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University Degree: Social Psychology

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  1. Literature Review - How exactly do couples that have arranged marriages get to meet each other and get married? Do arranged marriages work out better than love marriages?

    Are Indian marriages made in heaven? There have been many misconceptions about arranged marriages that should change. Some examples of misconceptions are that the couples do not meet until their wedding day, that arranged marriages end up in violence, that arranged marriages are considered anachronisms, and that arranged marriages are a violation of human rights. Literature Review Alvarez, L. "Arranged Marriages Get a Little Rearranging." The New York Times. Detroit: Gale, 2003. A3. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Thomson Gale. Ashford University. 1 Sept. 2010 <http://www.galenet.galegroup.com/>. Lizette Alvarez who is a New York Times writer and Yoga stretch columnist wrote this article.

    • Word count: 4648
  2. Life coaching course essay. I present in this essay an understanding of what motivation is and the importance of understanding and clarifying what motivates the client, in order to empower the client through the coaching relationship to attain what they w

    In this essay I examine the way we often live our lives trying to satisfy other people and live in accordance with what we believe we "should" do in life. When we live like this we are de motivated because we are not fulfilling what we need and want. I present in this essay an understanding of what motivation is and the importance of understanding and clarifying what motivates the client, in order to empower the client through the coaching relationship to attain what they want in their life.

    • Word count: 3599
  3. Following a critical evaluation of a range of examples from the literature, what advice could you give the Government about the possible factors that influence peoples happiness and experience of pleasure?

    Nature has been found to play an influential role on people's mood states. Orians (1980, 1986) developed the notion of the savannah hypothesis. This hypothesises that due to natural selection, humans have developed a preference to explore and settle in environments rich with resources that are necessary for survival and not to settle in environments which may pose a risk to survival. Kaplan & Kaplan (1992) conducted a cross cultural investigation into preferences of natural scenes and found that when a scene included trees and vegetation it was preferred over natural scenes which did not contain these elements.

    • Word count: 3435
  4. Repressed memories are a figment of the imagination -critically discuss

    Zur (2007) states that families have disintegrated as adult women have accused their parents of being guilty of causing s****l and other assaults on them as children and the very nature of memory is at the centre of this debate as the question is whether memories are fixed like concrete or are pliable like putty. The whole theory of repressed memory was addressed by Freud (1915-18) and he stated that some memories become difficult to get to as a result of repression and that unconscious processes are used that makes sure that menacing or stress-causing memories are kept from our conscious understanding.

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  5. Explain the importance of team building, the stages in the development of team cohesion and analyse the impact of good and poor team cohesion on the British Army, with reference to relevant theorists.

    who will lead and who will follow. Such roles have been classified by Dr. Meredith Belbin who identifies nine roles that team members may fall into. Such roles are usually assigned during the storming stage and will be discussed further on in this paper. Whilst still at the forming stage, the team has little guidance and direction and is characterised by a great deal of uncertainty about the group's purpose, structure and leadership. The team may still be seen as a collection of individuals and one could argue that it is not a team at all.

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  6. Is there really such thing as Stockholm syndrome? The term Stockholm syndrome can be seen as a psychological shift when a captor portrays acts of kindness to their hostage that the hostage deems hospitable

    The fact that the acts of kindness occur encourage sympathy and the longer the period of time this continues the greater the bond becomes (this can sometimes even lead to a s****l interest). Psychiatrist Frank Ochberg was the first professional to define 'Stockholm syndrome': he stated that it is "a primitive gratitude for the gift of life," not unlike that felt by an infant.[2]. It could be argued that he is expressing how like a child the individual is vulnerable thus very dependant.

    • Word count: 4179
  7. Multiple Sclerosis: Functional History (Department of Psychology - University of Liverpool)

    It will use case studies, personal narratives and other relevant literature to evaluate the implications of such symptoms. Second, it will briefly consider the psychological history behind the disability with reference to the Disability Rights Movement in America. Third, the paper will relate the original limitations and symptoms discussed to psychological concerns and affects, coping strategies employed etc. Lastly, the symptoms of MS will be considered from a broader social perspective. Societal attitudes towards the disability and collective symptom management will be included to consolidate the arguments put forward.

    • Word count: 5692
  8. Worplace Bullying

    This increased anonymity and decreased reliance on others has reduced the feeling to treat strangers and acquaintances with courtesy and respect (Estes & w**g, 2008). Linking Incivility and Workplace Bullying Defining Incivility Workplace incivility is defined as "low intensity deviant behavior with ambiguous intent, in violation of workplace norms for mutual respect. Uncivil behaviors are characteristically rude and discourteous, displaying a lack of regard for others" (Estes & w**g, 2008). Bullying, on the other hand, is defined as a form of hostile, negative social interaction that is repetitive, patterned and ongoing, yet unwanted and unsolicited.

    • Word count: 3165
  9. self esteem and personality factors

    Various researchers have proposed the idea of self esteem being a crucial factor in the progression of personality processes. In theory low self esteem results in low self confidence and hence decreased activity in social situations, which results in an individual becoming more introverted. This suggests that individuals beliefs regarding themselves influences their behaviour and actions in various situations with a pronounced effect on personality style (as cited in Robins et al. (2001). It seems plausible; therefore, that personality will vary according to self esteem beliefs. Numerous theories and research have supported this notion establishing a link between the FFM and self esteem with research from Robins et al.

    • Word count: 3801
  10. Research report on friendship

    Sharabany (1994) structured the concept of 'close friendship' into the following eight dimensions: Frankness and Spontaneity; Sensitivity and Knowing; Attachment; Exclusiveness; Giving and Sharing; Imposition; Common Activities; Trust and Loyalty. Selman and Jaquette (1977, cited in Strayer & Roberts, 2004) suggested a five stage model of adolescents' and adults' understanding of friendship that linked to stages of perspective-taking abilities. In late adolescence and early adulthood an autonomous interdependency characterized the friendship in which friendships were regarded, still important but the need for other relationships was accepted.

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  11. juvenile conflict with law

    One is purely legalistic that aims at restricting the quantification of the problem by putting specific qualification and does not draw a distinction between Juvenile Delinquency and Juvenile Crime. Other is the social approach that aims at conducting a symptom and diagnostic study and believes in the axiom of "catch them young" to prevent the Juveniles from actually committing a crime. It is being increasing recognised that the children are the most vulnerable group in any population and need special care and protection.

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  12. Personality Correlates (Aggression and Impulsivity) and their Predictive Ability to Self-Report Delinquency

    Society needs to acknowledge that adolescent crime and violence may be more multifaceted than popularised media reports suggest (Mak, Heaven, & Rummery, 2001). For years, criminologists and other professionals have maintained a socialization-based theory behind delinquent activities (Rivera and Widom, 1990; Farrington, 1989; Widom, 1996 cited in Sigurdsson, Gudjonsson & Peersen, 2001). These suggest that criminal behaviour may be a result of unemployment, r****m, poor housing, education and other socio-economic factors (Slayton, Kern & Curlette, 2000). Nevertheless, although different learning patterns may be an important source of the individual differences in moral behaviour that are found, it is also possible that these may associate with certain "personality dispositions" (Rushton & Chrisjohn, 1981).

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  13. The Mertonian Principles Revised: Can the Normative Structure of SciencePrevent Fraud?

    many years, scientific fraud as defined above was not perceived as an issue of concern, given that the normative structure of science would make such acts unlikely. This view was most clearly articulated by Robert K. Merton4, who understood the institutional goal of science as being the "extension of certified knowledge" and outlined four norms that he saw central to this pursuit. Universalism, as he maintained, implies that the validity and truth of scientific statements be totally separated from the personal characteristics of the one who initiates them.

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  14. "Discuss the main tenets of the labelling perspective on crime and deviance. Also consider the limitations and the implications for policy that might be derived from this approach".

    and be negatively stereotyped categorically, the individual lives up to the label and commences a criminal lifestyle. This is known as a self-fulfilling prophecy. The individual is labelled as deviant so much so that he/she begins to believe that they actually are so. (www.crimetheory.com/learning/) For example, Cicourel and Kitsuse conducted a study in 1971 of student counsellors in an American high school. The counsellors had a major role to play in the success of students as they ultimately decided which students should be placed on various different college courses.

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  15. Assess media violence in the world's media.

    "The development of the brain when you play the violent video games and the impact on the wiring of the brain when you play the violent video games is stunning. It's totally different from any other medium. Instead of being the passive receiver of human death and suffering, now you actively inflict it upon another human being. What we've got is an industry selling a product that they themselves say is for adults only. You've got a society that wants to treat that product like you would tobacco or alcohol or guns or cars or s*x."

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  16. Comparing the portrayal of violence and aggression in Masse Mensch (Ernst Toller), Mario and der Zauberer (Thomas Mann) and Im Westen Nicht Neues (Erich Maria Remarque).

    In contrast to the success enjoyed by Mussolini by the 'March on Rome', the attempt by Hitler and his National Socialists (NSDAP) to emulated he Italian example with their so called 'Munich putsch', which ended in failure, and led to the imprisonment of Hitler. However, like the fascists in Italy, the National Socialists had gained support in the immediate aftermath of the war. Completely demoralized, and the sheer anger at the country's defeat and humiliation, National Socialism soon gained momentum.

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  17. The more violence is watched by children, the more they may become less sensitive to the pain and sufferings of others and the more likely they will behave aggressively or harmful towards others.

    were encouraging children to drop heavy things on their friends and schoolmates (Easterbrook, 1999:1). It seems that television is the root of what is wrong in our world and always has been. Violence in the media has increased since the 1980's and continues to increase (Smith, 1996:34). By the time the average child (i.e. one who watches two to four hours of television daily) leaves elementary school, he or she will have witnessed at least 8,000 murders and more than 100,000 other assorted acts of violence on television (Smith, 1996:34).

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  18. How has psychological research and theory helped explain EITHER s*x offending OR violent offending? Is there any evidence that these serious offenders on release can lead law-abiding lives?

    Such low reporting supports the notion that s*x offending is as Kauffman suggests 'embedded in intergenerational social and family structures' proposed by Kauffman (1988, cited in Perkins, Hammond, Coles and Bishopp, 1998, p 4). It also emphasises a vast underestimation of the true prevalence of such offences. Thus, a worryingly high percentage of juvenile rates of s*x offending, and underestimations of rates of offending, in addition to the persistent nature of child molestation (Ward and Hudson, 2001), highlights a need for comprehensive understanding, assessment and treatment of such offenders.

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  19. How does the media represent crimes such as paedophilia and do shows such as Chris Morris' 'Brass Eye' illustrate a need for change in the way crime news is presented to society?

    The way the media portrays many subjects has been recognised as being disproportional to reality. Recently people who are in an influential position have tried to express their feelings on this subject, most recently the Black Eyed Peas music group released some lyrics to a song that reached the number one spot: 'Wrong information always shown by the media, negative images is the main criteria, infecting these young minds faster than bacteria, kids wana act like what they see in the cinema.' This is a useful way of expressing the point of the media sensationalising certain criminal activities as it is heard through a variety of audiences.

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  20. With reference to the scientific literature in the field, discuss the psychological perspective of the advantages and disadvantages of using the Control Question Test, associated with the polygraph, for judging the credibility of suspects?

    However, Saxe (1991) argued that a physical change typical for lying does not exist. In general, it is not possible to differentiate between emotions by psychophysiological reactions. For instance, conceptually distinctive emotions such as anger, fear, shame or guilt all result in similar physical reactions, and thus, all these emotions will give a similar output on the polygraph charts. Thus, any conclusion about lying is inference. Some issues raised by polygraph are controversial. One such issue is whether the polygraph is a genuine scientifically based application, or merely a purported application of psychophysiology.

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  21. Sociological Methodology

    Questionnaires can either be given to people to take away and answer or asked by me and answered n the spot. There are advantages and disadvantages with both. If the questionnaires are taken away, some would never be returned and I would inevitably lose some this way. Also, people read questions differently and so, if they read them themselves, I may receive different responses because the question is being read in a different way. However the advantage of this is that people are more likely to be honest when answering alone and anonymously, especially young girls who from my hypothesis I am assuming are easily influenced.

    • Word count: 7267
  22. A Critical Appraisal of the Concept of Medicalization for Understanding Dementia.

    Mechanic (1978) wrote that medicalization involved professionals widening their domain to include areas where they have little special knowledge or competence. Lastly, Navarro (1976) has argued that medicalization is a means of social control that serves the interest of powerful groups in society such as the ruling capitalist class. Therefore, medicalization consists of defining a problem in medical terms, using medical language to describe a problem, adopting a medical framework to understand a problem or using a medical intervention to treat it.

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    Recent calls for, and poles which have looked at, whether the British police should be armed, should make note of the negative effects that this may have on police-public relations. Empirical research conducted by Boyanowsky and Griffiths (1982) found that officers, who were wearing sunglasses and carrying a firearm openly, whilst issuing a traffic ticket or conducting a roadside check, were perceived more negatively. In fact, the motorists who were informed that they would be receiving a ticket expressed the most anger on their faces and reported more aggression from the officer.

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  24. Perspectives on Authoritarianism.

    The director of the Institute was Max Horkheimer, who led the studies on the political outlook in Germany. The Institute's research concluded that a significant number of the German working class were highly authoritarian (Horkheimer, et. al 1936). The day after Hitler came into power, Horkheimer and other members of the institute immediately moved their work and homes to Switzerland because they could see the implications of what was happening before other German intellectuals were able to. The institute staff deduced that Hitler would stay in power and have no effective opposition from German labor, based on their research findings.

    • Word count: 4036
  25. Genetic and environmental influence in human development.&#133;. Discuss.

    They will look at the effect of such experiences on the way the individual perceives themselves and the world around them and will ultimately try to find the reasons behind the crime. This is exactly the same as when a sufferer of schizophrenia has bouts of serious depression or violence, or a fear of spiders is analysed. It is strongly believed that the heart of these problems lie in events that occurred during childhood development and that to help the sufferer deal with the trauma will lead to some form of recovery or even an eradication of the symptoms.

    • Word count: 3496

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Compare and Contrast the Processes Involved in Majority and Minority Social Influence.

    "To conclude, people are influenced by the majority so they can be right and make a good impression on others. Minorities influence with consistency, both over time which is called diachronic consistency and with each other or synchronic consistency. A consistent minority is effective because it is coherent, it disturbs the group norm(s) by creating conflict and it has an innovative impact. Those who can do this have an envied talent."

  • Evaluate The Influence Of Nature And Nurture On The Development Of Aggression

    "In conclusion, the fact that modern humans are much more aggressive than their ancestors shows that environment and upbringing definitely effect levels of human aggression. In the modern world, factors such as "influence of media, smoke, noise pollution, air pollution, abusive parenting, overcrowding, heat, and even atmospheric electricity" can lend a hand in aggravating the aggressiveness in humans. Behaviourists generally view aggression as a set of acquired behaviours and attach less emphasis on biological determinants. These scientists commonly apply the "principles of social learning theory" when addressing aggression. People tend to vary their views on nature versus nurture. They are ready to accept that it is genes that cause diseases and cancer, even obesity and homosexuality. Of course, this takes the blame off of human lifestyle. If it is written into their genes, there is nothing they can do about it. However, the public tends to favour the nurture side of the argument when it breaches sensitive topics such as aggression or intelligence."

  • "Only a critical political economy approach can adequately explain how the media work today". Discuss the pros and cons of this statement, with reference to the following sector of modern media: Advertising.

    "CONCLUSION Though the statement holds a considerable amount of weight, we have to acknowledge that advertising is largely responsible for a critical connection between economics, society, politics, and culture that is at the center of important social issues. The power of advertising is therefore complex: it is a communicator in a "new symbolic environment" which 'moulds' consumption, as well as the form and content of media, politics, perception and behavior. "Consumer capitalism" is unthinkable without its advertising and marketing tools, and advertising really can only be comprehended within the framework of modern free enterprise. Only a "multi-faceted social theory" which merges historical, political, cultural, psychological, economic, and ideological analysis can be capable of providing an important theory of advertising which identifies its social effects from a critical viewpoint that can specify exactly how advertising harms the foundations of social, political, and cultural life."

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