Yawning through technical mediums. The object of the experiment was to see if yawns could be induced through a designed video
YAWNING THROUGH TECHNICAL MEDIUMS Yawning Through Technical Mediums with the Aid of Creating a Yawn Inducing Video Christopher Jacob Clemson University Abstract Yawning is a natural phenomenon with very few, if any explanations at all. The object of the experiment was to see if yawns could be induced through a designed video thought necessary on making participants yawn. There were three different control groups/technical mediums that were chosen to induce yawns from participants. These consist of: 1.) the video shown with only the visual component 2.) The video heard with only the audio component 3.) The video delivered with both audio and visual components. The average value of yawns was recorded and compared for each control group. Results showed that the two control groups with visual mediums scored greater means of yawns than the lone auditory medium. This experiment attempted to observe differences between yawning in technical mediums while also creating a video necessary to induce yawns. Literature Review Yawning is a natural habit that every person experiences. However, the science behind yawning is still unknown and still lacks concrete research to explain its occurrence (Sarnecki, 2008). Several theories have developed over time to explain why people yawn, but no evidence has sufficed to
Literature Review - How exactly do couples that have arranged marriages get to meet each other and get married? Do arranged marriages work out better than love marriages?
Arranged Marriages, Matchmakers, and Personal Ads Sirisha Jala PSY 325: Statistics for the Behavioral & Social Sciences Donna Wall March 28th 2011 Arranged Marriages, Matchmakers, and Personal Ads Introduction The chosen issue is arranged marriages, matchmakers, and personal ads. It was selected due to personal reasons of being an Indian female of marriageable age and soon to be, one of subjects written about in these studies of arranged marriages. The perspective of this approach is that arranged marriages last longer and arranged marriages are the typical Indian family affair, love marriages can last for a long time but people fall out of love and get divorced, arranged marriages have changed to adapt to the 21st Century of Internet, and nowadays, in arranged marriages the children choose whom they marry but the parents have to meet the choice. The scope of this paper attempts to understand why arranged marriages have been more stable in India and other Asian countries than love marriages in the Western world, together with the advantages and disadvantages of this approach to marriage. Statement of the Problem How exactly do couples that have arranged marriages get to meet each other and get married? Do arranged marriages work out better than love marriages? Many people think that arranged marriages actually do work out better than love marriages do. Many people
Comparing the portrayal of violence and aggression in Masse Mensch (Ernst Toller), Mario and der Zauberer (Thomas Mann) and Im Westen Nicht Neues (Erich Maria Remarque).
Comparing the portrayal of violence and aggression in Masse Mensch (Ernst Toller), Mario and der Zauberer (Thomas Mann) and Im Westen Nicht Neues (Erich Maria Remarque) Masse Mensch (1920), Mario und der Zauberer (1930) and Im Westen Nicht Neues (1929) were all published at significant times in German history, which is part of the reason their success was so profound. Masse Mensch, by Ernst Toller, was published in 1920, shortly after the First World War, and during a time when the liberal Weimar Republic regime was in place and ruled Germany at the time. A time when there were many struggles that affected society, two of the most prominent which the novel highlights are firstly the struggle of ethics versus politics, which brings out the second, namely the free will of individuality versus mob psychology. Masse Mensch is, as the title suggests, about the antithesis between human beings considered collectively 'in the mass,' and as individuals. The play's protagonist is a woman whose efforts to lead a strike of workers are challenged by another character who insists upon the necessity for violence. It is a conflict which figured strongly in Toller's own life, where the passion for a cause was forever colliding with an equally strong compassion for the individual. Im Westen Nicht Neues, by Erich Maria Remarque was published in 1929, a time when the idea of war novels was
In half of the reported cases of domestic violence it was found that both spouses were violent, it just tended to be that one person was considerably stronger than the other.(3) Aggressive behavior has been a huge part of humankind since people
Aggression is a critical part of animal existence, which is an inherent driving force to humans, as we, too, are animals. The source of aggression within humans is a long summative list, but before trying to understand its source one must apply a working definition of aggression. Encyclopedia Britannica as any action of an animal that serves to injure an opponent or prey animal or to cause an opponent to retreat defines aggressive behavior. (7) David G. Myers states that aggression is any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy. (9) There are many types of aggressive behaviors, which can be differentiated from the factual act to the hidden motives. For example, an aggressive behavior can be negative or positive, accidental or intended, and physical or mental. Aggression can take numerous forms, the act of hitting a wall to release aggression has some of the same roots as playing football and enjoying hitting the quarterback. A child yelling at his parents could be equated, in its aggressiveness, with hitting one's horn when one is cut off on 495. Aggression is also a relative construct. What might seem like a terribly aggressive act to one person, most often the victim, might seem like an induced response to the perpetrator. (3) Psychologist Arlene Stillwell performed an experiment where she assigned ordinary college students at random to play the role of a
A Critical Appraisal of the Concept of Medicalization for Understanding Dementia The aim of this paper is to critically appraise the use of the concept of medicalization, as used by sociologists to examine dementia. It will examine medicalization and dementia and the association between the two. Three papers that have used medicalization to understand and explain dementia will be examined. The papers will be critically appraised on the strengths and limitations of the author's application of the concept. The study will use the arguments raised in the three papers to conclude whether the concept of medicalization can be used to understand dementia. Sociologists have been concerned with medicalization for over three decades. The earliest mention focused on the medicalization of deviance (Pitts 1968). However, sociologists soon saw the concept's applicability to a wide range of human problems that had entered into medical jurisdiction (Friedson 1970; Zola 1972; Illich 1976). Medicalization simply describes a process by which non-medical problems become defined and treated as medical problems, usually in terms of illnesses or disorders. Although the literal meaning of the phrase is 'to make medical', it has most frequently been used in the context of a critique of medicalization. While sociologists have
Is there really such thing as Stockholm syndrome? The term Stockholm syndrome can be seen as a psychological shift when a captor portrays acts of kindness to their hostage that the hostage deems hospitable
Word Count excluding references: 3928 Is there really such thing as Stockholm,what is its past and how does it affect our world? In psychology, Stockholm syndrome is a term used to describe a paradoxical psychological phenomenon wherein hostages express adulation and have positive feelings towards their captors that appear irrational in light of the danger or risk endured by the victims.  Psychiatrist Nils Bejerot expressed what we know as 'Stockholm syndrome' in a news broadcast after assisting police in 1973 with their enquiries in Normalmsmorg in Stockholm where a group of people were held captive in a bank. The hostages were held captive from August 23 to August 28, 1973. During this period the hostages became emotionally attached to their captors and when they were released defended their captors in a way that could be deemed as both irrational and inappropriate to an average individual. For example in 1934 Mary McElroy was kidnapped and held ransom, she was released unharmed yet when released defended her captors in court after they were given harsh sentences (including a death sentence). She said that the experience had been a positive one and that she felt no damage from the incident which occurred. Reports however stated that she suffered great grief and guilt which compromised her mental and physical health: because of this in 1940 she took her own life. 
Perspectives on Authoritarianism Melisa Miller April 25, 2004 Theories exploring the dynamics and origins of authoritarianism have been formulated since the 1930's. Since the world started to experience the effects of totalitarian leadership during World War II, psychologists have been trying to test and explain the reasons behind this kind of extreme leadership and the blind obedience that supports it. The study of authoritarianism has developed along the lines that the study of psychology itself has developed: from psychoanalytic theory influenced by Freud, through social learning theory influenced by Bandura and cognitive theory put forth by Rokeach, through developmental explanations influenced by Erikson, to evolutionary and genetic theories developed in recent decades. It is my contention that there is some element of truth in all of these explanations of authoritarianism and an integral theory has yet to be proposed for this phenomenon. Authoritarianism continues to be a subject of extensive study in the realm of social psychology today. The methodology used to study it has seen vast improvements over the past fifty years as a result of the variety of perspectives that this subject has been examined from. One of the first psychologists to examine authoritarianism was Wilhelm Reich in 1933 with the publication of his book entitled Mass Psychology of Fascism.
The more violence is watched by children, the more they may become less sensitive to the pain and sufferings of others and the more likely they will behave aggressively or harmful towards others.
The more violence is watched by children, the more they may become less sensitive to the pain and sufferings of others and the more likely they will behave aggressively or harmful towards others. The effects of violence shown on television towards children may vary depending on the child's age group, how much television they watch each day and their reactions to what they have been watching. What children see, they tend to imitate. And what they see on both broadcast and cable television is violence, real and stimulated (Arnow, 1995:12). There is a strong correlation between the viewing of violent images and aggressive behaviour among children. The more a child is exposed to violence on television, there is a greater chance it will have a long lasting effect on their behaviour (Arnow, 1995:12). The impact of television on children is easily understood because most infants have the desire and capacity to imitate adult behaviour (Arnow, 1995:14). Young children tend to mirror adult facial expressions and behaviours. As the child becomes a toddler, they are incapable of distinguishing reality from fantasy on television. Parents should continually remind their children that television is not real life (Luke, 1988:124). Violent television shows; such as wrestling are making kids fight more on the playgrounds and making society generally a more violent place to
How does the media represent crimes such as paedophilia and do shows such as Chris Morris' 'Brass Eye' illustrate a need for change in the way crime news is presented to society?
How does the media represent crimes such as paedophilia and do shows such as Chris Morris' 'Brass Eye' illustrate a need for change in the way crime news is presented to society? Society is in continual need of being aware of what is going on around them. The most common and what is widely agreed to be the most useful source, is the media. Whether this medium gives a continuously fair representation of the world's events is a subject, which has been much debated, in the criminological sphere. Crime and Criminal Justice has been the main subject of the media for an extremely long time. Reiner et al.'s historical study of two British newspapers since the Second World War found that homicide was by far the most common type of crime reported, accounting for about one-third of all crime news stories throughout the period. Studies conducted in the 1990's continued to show the same pattern of over representation of violent and interpersonal (especially sex) crimes. (Chiricos et al, (1997) as cited in Oxford handbook of criminology p.384 (2002). The media has a huge influential power therefore having the ability to control the way society thinks and perceives a given subject. We are a media nation. The time spent watching television, films, video and audio recordings, radio program's, video games, the Internet, newspapers and magazines makes the media virtually unavoidable. Most
IN THE PAST, SCIENCE HAS been commonly associated with the pursuit of truth in a controlled and honest manner. For this reason, the existence of fraud within the scientific craft has been largely ignored, partly owing to its assumed non-existence, but also because it was traditionally maintained that the normative structure of science possessed inherent mechanisms to prevent deviant acts in scientific inquiry. The present essay calls this assumption into question and investigates the extent to which the structure of science averts scientific misconduct. To achieve this goal, the study starts by defining scientific fraud and then scrutinizes the idealistic conceptualizations of the normative structure of science in order to determine whether these are presently applicable or not. Finally, the paper addresses several potential motivational factors leading scientists to commit fraud and demonstrates that certain aspects of the scientific structure rather than the individual make such acts possible or even likely. Although a precise definition is lacking, by scientific fraud we understand an act of deception whereby one's work or the work of others is consciously and intentionally misrepresented. It belongs to the wider category of scientific misconduct, defined as deviation from accepted ethical practices for proposing, conducting, and reporting research.1 Scientific fraud may