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University Degree: Social Psychology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Critically evaluate trait theories of personality.

    This can, to a large extent, be explained by the fact that the different theories deal at different levels of generality. Cattell for example, deals at primary factor level (gives more detailed picture of personality, but reliability and separaility is questionable). Eysenck in contrast, deals on a second order level. Cattels 16 factors or traits are intercorrelated, they can be further factor analyzed. When they are factor analysed, Eysenck's 2 traits appear as superfactors. A description of personality in which more factors or traits are used will produce a more differentiated description of personality in which less distinctions are lost,

    • Word count: 2891
  2. Compare and contrast two views of how the relationships between people and traffic are ordered

    326) by all motor vehicles was 46.5. This number dramatically rose over the decades with the number of all vehicles by kilometres driven in 1979 was 255.9 and in 2006 increasing to 506.4. From this evidence collected, it was apparent that change needed to occur to ensure space and safety on roads with a large amount of vehicles. The Buchanan Report took a Modernist approach where, "it was assumed not only that more roads needed to be built but also that a new way for towns to live with cars needed to be implemented" (Silva, 2009, p.

    • Word count: 1551
  3. What does this table tell us about the identities of people visiting Englands National Parks

    The Non-White category holds 2% of visitors not only to the National Parks but that of all rural trip takers. This suggests that the Non-White people are of marked identity as they are not as included within the National Parks and with this Othering occurs. Another category that provides a large difference in data is that under the category of 'Disability'. From all adults asked 17% claimed to have a disability. Out of this 17% only 9% stated to be a National Park trip taker. These people appear to be of collective identity as they seem excluded from the parks.

    • Word count: 1739
  4. Ethics and Deception in Psychological Research

    Deception occurs whenever participants are not completely informed of procedures and goals of the research. According to Wikipedia, "ethics is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about mortality, how moral values should be determined, how a moral outcome can be achieved in a specific situation, how moral capacity or a moral agency develops and what its nature is, and what moral values people actually abide by (Wikipedia). Ethics deals greatly with morals. What is considered to be morally wrong depends on the individual you are speaking with. Morals describe how individuals should act and the principles that reflect what is good for individuals.

    • Word count: 1090
  5. Alcohol use in adolescence. By learning and studying what leads young people to drink alcohol, and how this will affect their lives, we can then determine what action need to be taken to help remove ourselves from our ever-increasing attraction to alcoho

    The difference between sexes is that girls are more likely to use alcohol to avoid problems they may be facing and as an emotion-oriented coping. Boys on the other hand use alcohol socially and are more likely to have alcohol-related problems. An interesting fact revealed in this study states that adolescents drink more frequently as a result of positive daily events than negative. This means that although young people may drink when they are unhappy, they are more likely to drink in celebration of something good that has happened to them.

    • Word count: 2566
  6. There is a lot to be gained by studying a topic in psychology from more than one perspective. Discuss this claim drawing on Chapters 2 and 3 from Book 2 to illustrate your points.

    The cognitive perspective looks at mental processes in terms of Information-processing systems through which individuals receive, store, and process information. The social constructionist perspective considers ways in which individuals influence one another and how they interpret and shape reality of their social world through social interaction. The evolutionary perspective looks at the origins of mental processes and their adaptive benefits as a functional product of natural selection. As such, each perspective can approach a topic from a unique angle hence no one perspective has explanatory power over the rest.

    • Word count: 1702
  7. How Does Single Parents Living Status Affect Their Daily Coping Strategies For Maintaining Mental Wellbeing

    GT is a flexible approach which allows researchers investigating diverse fields such as interviews and video tapes to discover and explore possible theories (Fassinger,2005). An interview study of the psychology of poverty employed the grounded theory (Lea, Burgoyne, Jones, & Beer, 1997) to investigate their understanding poverty regards to its causes, conditions and consequences as well as the psychological impacts of poverty based on 24 interviews presented as transcripts. GT particularly work on this study. Firstly, two core traits of GT that make it different from any other methods to analysis of qualitative data are 'the researcher has to set aside theoretical ideas' and the idea of concepts being created through 'constant comparison' (Dey ,1999,p1;as cited in Urquhart, 2001).

    • Word count: 3286
  8. The bystander effect: s*x differences in helping behaviour in emergency and non-emergency situations literature review

    Another view is that bystanders are influenced by the urgency of the situation. Fischer, Greitemeyer, Pollozek and Frey (2006) recently countered this idea. They found that the bystander effect is actually reduced in an emergency. However, Darley & Latane�'s (1968) earlier research stated that "interpreting the event as an emergency" is a key factor when one is deciding to take action. Thus, bystanders are more likely to help if they interpret the situation as an emergency.

    • Word count: 779
  9. Neutrality in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysts draw many parallels with Batman. Psychoanalysts are also devoted to helping others and follow a set of principles when in practice. An essential part of the psychoanalytic code is neutrality.

    Some analysts have advocated neutrality (e.g., Freud, 1912, as cited in Schatcher & K�chele, 2007; McIlwain, 2007). Others have endorsed self-disclosure (e.g., Mills, 2005; Shill, 2004; Meissner, 1998). It will be argued that, similarly to Batman, it is advantageous to adhere to guiding principles, and therefore maintain neutrality as an analyst. Primarily, Freud felt strongly about psychoanalysis as a science and attempted to establish its analytical objectivity. In his paper (1912), Freud utilized the metaphor of a "surgeon" (Freud, 1912, p.115; as cited in Schatcher & K�chele, 2007), who set aside all feelings and beliefs to retain uninterrupted concentration, in order to convey that the analyst should be someone who rearticulates and annotates the patient's comments while remaining non-pejorative.

    • Word count: 1624

    research on factors which affect a how happy a person is, the results of my research are shown in this write up. Table of content What does it mean to be happy!!!! Pg. 4 Happiness & Science Pg. 5 Factors of happiness Pg. 6 1. Engagement 2. Meaning 3. Accomplishment 4. Relationships 5. Pleasure BIBLOGRAPHY Pg.9 What does it mean to be happy!!!! As I defined in my introduction, in my opinion being happy means to express a feeling of pleasure or joy, usually in the form of a smile or other joyful expressions or actions, but what does it mean when a person says he or she is happy?

    • Word count: 1853
  11. Literature Review - How exactly do couples that have arranged marriages get to meet each other and get married? Do arranged marriages work out better than love marriages?

    Are Indian marriages made in heaven? There have been many misconceptions about arranged marriages that should change. Some examples of misconceptions are that the couples do not meet until their wedding day, that arranged marriages end up in violence, that arranged marriages are considered anachronisms, and that arranged marriages are a violation of human rights. Literature Review Alvarez, L. "Arranged Marriages Get a Little Rearranging." The New York Times. Detroit: Gale, 2003. A3. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Thomson Gale. Ashford University. 1 Sept. 2010 <http://www.galenet.galegroup.com/>. Lizette Alvarez who is a New York Times writer and Yoga stretch columnist wrote this article.

    • Word count: 4648
  12. Life coaching course essay. I present in this essay an understanding of what motivation is and the importance of understanding and clarifying what motivates the client, in order to empower the client through the coaching relationship to attain what they w

    In this essay I examine the way we often live our lives trying to satisfy other people and live in accordance with what we believe we "should" do in life. When we live like this we are de motivated because we are not fulfilling what we need and want. I present in this essay an understanding of what motivation is and the importance of understanding and clarifying what motivates the client, in order to empower the client through the coaching relationship to attain what they want in their life.

    • Word count: 3599
  13. This essay will discuss sociological research and theories that offer the potential for advising people on aspects of creating and sustaining satisfying relationships across a number of perspectives and evaluate the evidence provided.

    It has at its core the assumption that change is possible in individuals, relationships and society. It relates directly to our personal lives since it provides us with insights into ourselves and others and suggests goals towards which we may strive. It offers us a way to get in touch with our own feelings and enhance the quality of our personal and intimate relationships. The experience of existential isolation generates profound anxiety from which all of us seek to escape (Fromm 1957 cited in Miell and Dallos 2002)

    • Word count: 2452
  14. Critically compare and contrast two theories that explain prejudice, discrimination and stereotyping.

    This is achieved by indentifying with an in-group and making intergroup comparisons and evaluations which conclusively favour the in-group. Social identity theorists have proposed that there are multiple classes of identity, the two main ones being social identity and personal identity; these define the different types of self. Social identity defines the self in terms of group membership, meaning your identity is constructed by the groups you belong to. Social identity is also associated by group and intergroup behaviour. On the other hand, personal identity is defined by an individual's personal relationships and behavioural traits. Under this explanation we have multiple social identities depending on how many groups we are members of and we have as many personal identities depending on our interpersonal relationships.

    • Word count: 1820
  15. Following a critical evaluation of a range of examples from the literature, what advice could you give the Government about the possible factors that influence peoples happiness and experience of pleasure?

    Nature has been found to play an influential role on people's mood states. Orians (1980, 1986) developed the notion of the savannah hypothesis. This hypothesises that due to natural selection, humans have developed a preference to explore and settle in environments rich with resources that are necessary for survival and not to settle in environments which may pose a risk to survival. Kaplan & Kaplan (1992) conducted a cross cultural investigation into preferences of natural scenes and found that when a scene included trees and vegetation it was preferred over natural scenes which did not contain these elements.

    • Word count: 3435
  16. Discuss the statement that adolescence is a period of Storm and Stress.

    "Childhood and adolescence were regarded as two sides of the same coin" (Dubasa et al, 2003). The first person to determine a difference between the two was Rousseau. Rousseau described it adolescence as "A change in humour, frequent anger, a mind in constant agitation, makes the child almost unmanageable. His feverishness turns him into a lion. He disregards his guide; he no longer wishes to be governed." (Rousseau, 1911) Psychologists of that time agreed with Rousseau's ideas and in 1904, influenced by the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin, G.

    • Word count: 2822
  17. Repressed memories are a figment of the imagination -critically discuss

    Zur (2007) states that families have disintegrated as adult women have accused their parents of being guilty of causing s****l and other assaults on them as children and the very nature of memory is at the centre of this debate as the question is whether memories are fixed like concrete or are pliable like putty. The whole theory of repressed memory was addressed by Freud (1915-18) and he stated that some memories become difficult to get to as a result of repression and that unconscious processes are used that makes sure that menacing or stress-causing memories are kept from our conscious understanding.

    • Word count: 3374
  18. Attachment Theory: Early childhood attachment and its influence on adult romantic relationships

    Both historic and current research indicates that the notion of attachment may be driven by the influence of fundamental mechanisms that exist within the active phases of our early attachment to others. It is suggested that such primary attachment tendencies, between an infant and its primary care giver, are strong determinants of romantic attachment styles occurring much later; such as those evident between a fully developed adult and his/her chosen significant other. Upon research evidence supporting the basis of this theoretical correlation, it will be argued that the attachment style a child forms with its parents will later determine and significantly entail the pattern of their adult romantic relationships and how such relationships are mediated.

    • Word count: 2050
  19. Research Proposal - Investigating The Effect of Social Anxiety on Motor Response

    Research supports that there is an association between anxiety, negative bias, and the reduced processing of social cues (Clark & McManus, 2002). Those with social phobia tend to focus on negative mental imagery that they have accumulated from experience and they tend to recall this when in social situations with similar cues, leading them to focus on images that are not really there, but rather just a recollection of the past (Hirsch & Holmes, 2007). Further, in the presence of ambiguous situations, there is a tendency for social phobia individuals to evaluate these as negative events, given that they are involved in the situation (Clark, 2001).

    • Word count: 2824
  20. Explain the importance of team building, the stages in the development of team cohesion and analyse the impact of good and poor team cohesion on the British Army, with reference to relevant theorists.

    who will lead and who will follow. Such roles have been classified by Dr. Meredith Belbin who identifies nine roles that team members may fall into. Such roles are usually assigned during the storming stage and will be discussed further on in this paper. Whilst still at the forming stage, the team has little guidance and direction and is characterised by a great deal of uncertainty about the group's purpose, structure and leadership. The team may still be seen as a collection of individuals and one could argue that it is not a team at all.

    • Word count: 8191
  21. Emerging Issues in Multicultural Psychology. Prepare a 700- to 1050-word paper in which you examine at least two emerging issues in multicultural psychology.

    [DD2] Attentiveness to personal beliefs, acknowledgment of various frameworks of thinking and logic, and understanding of the influence these factors can have on one's style of assistance and communication are needed to be culturally competent (Ibrahim, 1985). A deficiency in these areas may obstruct efficient intervention. With the standard of psychology practice arising from predominantly European American beliefs, one may believe it accurate to form an opinion of a client by the standard array of "white" cultural beliefs and practices, yet a counselor must maintain a balance of the traditional societal culture and the diverse culture of a multicultural individual (Hall, 2010).

    • Word count: 1306
  22. Psychopathology. In this paper I will be describing the origins of Abnormal Psychology, an overview of how Abnormal Psychology evolved into scientific discipline, and the theoretical viewpoints and the interpretations of the biological, psychosocial, and

    Such as, forming questions and testing the hypothesis, this is an "educated guess". For example, by having two groups and giving one group the placebo and the other group the experimental drug. Another example would be Pavlov's conditioning experiment with the dog salivating. Viewpoints and Interpretations Over time in history there had been different views of understanding abnormal behavior. In the ancient world they believed that the abnormal behavior was due to superstitions of being possessed by supernatural spirits. Hippocrates argued that the illness of the body and mind were the results of natural causes, not by the possession of supernatural spirits.

    • Word count: 1072
  23. Summary of a Psychology Journal

    Four versions of the case were constructed to create a 2 � 2 between-subjects factorial design with two levels of witness confidence (high vs. low) and two levels of witness error (no error vs. error). The witnesses were asked to give evidence about a robbery on campus and in the high vs low condition the high confidence witness was certain of the time whereas the low confidence witness was more skeptical however the defense attorney concluded it was correct. In the error vs no error condition the high confidence witness was discovered to be incorrect and vice versa for the low confidence witness.

    • Word count: 921
  24. Explain, with examples, how the processes of natural selection and s****l selection are thought to have contributed to modern-day human behaviour

    One phrase which is used in conjunction with natural selection is 'survival of the fittest' (Clegg, 2007). An example why could be; an individual possessing a behavioural trait which enabled him to survive the most effectively in his environment. This would give him the probability of a longer lifespan than his counterparts and so potentially more time to reproduce and therefore pass on that particular behavioural trait to his offspring. Hence the phrase 'survival of the fittest' as addressing the reproductive success of a gene or the ability to pass on copies of this gene as opposed to the physical interpretation of the word 'fittest'.

    • Word count: 2450
  25. s****l Exploitaion and Morality

    r**e, trafficking, and unauthorized s*x are a few examples of s****l exploitation. Rather than the assurance or chance of love and inner feelings to encompass the relationship of a couple, s****l exploitation engenders nothing but torture and harm. With the aid of Immanuel Kant's view on exploitation, I will develop this essay to suggest that the use of another individual to be seen as s****l objects and the practice of prostitution is morally wrong. One would agree that if married couples are engaging in a form similar to r**e with the use of their partners as a s*x object to fulfill their desires rather than see them as a human being, their behavior would be considered to be morally wrong.

    • Word count: 1141

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and Contrast the Processes Involved in Majority and Minority Social Influence.

    "To conclude, people are influenced by the majority so they can be right and make a good impression on others. Minorities influence with consistency, both over time which is called diachronic consistency and with each other or synchronic consistency. A consistent minority is effective because it is coherent, it disturbs the group norm(s) by creating conflict and it has an innovative impact. Those who can do this have an envied talent."

  • Evaluate The Influence Of Nature And Nurture On The Development Of Aggression

    "In conclusion, the fact that modern humans are much more aggressive than their ancestors shows that environment and upbringing definitely effect levels of human aggression. In the modern world, factors such as "influence of media, smoke, noise pollution, air pollution, abusive parenting, overcrowding, heat, and even atmospheric electricity" can lend a hand in aggravating the aggressiveness in humans. Behaviourists generally view aggression as a set of acquired behaviours and attach less emphasis on biological determinants. These scientists commonly apply the "principles of social learning theory" when addressing aggression. People tend to vary their views on nature versus nurture. They are ready to accept that it is genes that cause diseases and cancer, even obesity and homosexuality. Of course, this takes the blame off of human lifestyle. If it is written into their genes, there is nothing they can do about it. However, the public tends to favour the nurture side of the argument when it breaches sensitive topics such as aggression or intelligence."

  • "Only a critical political economy approach can adequately explain how the media work today". Discuss the pros and cons of this statement, with reference to the following sector of modern media: Advertising.

    "CONCLUSION Though the statement holds a considerable amount of weight, we have to acknowledge that advertising is largely responsible for a critical connection between economics, society, politics, and culture that is at the center of important social issues. The power of advertising is therefore complex: it is a communicator in a "new symbolic environment" which 'moulds' consumption, as well as the form and content of media, politics, perception and behavior. "Consumer capitalism" is unthinkable without its advertising and marketing tools, and advertising really can only be comprehended within the framework of modern free enterprise. Only a "multi-faceted social theory" which merges historical, political, cultural, psychological, economic, and ideological analysis can be capable of providing an important theory of advertising which identifies its social effects from a critical viewpoint that can specify exactly how advertising harms the foundations of social, political, and cultural life."

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