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University Degree: Social Psychology
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This can, to a large extent, be explained by the fact that the different theories deal at different levels of generality. Cattell for example, deals at primary factor level (gives more detailed picture of personality, but reliability and separaility is questionable). Eysenck in contrast, deals on a second order level. Cattels 16 factors or traits are intercorrelated, they can be further factor analyzed. When they are factor analysed, Eysenck's 2 traits appear as superfactors. A description of personality in which more factors or traits are used will produce a more differentiated description of personality in which less distinctions are lost,
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This essay will discuss sociological research and theories that offer the potential for advising people on aspects of creating and sustaining satisfying relationships across a number of perspectives and evaluate the evidence provided.
It has at its core the assumption that change is possible in individuals, relationships and society. It relates directly to our personal lives since it provides us with insights into ourselves and others and suggests goals towards which we may strive. It offers us a way to get in touch with our own feelings and enhance the quality of our personal and intimate relationships. The experience of existential isolation generates profound anxiety from which all of us seek to escape (Fromm 1957 cited in Miell and Dallos 2002)
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"Childhood and adolescence were regarded as two sides of the same coin" (Dubasa et al, 2003). The first person to determine a difference between the two was Rousseau. Rousseau described it adolescence as "A change in humour, frequent anger, a mind in constant agitation, makes the child almost unmanageable. His feverishness turns him into a lion. He disregards his guide; he no longer wishes to be governed." (Rousseau, 1911) Psychologists of that time agreed with Rousseau's ideas and in 1904, influenced by the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin, G.
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Both historic and current research indicates that the notion of attachment may be driven by the influence of fundamental mechanisms that exist within the active phases of our early attachment to others. It is suggested that such primary attachment tendencies, between an infant and its primary care giver, are strong determinants of romantic attachment styles occurring much later; such as those evident between a fully developed adult and his/her chosen significant other. Upon research evidence supporting the basis of this theoretical correlation, it will be argued that the attachment style a child forms with its parents will later determine and significantly entail the pattern of their adult romantic relationships and how such relationships are mediated.
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Research supports that there is an association between anxiety, negative bias, and the reduced processing of social cues (Clark & McManus, 2002). Those with social phobia tend to focus on negative mental imagery that they have accumulated from experience and they tend to recall this when in social situations with similar cues, leading them to focus on images that are not really there, but rather just a recollection of the past (Hirsch & Holmes, 2007). Further, in the presence of ambiguous situations, there is a tendency for social phobia individuals to evaluate these as negative events, given that they are involved in the situation (Clark, 2001).
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Explain, with examples, how the processes of natural selection and s****l selection are thought to have contributed to modern-day human behaviour
One phrase which is used in conjunction with natural selection is 'survival of the fittest' (Clegg, 2007). An example why could be; an individual possessing a behavioural trait which enabled him to survive the most effectively in his environment. This would give him the probability of a longer lifespan than his counterparts and so potentially more time to reproduce and therefore pass on that particular behavioural trait to his offspring. Hence the phrase 'survival of the fittest' as addressing the reproductive success of a gene or the ability to pass on copies of this gene as opposed to the physical interpretation of the word 'fittest'.
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Investigation of the Effect of Bystander Behaviour on Helping Behaviour in a Non-Emergency Situation
wondered why people were unwilling to offer assistance in emergencies when they were quite happy to help in non-emergencies. They suggested a five-step model explaining what a bystander must do in order to help. Stage 1. Recognise that an event is occurring. Stage 2. Interpret the event as an emergency. Stage 3. Decide that he or she has a personal responsibility to help. Stage 4. Consider what form of help he or she can give. Stage 5. Execute the helping response. Helping behaviour is action that is intended to assist or benefit another person. This study is most concerned with Latane and Darley's Stage 3.
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A Discussion of the Foremost Factors influencing Efficacy of Punishment and its Success in Animal, Children and Criminal Studies.
However, some studies successful in animals have been further developed into human subjects to test a more precise efficacy factor, such that conducted by Aronfreed (1968) in children and by Sherman (1993) in criminals. Several parameters need to be considered for punishment to be successfully applied to produce maximal efficacy. This essay will explore the factors of history, conditioned stimulus, schedule, magnitude, immediacy, and generalization, as well as the side effects of punishment in animal and human studies. Furthermore, studies in criminals will be compared as a separate entity to further conclude in whether punishment is a valid option.
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John and Janice (2001) define that "observation learning involves the learning of new behavior. When an observer sees a model do a behavior that the observer has never done, the observer may learn how to do the behavior merely by watching." For an example, we queued up for the bus in Hong Kong as we observe other were queued up for the bus. People can learn a great deal activity by observing other. The operant conditioning focus on the frequency of behavior change by reinforcement or punishment, but the observational learning focus on subject act the new behavior by observing other.
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This study will establish if first impressions of specific personality traits extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness and openness to experience have consensus between two strangers using a thin slice approach.
Participants were also given an intelligence test to complete. Judges were then shown the videotapes of the participant some with audio and some without and were asked to provide ratings on each individuals personality and intelligence. The results replicate other findings (Albright, Kenny, & Malloy 1988, Borkenau & Liebler 1992) suggesting that stranger agreement is quite accurate in rating others individual personalities and intelligence. Carney, Colvin and Hall (2007) also examined how accurate first impressions were using a thin slice approach (5 seconds to 5 minutes)
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Critically evaluate how psychological theories, concepts and evaluations have been employed forensic area of applied psychology covered in the module
s****l offenders provide an example to support this. The treatment of such offenders has become a priority in recent years as evidence shows a dramatic 50% increase in the decade 1980-90 of these types of crime (Fisher and Beech, 1999). It is a serious social problem and a long term issue and cannot be tackled by incarceration alone. Freud and his psychodynamic theories deemed s*x offenders untreatable, but developments have resulted in cognitive and behavioural treatment programmes that are proven to reduce recidivism (Hanson et al, 2002).
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Social perception, impression formation and the utilisation of schemas applied in the context of Hong Kongs new found slimming culture.
This can be applied to explain the sudden emergence of a "slimming culture" in Hong Kong. With advertisements scattered throughout the city, they arrogate the use of various slimming products and services and seem to be gaining support and recognition as more companies start to emerge. Mainly targeting the female population, due to factors such as modern globalisation, what used to be typically a Western pattern of body dissatisfaction, is now becoming more and more prevalent in the Hong Kong population. (Lee, 2001) This factor is central to the success and spread of this new found slimming culture.
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In their attempts to transcend the individual-society dualism in understandings of the self, how successful have the social psychoanalytic and phenomenological perspectives been?
The first set of binary terms that seem to oppose one another regard the question of whether the locus of self lies in unconscious motivations or conscious awareness. Phenomenologist's make no attempt to merge these aspects together predominantly due to their ontology who view individuals as self-conscious, embodied active meaning makers (Holloway, 2007). However social psychoanalytic perspectives, although largely weighted on the unconscious side, do nevertheless give a place to unconsciousness; at the surface of the self. Holloway and Jefferson's (2005, cited in Holloway, 2007)
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Studies have shown the numerous effects that punishment has on people. This essay will explore the two different types of punishment; aversive and response cost (Passer & Smith) and their uses in different contexts such as punishment in schools, in society and in the home. It will also analysis the effectiveness of punishment as researched in studies. In doing this, the question must be explored of whether or not reinforcement is the best way for increasing a response, or if punishment has the same effect on behaviour (Vogel-Sprott, 1969). What is punishment?
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This is that punishment is used in order to cease a particular behaviour that is unwanted. This essay will explore what punishment actually is and how it is used in contexts such as everyday society, in the home, and in school. The effectiveness of punishment will also be covered and analysed in terms of whether it really is the best method in ceasing undesirable behaviours. What is punishment? Punishment has been defined as "an environmental change contingent on behaviour that produces a decrease in responding over time" (Michael, 1993, as cited in Lerman & Vorndram, 2002)
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literally like a skeleton 20 (2.0) Cli draws attention away from the idea of body perception (line 1) by stated that the face is what is most "attractive" in a girl which suggests that a woman's body size is not the only important factor in the perceptive attractiveness of a female. Cli's speech is overlapped by Jef (line 3) who utters "m:::m" which appears to suggest that he is agreeing with Cli's view but then uses the discourse marker "but" (line 5)
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In what ways have the traditional assumptions and approaches of scientific psychology been questioned, and what is replacing these in current practice?
Objectivity in this sense is encapsulated in Comte's philosophy of positivism (Bem & de Jong, 1997). Comte suggested that in order for humankind to arrive at 'positive truths' about the world (truths that are distinct from theological or metaphysical truths; pseudoscience), scientific exploration, the objective collection of data and the judgement of facts would be necessary. Positivism argued that all sciences should depend upon the same methods for discovering positive truths about the world and asserted that there should be no significant differences between sciences such as physics, biology, chemistry and psychology.
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Critically review studies that have been published in the last 15 years, where impulsivity has been considered a factor in the explanation of criminal behaviour.
Another definition by Feldman (1996) describes impulsivity as "the tendency to act with less forethought than other individuals of equal ability and knowledge". This is a variation of the first definition and is a little more complex. Feldman is obviously trying to define impulsivity in a negative way, indicating that decisions made on impulse are rash; however this is not necessarily always true. In some situations people can act on impulse with the yield of positive results or at least results that are not of major detriment .E.g.
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Tony Montana, a case study of the effectiveness of Sigmund Freud(TM)s Psychoanalytic approach to personality(TM)
He himself wanted to become famous and believed researching medicine could help him to achieve this. However Freud could not afford to continue in research so established a private practice as a clinical neurologist. From this he realised he could make great discoveries and perhaps fame through his revolutionary ideas on human personality. All subsequent theories of personality use Freud as a reference point to compare and contrast their own such theories (Liebert & Langenbach 2007). To understand Freud's theory of personality we must start by looking at how he divides personality into three categories; the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious.
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Research into age as an influential factor on sentence severity has been scarce and what little research that has been done, has focused on the age of the juror as a contributing factor. Hepburn (1980) and Sealy (1981) 1 both found that the age of jurors strongly correlated with their verdicts and, older jurors were more likely to render a guilty verdict than younger ones. Sealy (1981), in particular, found that jurors age 25 and under were more likely to render a not guilty verdict than jurors over age 41 and over.
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This can result in poor candidate selection, as the criteria applied may not reflect the scope of the job. There are a wide variety of selection criteria available to employers today. The method used is dictated as much by tradition and personal preference, as the reliability and validity of the technique. The validity refers to the extent to which the selection method provides a prediction of future job performance. Robertson & Smith (2001) report work sample tests as the single predictor of performance with validity 0.54, closely followed by cognitive ability and structured interview.
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Without the option to easily infer information otherwise unavailable so quickly, it would be impossible for anyone to be able to interpret the sheer diversity of people and objects surrounding us. Unfortunately, this causes us to go past the realms of objectivity, possibly making inaccurate judgements based on a very minor superficial factor. The stereotyping process is greatly affected by the person's inward motivation (Hilton and Von Hippel, 1996) as they will strive to alleviate social awkwardness caused by uncertainty about people whom the subject has never met, thus relying on stereotypes to do so.
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However, contrary to this claim, the results this experiment generated surpassed even Milgram's expectations. Originally, rather than aiming to produce a theory of obedience, his plans were to test the idea that German people were different from others and would be much more likely to follow commands from an authority figure as this was the argument commonly used to explain how normal German people could have carried out the atrocities of the n**i's in World War II. The experiment was conducted in America at first, and Milgram had plans to repeat it in Germany, but as the results showed phenomenally high levels of obedience in American people he no longer saw this comparison as necessary.
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In Reed's view, feminists are pointed to the inequality inherent in these structures which re-created gender at the work place and called for radical measures to alter existing structures to alleviate the subordination of women. Others sought to identify the sources of change within existing management frameworks that policy-makers could work on to address the issues for the optimal use of human resources. For instance, Kanter's (1977) pioneering study on women in a male-dominated organization examined how women's mobility within the organization could be facilitated by policies which addressed their lack of negotiating power via structures of opportunity, power and numerical composition.
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The experiential perspective combines humanistic notions of autonomy with the existential quest for self-definition. Autonomy requires that the person has alternatives to choose from, that they are able to reflect upon those alternatives and commit to one of them. At the level of action, to achieve authenticity they must also take responsibility for their choices and be accountable to others for their actions. We undoubtedly do define ourselves by our actions but a more interesting aspect of self-definition is our capacity to choose how we perceive ourselves. James (1890) refers to the mind as a "Theatre of simultaneous possibilities" (in Stevens, 1996, p156), and since consciousness involves the ability to selectively attend to those possibilities, our experience of reality is self-determined.
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