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University Degree: Social Psychology

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  1. Neutrality in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysts draw many parallels with Batman. Psychoanalysts are also devoted to helping others and follow a set of principles when in practice. An essential part of the psychoanalytic code is neutrality.

    Some analysts have advocated neutrality (e.g., Freud, 1912, as cited in Schatcher & K�chele, 2007; McIlwain, 2007). Others have endorsed self-disclosure (e.g., Mills, 2005; Shill, 2004; Meissner, 1998). It will be argued that, similarly to Batman, it is advantageous to adhere to guiding principles, and therefore maintain neutrality as an analyst. Primarily, Freud felt strongly about psychoanalysis as a science and attempted to establish its analytical objectivity. In his paper (1912), Freud utilized the metaphor of a "surgeon" (Freud, 1912, p.115; as cited in Schatcher & K�chele, 2007), who set aside all feelings and beliefs to retain uninterrupted concentration, in order to convey that the analyst should be someone who rearticulates and annotates the patient's comments while remaining non-pejorative.

    • Word count: 1624

    research on factors which affect a how happy a person is, the results of my research are shown in this write up. Table of content What does it mean to be happy!!!! Pg. 4 Happiness & Science Pg. 5 Factors of happiness Pg. 6 1. Engagement 2. Meaning 3. Accomplishment 4. Relationships 5. Pleasure BIBLOGRAPHY Pg.9 What does it mean to be happy!!!! As I defined in my introduction, in my opinion being happy means to express a feeling of pleasure or joy, usually in the form of a smile or other joyful expressions or actions, but what does it mean when a person says he or she is happy?

    • Word count: 1853
  3. Critically compare and contrast two theories that explain prejudice, discrimination and stereotyping.

    This is achieved by indentifying with an in-group and making intergroup comparisons and evaluations which conclusively favour the in-group. Social identity theorists have proposed that there are multiple classes of identity, the two main ones being social identity and personal identity; these define the different types of self. Social identity defines the self in terms of group membership, meaning your identity is constructed by the groups you belong to. Social identity is also associated by group and intergroup behaviour. On the other hand, personal identity is defined by an individual's personal relationships and behavioural traits. Under this explanation we have multiple social identities depending on how many groups we are members of and we have as many personal identities depending on our interpersonal relationships.

    • Word count: 1820
  4. Emerging Issues in Multicultural Psychology. Prepare a 700- to 1050-word paper in which you examine at least two emerging issues in multicultural psychology.

    [DD2] Attentiveness to personal beliefs, acknowledgment of various frameworks of thinking and logic, and understanding of the influence these factors can have on one's style of assistance and communication are needed to be culturally competent (Ibrahim, 1985). A deficiency in these areas may obstruct efficient intervention. With the standard of psychology practice arising from predominantly European American beliefs, one may believe it accurate to form an opinion of a client by the standard array of "white" cultural beliefs and practices, yet a counselor must maintain a balance of the traditional societal culture and the diverse culture of a multicultural individual (Hall, 2010).

    • Word count: 1306
  5. Psychopathology. In this paper I will be describing the origins of Abnormal Psychology, an overview of how Abnormal Psychology evolved into scientific discipline, and the theoretical viewpoints and the interpretations of the biological, psychosocial, and

    Such as, forming questions and testing the hypothesis, this is an "educated guess". For example, by having two groups and giving one group the placebo and the other group the experimental drug. Another example would be Pavlov's conditioning experiment with the dog salivating. Viewpoints and Interpretations Over time in history there had been different views of understanding abnormal behavior. In the ancient world they believed that the abnormal behavior was due to superstitions of being possessed by supernatural spirits. Hippocrates argued that the illness of the body and mind were the results of natural causes, not by the possession of supernatural spirits.

    • Word count: 1072
  6. s****l Exploitaion and Morality

    r**e, trafficking, and unauthorized s*x are a few examples of s****l exploitation. Rather than the assurance or chance of love and inner feelings to encompass the relationship of a couple, s****l exploitation engenders nothing but torture and harm. With the aid of Immanuel Kant's view on exploitation, I will develop this essay to suggest that the use of another individual to be seen as s****l objects and the practice of prostitution is morally wrong. One would agree that if married couples are engaging in a form similar to r**e with the use of their partners as a s*x object to fulfill their desires rather than see them as a human being, their behavior would be considered to be morally wrong.

    • Word count: 1141
  7. The person centred approach

    For instance from a young age children aim to satisfy their parents/carers. However the actualising tendency has some similarity to the Freudian concept of libido. Rogers uses the term 'actulising tendency' to describe this human attitude towards development. The actulising tendency is responsible for every part of achievement including the serious effort an individual makes to try and accomplish there goal PC views of Psychological Development In contrast to the psychoanalytic view which suggests that human beings are driven by antisocial impulses, Rogers had a more positive outlook on humanity. Rogers believed that each person had the desire to grow, to develop and to reach their full potential (Rogers, 1996).

    • Word count: 1439
  8. Describe and compare the social comparison and evolutionary perspectives on the functuality of gossip.

    Dunbar (2004) stated that because group size grew it was essential for some form of communication to evolve as this would allow people to keep track of what was happening in their group, which now generally stands at approximately 150 people and to keep track of each person's status and to keep allies in the group would be rather difficult without communication due to time constraints previously because of the lack of language social groups were very limited in what they could achieve as they could only see what was going on around them rather than hear of the possible

    • Word count: 1533
  9. How do people explain their own and other peoples behaviour?

    as people tend to construct theories about themselves. People believe there is a reason behind their behaviour and that it is controllable. Therefore people try to understand other people's behaviour to discover their motives and arrive at a reasonable cause. In order to establish such causes, people need to form a clear view of the world and gain control over their environment. In this sense, Heider assumed that everyone is rational, which may not necessarily be the case. One of the core reasons for attribution is the reaction to the cause of people's behaviour.

    • Word count: 1103
  10. Evaluate the contribution of the social perspective to our understanding of language and meaning and the psychology of s*x and gender

    In researching language and the development of subsequent theories, language itself is used as a medium to investigate language. This methodological reflexivity is the source of conflict between social and cognitive perspectives on language when trying to determine to what extent, if any, the necessity of responding in language predetermines what is said. Social psychologists, more specifically discourse psychologists (i.e. Parker, 1992, as cited in: Cooper & Kay, 2007, p. 105), claims that in using language individuals do so in a social and historic context, with an audience and for a purpose.

    • Word count: 1768
  11. Evaluate the contribution of the social perspective to our understanding of language and meaning as well as the psychology of s*x and gender.

    The third factor to explore issues in psychology is the use of studies. The social perspective uses the hermeneutic method to investigate the objects of interest. The strength of this method is that it is based on the analysis of everyday conversations within the social world, outside laboratories or formal settings of study (Cooper and Kaye, 2007a). This is in line with the claim that humans process information better when it is presented in the same way that is encountered in naturalistic environments (Buchanan, Anand, Joffe and Thomas, 2007).

    • Word count: 1952
  12. Assessing Competency to Take the Oath

    competent witnesses, as those providing evidence in court must understand the difference between truth and falsehood and appreciate the obligation to tell the truth. Therefore, if, after strict examination, someone suffering from a learning difficulty appears to possess adequate knowledge regarding the nature and consequences of an oath, they are deemed able to provide a testimony. However, understanding and taking the oath does not necessarily correlate with sincerity, thus enhancing the need to assess one's ability to appreciate their obligation to tell the truth.

    • Word count: 1682
  13. A summary and evaluation of Burger, J.M. 2009 Replicating Milgram: Would people still obey today? This essay will offer a critical analysis of the study Replicating Milgram carried out by Jerry M. Burger looking principally at Burgers aims, meth

    He advertised for participants in local newspapers, online listing and in other community areas. Interested individuals went through a series of screening procedures in order to eliminate those who may experience a negative reaction to the experiment. (Burger, 2009) Approximately 30% of applicants were excluded during the initial screening.(Burger, 2009) The final sample consisted of seventy participants, they ranged between the ages of twenty and eighty-one, whereas Milgram limited his sample to those aged fifty or younger. The sample consisted of a more ethnically diverse group of participants all from varying ethnic backgrounds and educational levels.

    • Word count: 1088
  14. Compare and contrast two approaches to the study of prejudice

    Individual differences as a cause of prejudice is concerned with why some people are more prejudice than others, and whether it is because of a personality trait that causes these attitudes (Crisp & Turner, 2007). An authoritarian personality was on concept that was suggested by Adorno, Frenkel-Brunswik, Levinson and Sanford (1950) in the wake of the holocaust (cited in Hogg & Vaughan, 2004). They believed that only those with a personality defect could be prejudice, these people were not only prejudice toward one particular social group but all minority groups.

    • Word count: 1381
  15. According to attribution theorists the laypersons judgments of others are biased

    Considering those three stages we can explain attributional bias which affects the way people determine what or who was responsible for an event or action, for instance people involved in an action see things from a different point of view from the observers who were not involved. This is known as the actor - observer effect , the observer understands the situation from a different point of view, generally is the tendency to attribute our own behavior to situational causes but the other people's behavior to internal causes.

    • Word count: 1942
  16. Critically Evaluate Three Theoretical Perspectives in Social Psychology

    Objects that are colourful, noisy and moving stand out to individuals whereas quiet, stationary and bland objects are harder to notice and constitute the background. This principle, along with spontaneously grouping objects, is important in determining people's perception of physical objects and social situations. Research from Fiske and Taylor (1991) on social cognitions focuses on how individuals put together information about people, social situations and groups to make inferences about them. An example of how social psychologists use cognitive theories in real life situations is the use of cognitive priming to explain media influences on anti social behaviour.

    • Word count: 1575
  17. Outline the main features of experimental social psychology and consider the influences that led to its emergence. What do you think are its strengths and weaknesses?

    ESP aims to research the "science of social behaviour" (DVD 1, DD307, 2007) by using quantitative methods of investigation such as the laboratory experiment. Although not confined to the laboratory, this setting facilitates achieving two of the main features within the discipline: control and measurement. It would be impractical to attempt to record physiological responses though observational methods. Experiments are used as a tool in which researchers aim to isolate variables and show that by manipulating them they can cause a particular outcomes (DVD 1, DD307, 2007).

    • Word count: 1732
  18. Discuss the function of sleep (25 marks)

    Meddis (1979) believes that sleep keeps an animal safe from predators. The time an animal sleeps coincides with times when the animal is unable to feed or defend itself effectively; which is usually during the night. Another researcher proposed the Hibernation theory, Webb (1974). He suggests that sleep has evolved because it conserves the animal's energy as behaviour activity stops and body temperature decreases during sleep. As a result animals that conserve energy are more likely to survive than animals that do not.

    • Word count: 1759
  19. When people form long queues to obtain goods or withdraw money following rumours of possible future scarcity, observers often claim that these people are behaving irrationally Are they behaving irrationally?

    reported a case of "grown men pushing kids out of the way" in order to get bottles of water. This kind of behaviour occurs due to a breakdown of co-operation and the emergence of competition. This essay will discuss the extent to which people who form long queues to obtain goods or withdraw money following rumours of possible scarcity are behaving irrationally with emphasis upon co-operation and competition as explanations for the behaviour. Pfeffer and Moore (1980) claimed that scarcity of resources increases conflict which results in a decline in the use of co-operation (Cited in Mckinley, et al.

    • Word count: 1348
  20. Why do different approaches in social psychology use different methods to study social phenomena?

    It answers casual questions, for example 'is variable X a cause of variable Y?' (Aronson et al., 2005, pp.31) However, McGhee (2001, pp.120) claims that experimental social psychology assumes that social behaviour is objectively measurable, is caused by identifiable factors and that general principles or laws can be specified which describe the link between these factors and the social behaviour in question. Experimentation is a powerful method to study social phenomena because it allows us to identify the causes of events and thus gain control.

    • Word count: 1659
  21. The relationship between the amount of exercise individuals take and the stress they experience

    A similar study was conducted in this field by Morse and Walker (1994). The study took a group of 46 undergraduate students and divided them into two groups: an exercising group and a non-exercising group. They then put the exercising group through 6 weeks of exercise accredited by ASCM. After this period both groups were given The General Symptom Index questionnaire to complete. Their results stated that after exercise intervention stress symptoms were reduced and the subjects that didn't exercise had raised stress symptoms.

    • Word count: 1697
  22. What is the significance of research on equivocation for our understanding of political communication?

    Bavelas et al (1990) argue that equivocation is not a characteristic of a particular type of personality, but of a particular type of discourse, and that the pressures of a political interview lend themselves to these conflicts (Bull, 1998). Bull and Mayer's 1993 microanalysis of eight interviews with Margaret Thatcher and eight with Neil Kinnock showed the two politicians to have directly answered only 41 and 44 per cent of questions posed, respectively. This supported Harris' (1991) earlier research, in which the same politicians answered 39 per cent of the time, suggesting that certainly in terms of interviews with these politicians, equivocation is prevalent.

    • Word count: 1992
  23. Critical review of a report titled "The incidence of workplace bullying"

    A two part self report questionnaire was used to gather data speedily and in quantity from a large sample of approximately 1100 respondents. The sample population was drawn from part-time students at Stafford University over a three week period. Aspects of the methodology are recognized as problematic by the research team. Definition of bullying is difficult because there is no legislation or legal terms for guidance, plus feeling bullied is a subjective and personal experience. s****l harassment does have legal definition and has parallels with bullying so the team decided to use these as a starting point, although it is not made clear in the report how this process was drawn out to produce definitions.

    • Word count: 1705
  24. Evaluation of qualitiative paper - phenomenology

    believed that experiences perceived through human consciousness has value and should be scientifically studied. The structure of these experiences, he called "intentionality of consciousness", a key concept in phenomenology suggests Smith (2003). The study by Riemem (1986), investigates the 'caring interaction' between a nurse and patient. Whilst appraising this particular paper, structure, credibility, strengths and weaknesses will all be taken into consideration, and conveyed through other literature. The researcher begins the study with a literature review of both the philosophical ideas behind the study, and the phenomenolgical approach. The design involves studying 10 randomly selected non-hospitalised adults, associated with a university in southwestern United States, who had prior interactions with a registered nurse, and were able to communicate their feelings regarding these interactions.

    • Word count: 1892
  25. compare and contrast minority and majority influence

    Minority influences tends to change private views in members of society and are essential for social change. This essay will be exploring the different processes involved in majority and minority influences by assessing a number of social psychologists views and experimental evidence. Moscivici (1980, cited in Hogg &Vaughan, 2005) argued that majority and minority influences work in different ways. Majority influence results in compliance which is when one publicly conforms to majority view but privately believe something else. Deutsch and Gerard (1955, as cited in Kelvin, 1969) proposed two types of influence which leads to public conformity to majority view, Informational influence and normative influence.

    • Word count: 1642

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and Contrast the Processes Involved in Majority and Minority Social Influence.

    "To conclude, people are influenced by the majority so they can be right and make a good impression on others. Minorities influence with consistency, both over time which is called diachronic consistency and with each other or synchronic consistency. A consistent minority is effective because it is coherent, it disturbs the group norm(s) by creating conflict and it has an innovative impact. Those who can do this have an envied talent."

  • Evaluate The Influence Of Nature And Nurture On The Development Of Aggression

    "In conclusion, the fact that modern humans are much more aggressive than their ancestors shows that environment and upbringing definitely effect levels of human aggression. In the modern world, factors such as "influence of media, smoke, noise pollution, air pollution, abusive parenting, overcrowding, heat, and even atmospheric electricity" can lend a hand in aggravating the aggressiveness in humans. Behaviourists generally view aggression as a set of acquired behaviours and attach less emphasis on biological determinants. These scientists commonly apply the "principles of social learning theory" when addressing aggression. People tend to vary their views on nature versus nurture. They are ready to accept that it is genes that cause diseases and cancer, even obesity and homosexuality. Of course, this takes the blame off of human lifestyle. If it is written into their genes, there is nothing they can do about it. However, the public tends to favour the nurture side of the argument when it breaches sensitive topics such as aggression or intelligence."

  • "Only a critical political economy approach can adequately explain how the media work today". Discuss the pros and cons of this statement, with reference to the following sector of modern media: Advertising.

    "CONCLUSION Though the statement holds a considerable amount of weight, we have to acknowledge that advertising is largely responsible for a critical connection between economics, society, politics, and culture that is at the center of important social issues. The power of advertising is therefore complex: it is a communicator in a "new symbolic environment" which 'moulds' consumption, as well as the form and content of media, politics, perception and behavior. "Consumer capitalism" is unthinkable without its advertising and marketing tools, and advertising really can only be comprehended within the framework of modern free enterprise. Only a "multi-faceted social theory" which merges historical, political, cultural, psychological, economic, and ideological analysis can be capable of providing an important theory of advertising which identifies its social effects from a critical viewpoint that can specify exactly how advertising harms the foundations of social, political, and cultural life."

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