berschied concluded that physical attractiveness is the key factor in deciding who 18 year old Americans want to go out with and the more attractive the person, the more they would be sought after. However, the opposite is also true, they uglier the person, the less likely they were to be sought after.

    • Word count: 978
  14. Illness Psychology Study

    0 1 5 7 8 12 17 18 20 26 26 30 31 33 36 41 44 47 49 Mode for illness 0 1 5 7 8 12 17 18 20 26 26 30 31 33 36 41 44 47 49 mode=26 Range for illness 49 To view workings see Appendix Mean for stress MEAN = 32 Median for stress 11 17 20 23 24 24 25 28 29 32 35 35 36 37 41 43 47 49 56 Mode for stress 11 17 20 23 24 24 25 28 29 32 35 35 36 37 41 43 47 49

    • Word count: 1971
  15. Ethics of social influence research

    Milgram basically did nothing to minimise the problems of the participant getting mentally or physically hurt during the experiment. He could clearly see the participant go through pain and still didn't stop the study. Three poor participants had full-blown seizures due to the experiment and many suffered stress and had been mentally abused. Milgram didn't even stop the experiment. This broke the protection to participants from harm guideline. Zimbardo's study consisted of participants being guards and prisoners and acting out the roles in uniform. At the start of the study the prisoners were arrested by fake police this wasn't informed so it was the use of deception.

    • Word count: 1585
  16. Brown and Kulik and Flashbulb Memories

    This states that any difference in the dependant variable is not due to the independent variable. The independent variable in this experiment-"People's flashbulb memories" here we are manipulating the variable. The dependant variable is the outcome of that manipulation in this case is the "outcome of the questions we ask if they could remember the death or not". Method We chose the questionnaire method because it is easy to collect large amounts of data quickly and conveniently. So are experiment was easy to get participants to investigate on. We used the non-experimental method because it was easy to collect standardised data quickly.

    • Word count: 1208
  17. How do we recognise objects? A small-scale study into the process of object recognition

    The task was to name each object from a picture or word representation as quickly as possible. Statistical analysis using ANOVA supported hypothesis 1 in that words would be named quicker than pictures but the null hypotheses for hypothesis 2 and 3 cannot be rejected in that any differences are due to random variability. However methodological issues may have contributed to these conflicting findings providing evidence for further investigation. Introduction Object recognition is a complex process. The sequential model assumes separable stages of object naming of structural, semantic and name stages in which one stage of processing is completed before the subsequent stage begins (Roth & Bruce 1995).

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  18. Fundamentals of Research Methodology. This paper will cover briefly the science of psychology, discuss scientific method, define qualitative, and quantitative data, and cover scientific theory construction, and testing.

    This process of discovery is applied by psychologists, ?when they develop theories and conduct research to answer questions about behavior and mental processes? (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2006, p.3). The research that psychologist do is important on many levels, ?Individual, family, and society to be effective psychologists must build upon a foundation of carefully designed and executed research? (Shaughnessy et al., 2006, p.6). Scientific Method Psychologists accepted the empirical approach as the way to advance the understanding of human behavior, through observation, and experimenting.

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  19. Introduction to Research. The Scientific Method. We will also discuss and compare qualitative and quantitative data and the process of scientific construction and testing.

    Psychology does have science aspects and has adopted science aspects to help answer the problems that are presented to professionals. Science of Psychology To help attempt to improve people?s lives psychologist s gain understanding and insights by developing theories and conducting research (psychological) to answer their questions they have created about behavior (Shaughnessy, Zechmeister, & Zechmeister, 2009). Not only does psychologists but also the fields of psychology rely on thorough research design and methods to answer their questions (2009). Psychological science is distinct to human activity that affects humans on numerous levels (2009).

    • Word count: 1131
  20. The relationship between extraversion and introversion arousal levels experiment

    This account is no longer true. Personality traits extraversion and introversion are associated to the onset of arousal of the Brain Stem Reticular activating system (Gale, 1999) and other areas of the brain such as the Neocortex. Studies have suggested that people vary how they approach important information from the enormous amount of stimulations they are exposed to (Althaus, gomarus, Wijers, Mulder, Velzen, Minderaa, 2004). It is said that introverts have a thinner focus of concentration or attention than extraverted individuals (Stenberg, Rosén, & Risberg, 1990).

    • Word count: 2014
  21. Theories of Personality. Hans Eysenck: The Factor Theory

    His parents divorced when he was 4 years of age, and it was then when he went to live with his maternal grandmother, which to him, was a human deserving of all things great, and overall too good for this world. (Feist & Feist, 2009) Eysenck grew up with very little parental discipline, as his parents really didn?t care what he did or didn?t do, and his grandmother was rather permissive. In our book, the author quotes Eysenck telling a story of how he told his grandmother he was going to buy a pack of cigarettes expecting to be apprehended, and was startled when his grandma granted this behavior.

    • Word count: 2715

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