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University Degree: Psychometrics

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  1. Highlight the effect of gender on the recency effect.

    Miller (1956) stated that short-term memory has a limited capacity: between 7+-2 items. His investigation was essential in understanding human memory because it encouraged many other psychologists to work from this concept, such as Glanzer and Cunitz, who later discovered the Primacy and Recency effect. However, a drawback of his research is that the capacity of short-term memory is generally investigated under laboratory conditions; therefore it lacks ecological validity and means his research is questioned. Martindale (1991) argues that it should be studied under naturalistic conditions, rather than Laboratory in order to be better acknowledged.

    • Word count: 5056
  2. Construction of a questionnaire to measure

    argued that openness to experience consists of six factors; fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, action, ideas, and values. Fantasy is defined as imaginative; aesthetic in philosophical terms means art and beauty; and feelings are mental and physical awareness's of emotional issues. Actions are ways of successfully completing tasks; ideas are "a persons perception of something" (Webster's 1999 pg161); and values are an individuals moral principles. Openness to experience is essential to the chosen job, as the probation service core values are centred around treating people fairly, openly, and with respect. Other important issues are valuing diversity; having a strong belief in the principle that people can change; to learn from experience; have the ability to relate to others; and to work in difficult situations with sensitivity.

    • Word count: 2909
  3. Existence of a Particular Pool of Resources to Process Numeric Information

    Introduction (Provided) Method Design A between-participants design was employed in this experiment. The independent variable was the nature of responses of the participant on the dual tasks presented. A visual task and an auditory task were presented to the participant. Visual task for condition 1 was that participants were requested to place a tick near the words of color on a list of words. For condition 2, instead, participants were requested to place a tick near the words of number.

    • Word count: 1768
  4. A critical review of Pamela Coxon and Tim Valentine's (1997) study on "The effects of the age of eyewitnesses on the accuracy and suggestibility of their testimony".

    The experiment employed by Coxon and Valentine had a factorial design that was between participants. The participants were divided into three groups aged 7-9 (children), 16-19 (young adults) and 60-85 (elderly). All participants watched a short video. They answered seventeen questions based on the video, four of which were misleading for those in the experimental condition (where misleading questions were introduced). The participants' accuracy was assessed by the number of correct and incorrect answers given to the non-critical (non-misleading) questions asked.

    • Word count: 1537
  5. The aim of this essay is to identify the strengths and weaknesses of combining the two methodologies, qualitative and quantitative, when designing research in relation to the study of drug use

    The quantitative analysis of research can compliment the findings of qualitative methods by adding words to numbers and vice versa as it allows the findings to be viewed from two different perspective's using two different data sources. It can also assist researches by helping to indicate the extent to which the findings can be applied to the overall population that is being studied, for example drug users. By using a questionnaire on drug use the findings from the questionnaire can be used to support what was found in an in-depth study of an individual who uses drugs.

    • Word count: 1972
  6. Using examples taken from at least two of the research papers you have read in EK310 so far, discuss the main differences between qualitative and quantitative research.

    Differences between the two methods Qualitative research emphasises meaning, experiences and descriptions. Raw data will be exactly what people have said (in interview or recorded conversations) or a description of what has been observed. As a basic rule qualitative data involves words and real life situations. A qualitative study tends to be on a small personal scale and the researcher becomes involved and immersed in the study. Qualitative research can be used for testing responses to advertising messages, analyzing responses to products and is used to gain as full and rich a picture of what is happening in a situation.

    • Word count: 1776
  7. The Role of the Fundamental Attribution Error on the Judgement of IQ.

    When they could tell that others behaved according to the circumstances of chance, however, observers would attribute the behaviour to the situation. Jones and Harris (1967) conducted an experiment, which aimed to illustrate the fundamental attribution error. The participants listened to pro- and anti- Fidel Castro speeches. Then they were asked to rate the pro-Castro attitudes of both. When the participants believed that the speech makers freely chose which position to take (for or against Castro), they naturally rated the people who gave the pro-Castro speeches as having a more positive attitude toward Castro.

    • Word count: 1191

    The main focus of this research is to look into the stereotype that blondes are less intelligent. The idea of the 'Dumb Blonde' has been around for centuries. There are many predictions and ideas as to where it originated. Many people believe that Marilyn Monroe played a large part in endorsing this stereotype, however she was more of an exemplification of this stereotype rather than its creator. The 'Dumb Blonde' stereotype was thought to have existed long before this. The large majority of people in the world have dark hair (Jonathon Rees); therefore people with blonde hair are a minority, this already signals them out. This is the case for centuries that darker hair is the norm.

    • Word count: 9070
  9. An experiment into the stroop effect

    This idea has been researched by a number of researchers. Kanheman (1973) devised a model of divided attention, which was based around the idea of mental effort. He proposed that some tasks might be relatively autonomic; so make fewer demands in terms of mental effort, such as a reading task. Several activities can be carried out at the same time, provided that their total effort does not exceed the available capacity. So usually an autonomic task will not require much mental effort and so often can be carried out automatically.

    • Word count: 2854
  10. Verbal memory differences between the sexes

    This would appear to be because pictorial representations of concrete are made easier than for abstract words as concrete words a usually already stored in the LTM.' Ebbinghaus (1885) gave participants a list of triograms (eg LIG) and asked them to recall as many of the triograms as possible. Results showed that the triograms at the beginning and end of the lists were recalled better. This was because the participants had time to rehearse the words the beginning of the list so they went into the LTM.

    • Word count: 3676
  11. A study to show the physiological and psychological factors of joining a health and fitness club

    Two different groups which generally have great physiological differences are men and women. At a young age girls mature earlier than boys, which means that girls are generally physically stronger than boys during their early life. One of the reasons for this is that girls reach puberty between the age of ten and thirteen, whereas boys don't reach puberty until the age of twelve to fifteen. This explains why girls are usually more physically stronger and skilled than boys at this young age. However, after puberty it is usually men who are physically stronger.

    • Word count: 3331
  12. An investigation to identify whether there is a difference in the time taken to read colour words written in different colour inks than to read neutral words written in varying ink colours

    Hypothesis Having carried out this research into automatic processing in general, the following experimental hypothesis has been stated: It will take significantly longer to read colour words written in different colour inks than to read neutral words written in varying ink colours. This one tailed hypothesis has been derived by referring back to the Dunbar and Macleod study (1984). This study found that participants took longer to read the ink colour of colour words written in different colour inks than neutral words written in various ink colours.

    • Word count: 2595
  13. Conformity and Obedience

    (P380, Gross, 2001) When we are part of a group, there is always group pressure where other members feel comfortable doing certain things, you may not but you do them to feel accepted, be a part of the group. There is the need for acceptance, when being part of a group you do not want to be unpopular, so you may dress the same, act the same. You can be mindless, hereby conforming automatically, without actually thinking about it. A prime example is university life where standard dress code is jeans, trainers, t-shirts, if you ask students they will deny they are conforming

    • Word count: 1702
  14. 54 students in the third year of their psychology course at the University of Dundee took part. Their average age was 22.7 years, with the maximum age being 39 and the minimum being 19. 48 participants were right-handed, with the remaining 6 left-handed

    The distal stimulus refers to the "actual" object or event in the outside environment, whereas the proximal stimulus refers to the input at the sense organ, in this case the pattern of light falling on the retina (www.psychology.uiowa.edu). If these two stimuli do not correspond with each other, then our visual experience will not be veridical, i.e. genuine and truthful, not illusionary (http://dragon.uml.edu/psych/illusion.html). This is exactly what occurs when we are presented with visual illusions. A visual illusion essentially "tricks" our visual systems into perceiving something that consistently differs from what we suppose to be correct, due to an incorrect correspondence between our proximal and distal stimuli (Wade, N.J.

    • Word count: 1798
  15. My aim is to replicate Murstein's (1972) study. I am to find out whether there is a significant positive correlation between the attractiveness of newly married couples on their wedding day. Alternative Hypothesis

    He also found that the students living by the stairwells had more friends than those at the end of the corridor. Below is Hall's four zones of personal space. * Exposure and Familiarity - Proximity increases exposure, as there is a greater chance of interaction. This means that in turn people become more familiar to us. Grush (1976) found that unless we initially dislike someone (in which case we grow to dislike them even more) we generally tend to like people more the more we come into contact with them.

    • Word count: 4258
  16. The effects that learning in a busy environment has on memory

    The chosen sample was from both London and Manchester aged 16-47. Results: The results of my study showed that: as the calculated value of U is higher than the critical value, the hypothesis can be rejected and the null hypothesis has to be accepted. Background: Previous research carried out in this area was a study by Banzaft and McCarthy (1975) which looked at reading scores of children attending classes facing a noisy train structure and compared their scores with children in the same school attending classes on a quieter side in the building.

    • Word count: 1766
  17. The sheep-goat effect - A study on how extra-sensory perception belief affects repetition avoidance.

    t (84)=0.11, p>0.05. This result contradicted and failed to replicate Brugger's (1990) finding and it was concluded that belief or disbelief in ESP did not affect avoidance of repetitions. Introduction Many studies have been carried out on the subject of repetition avoidance. Experiments have shown that people find it difficult to generate true random sequences even when instructed to do so. The most frequent problem with generating these random numbers is avoidance of repetitions. One of the most frequently studied variables, which may affect repetition avoidance is the belief in extra-sensory perception (ESP).

    • Word count: 2155
  18. How to Write a Laboratory Report Using MS Word 2000

    A stop signal starts a stopping process which 'races' with other thought processes already running. If the stopping process wins, inhibition occurs. If another process wins, the action runs on until completion. The processes are independent (see figure 1). Figure 1: Diagrammatic example of the Horse-Race Model. To the left of the line the response to the primary task is faster, and to the right of the line the response to the stop signal is faster. If a stop signal is presented a long time after the primary task, this reduces the probability of inhibiting a response, but if it is presented early enough, the response will nearly always be inhibited.

    • Word count: 3396
  19. "Discuss the ways in which the study upholds and breaks the BPS code of conduct, ethical principles. Can deviations be justified in this study"?

    He was then told that although the shocks may be extremely painful they cause no permanent tissue damage. The teacher was the taken next door to administer the punishment. The task of the teacher was to read a set of word pairs to the learner, and then read the first word of each pair together with four alternatives. The learner then indicated which of the four was correct by pressing one of four switches. The subject would then have to give a shock to each time the learner gave a wrong answer and to increase the intensity by one level with each wrong answer.

    • Word count: 1864
  20. "From your knowledge of the ethical issues involved in social influence research to what extent can such research be justified?"

    No electric shocks were actually administered and the learner was an accomplice of the experimenter. The main finding was that 65% of the participants gave a lethal electric shock of 450 volts if told to do so. Milgram concluded that most people would obey orders if someone in authority issued them. The ethical issues arising from Milgram's experiment were protection from harm and deception. Participants could have been psychologically damaged and they were not aware that the learner was an accomplice and that the electric shocks were not real.

    • Word count: 591
  21. The topic of the present research is the influence of categorization on perceptual memory for facial expression.

    Apart from testing the above hypothesis, it is further tested that whether there are any differences in biasing effects when different types of conceptualization are involved, that is verbalized explanation, imagined explanation and mere labeling, as well as when different types of emotional expressions are encoded, that is angry-happy and angry-sad. Research Design In the present research, three experiments were carried out. Subjects In total, two hundred and eleven female and eighty-six male university students participated in all three experiments.

    • Word count: 1431
  22. The journal article "s*x-related Differences and Similarities in Geographic and Environmental Spatial Abilities", by Montello, D.R. et al., 1999 - review.

    et al., 1999). This article is particularly concerned and focus on the performances in a way that more accurately both the differences and similarities between males and females in spatial ability, to describe s*x-related patterns of performance. In the review of literature section, the authors have presented us with numerous examples of researches concerned to the issue in analyse, carried out in the past. The examples are well elucidative "that males on average perform better than females", in respect to spatial abilities, (e.g.

    • Word count: 1217
  23. Reflect the experiment Asch conducted in 1951.

    Asch believed that if the answer was made obvious, there could be no doubt that the subject was conforming if he followed the answers of the rest of the group. In the experiment, a pair of card where shown to people sitting around the table. The first card had a line on it, and the second card had three lines, of varying length. The participants were asked which of the lines on the second card matched the line on the first card in length, and gave their answer in front of the rest of the group.

    • Word count: 3190
  24. Has family life become better Or Wose?

    I am also interested in the way families are socialised to conform to the society's values and attitudes. I also want to discuss the debate about PATRIARCHY (male-domination). The aspects of ethnic diversity are also one of the issues I am interested in, because my family and me are part of this section of families. SOURCES: Recent patterns of family and whether family life has become better or worse are big and complex debate. This is one of the reasons that have encouraged me to study it.

    • Word count: 2216
  25. Analyzing the work of Ann Oakley and Liz Kelly. Both The sociology of housework and Surviving s****l violence are texts which are familiar in the feminist field.

    Kelly focuses on how women describe there incidents of the different forms of s****l violence and how they build up approaches to oppose and deal with it. Kelly explains the importance of feminist analysis, and involvement in theses practices by emphasizing how the criminal justice system and media add to the belittling of s****l violence. The text includes the findings of the study and draws attention to the significance for women to identify the occurrence of s****l violence in their lives and not to perceive themselves as victims.

    • Word count: 2057

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