Debbie Spicer Aggression Gill (1966) proposed that aggression has several features: * It is a behaviour: actually doing something not just wanting to do it. * It involves harm or an injury to another living organism: it can either be physical harm or psychological harm such as creating fear in an opponent. * It involves intent and is not done by accident Baron stated that 'aggression is any form of behaviour toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such treatment'. Aggression is behaviour which is intentional and deliberate and it involves injury to another person. Assertion A performer who plays with energy and emotion and within the rules of the game is showing assertive behaviours. Assertive behaviour is acceptable but forceful behaviour. It is also; * Goal directed behaviour * The use of valid verbal or physical force * Behaviour which has no intention to harm or injure * Behaviour which does not break the agreed rules of the sport An example of aggression in sport is where David Beckham kicked an Argentinean in the world cup after he received a bad tackle. An example of assertion in sport would be a forceful tackle in rugby as it is within the rules of the game. Channelled aggression is aggression that is used to achieve a goal it is not accompanied by anger. Hostile aggression is behaviour that is
The bystander effect: sex differences in helping behaviour in emergency and non-emergency situations literature review
The bystander effect: sex differences in helping behaviour in emergency and non-emergency situations literature review The circumstances of Kitty Genovese's murder in 1964 triggered much research. The woman was brutally murdered outside her home in New York while numerous onlookers in their apartments (surrounded by one another) did nothing. A number of researchers (Darley & Latane´, 1968) have investigated the bystander effect-the phenomenon that a lone bystander is more likely to help than any of a group of bystanders. Darley & Latane´ (1968) said that in an emergency, a lone bystander feels the full responsibility to help, while multiple bystanders are able to diffuse this responsibility. It is possible that other factors influence the bystander effect; people may be influenced by characteristics of the person in need or of the situation itself. Another view is that bystanders are influenced by the urgency of the situation. Fischer, Greitemeyer, Pollozek and Frey (2006) recently countered this idea. They found that the bystander effect is actually reduced in an emergency. However, Darley & Latane´'s (1968) earlier research stated that "interpreting the event as an emergency" is a key factor when one is deciding to take action. Thus, bystanders are more likely to help if they interpret the situation as an emergency. Shotland & Huston (1979) agreed with Darley & Latane´
Attitudes Toward Crime, Police, and the Law: Individual and Neighborhood Differences. I like most Americans believed that crime, disorder and drug abuse was they way of life for lower income areas and cultural groups. I was very surprised by the article and the attitudes that different cultural societies had. The article focused on two studies, one that was done in New York and Philadelphia in urban neighborhoods and the other in Chicago urban neighborhoods by "The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods." In New York and Philadelphia, they concluded that disadvantaged communities conventional values and street culture clashed. In national surveys it was shown there was no difference among social classes, races and ethnic groups in their attitudes toward violence. "The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods" looked at racial and ethnic differences toward social deviance, the police and the law. The studied showed that blacks and Latinos are less tolerant of deviance by teenagers then whites. In economically disadvantaged neighborhoods it showed that smoking, drinking, and fighting among youths and negative towards police and laws was tolerated. In a new study done by "The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods" In 1995 revealed a much different picture. Interviews where conduced on 6,000 children and the primary caregivers
Is 'Adolescence turmoil' fact or fiction? Discuss? Adolescence - Definition, turmoil, physical/cognitive changes, theories. "Adolescence is the age of the final establishment of a dominant positive ego identity. It is then that a future within reach becomes part of the conscious life plan". Cited in 'Childhood and Society' by Erik Erikson. Adolescence is a time when our bodies, our families, our schools, and the larger society demand that we change. Our ability to think, reason and make decisions changes dramatically as we grow older or as the transition into adulthood begins. The word 'adolescence' itself comes from Latin and means 'to blossom and grow'. Although, for some children, adolescence is a period of "great psychological upheaval and disturbance", cited in 'Adolescent Turmoil: Fact or Fiction', others perceive this as a time to learn new experiences and developing both physically and cognitively. Amongst the traditional myth of 'adolescent turmoil', certain theorists, such as, Freud, Erikson and Piaget have all developed their own notions of this progression into adulthood, however, each concept criticises the other and the private experience of puberty remains within each individual. When you go through adolescence you change in many ways; most common is the biological or physical change that your body endures known as 'puberty'. Girls normally reach the
Class, race and power all play a major part in the news media, which is a large part in everyday western life. The perpetuation of racism in Australian society.
Question 1. Class, race and power all play a major part in the news media, which is a large part in everyday western life. The perpetuation of racism in Australian society is blamed on the mainstream news media, as racist preconceptions are reflected and reinforced through the use of racialised messages. The news media not only perpetuates racism in society but also creates subtle notions of bias and exclusion by stereotyping certain groups. In turn the media has the power to impose particular values and beliefs, framing society's experience of social reality. In theory the news media, is a democracy, expected to nurture an informed audience by providing balanced and impartial reporting of events and issues. However, the news media has a much larger role in shaping the way members of a society think and behave. One of the goals of the media should be to represent the prevailing differences of culture, opinion and social conditions of the populations as a whole. Unfortunately this isn't the case in contemporary media, as the images of minority groups are depicted negatively. Therefore, the media is important in regards to race and ethnicity because it is the primary source of indirect or mediated experiences that reinforce racial attitudes and beliefs. Many stories in the newspapers with regards to Aboriginal people have been of a negative
Midterm Exam Essay Theory of crime Humbert Diazgranados CJ102-03: Criminology Social organizational theorists assume that although the individual's personality (i.e., the characteristic of self-control) remains stable through time, the relationship between self-control and crime is amenable to change. Crime is more likely to occur when an individual's bond to society is attenuated; theorists affirm that early childhood events are significant predictors of later adult criminality (Siegel pg. 67). Recent evidence indicates that insecurely or poorly attached children are more likely to engage in later violent behavior. An insecure attachment produces low levels of empathic understanding suggests that the central underling factor involved in a secure attachment is the experience of empathy. A child develops self-control and empathy as the result of receiving empathic understanding from a parent or guardian (Siegel pg 67). When potential offenders can perceive others as humans rather than as objects, they are less likely to inflict injury upon them. There is strong continuity in antisocial behavior running from childhood through adulthood across a variety of life domains. Social control in adulthood explains changes in criminal behavior over the life span, independent of prior individual differences in criminal propensity. Childhood pathways to crime and conformity
Serene Xefos Mrs. Videtic Psychology SLII September 14, 2003 How effective is the learning perspective in explaining aggressive behavior? Behaviorists believe that only observable behavior should be studied and that all behavior is learned. They believe that nothing from the mind is valid in making observations and conclusions. Since we are not at a point where we can read minds of organisms, studying only observable behavior is not always 100% reliable and thoughts can many times be deceiving. Behaviorists divide aggressive behavior into two aspects, the first being instrumental aggression and the second being frustration-aggression hypothesis. Since the Behaviorist approach is limited to only what is observable, these two aspects have many weaknesses and limitations. In between the two aspects, there are many suggestions of how aggression can be learned, but then again many ways remain unaccounted for. Instrumental aggression is aggressive behavior which is maintained because it is positively reinforced (Glassman, 303). This idea is the same theory of positive reinforcement, the only difference being specifically under these circumstances is that this response is labeled as 'aggressive'. A very simple example of this is fraud. Fraud is when an individual or a company takes someone else's money which does not belong to them, the instant outcome of this is that the
Discuss research into the effects of the media on pro and anti social behaviour. There is an abundance of research into the effects media has, but mostly on children, and mostly regarding aggression or violence. However there are pro social studies. In 1973 Friedrich and Steiner studied American Pre-School children, who watched a television program called "Mister Rogers Neighbourhood." This programme is pro social and non violent. There were children who watched neutral or aggressive programmes to study the effects other programmes may have. After the programme the kids who watched the pro social TV, were more helpful and they remembered much of the pro social information. They became increasingly helpful if they role played pro social events from the programme. Another pro social study was by Sprafkin, Liebert and Poulos in 1975. They studied 6 year olds. Some kids watched an episode of "Lassie", which involved a heroic scene were a boy rescued a dog. The others saw an episode of the "Brady Bunch" (comedy) After watching the Television the children were given an option. They could help some distressed puppies but they would have to stop playing the game that they were playing were you could win "a big prize". The kids who had watched "Lassie" spent on average 90 seconds with the puppies, however the others spent under 50 seconds. This shows they had imitated specific
Critically consider research into the effects of two environmental stressors on aggressive behaviour.
2th September 2003 Critically consider research into the effects of two environmental stressors on aggressive behaviour Different things can trigger aggression as well as psychological theories of aggression there are also environmental stressors which can also trigger aggression such as temperature and noise. Baron and Bell (1976) looked into the fact that temperature could trigger aggression. They studied the effects of heat on participants to see if it affected their willingness to give electric shocks. They found that when temperatures were between 33-35oC that this increased the level of aggression on the whole. However they also found that in extreme heat, aggression decreased again. This study would not have been ethically moral as the experiment would have caused a lot of stress to the participants which was the same in Milgram's electric shock experiment study. as this was a laboratory experiment it would not represent real life situations and would therefore lack ecological validity. Baron also did another study with Ransberger (1978) who also found that incidences of violence could lead to increased levels of aggression. Their data was on incidents of group violence which was based on a naturalistic study which has ecological validity and confirms that temperature can act as a stressor leading to an aggressive response, however if temperature
Outline and Evaluate research into causes of aggression (theories and/or studies) (24 marks) One of the most influential approaches to aggression is the social learning theory. The social learning theory claims that aggressive behaviour is learned either through direct experience or vicarious experience (observing others). For a behaviour to be imitated it must be seen as rewarding in some way. A person behaving aggressively depends on their previous experiences of aggressive behaviour, the degree in which their aggressive behaviour was successful in the past, the likely hood of their aggressive behaviour being successful in the situation plus other cognitive, social or environmental factors that are operating at the same time. This theory is supported by Bandura et al's experiment of bobo dolls 1961. Bandura stated children and adults acquire new styles of conduct through filmed and televised modelling, which shows television violence could cause a person to become aggressive. Phillips (1986) also found evidence that supports the SLT. He discovered homicide rate in the U.S always increased; the week following a major boxing match. It suggests viewers were imitating the behaviour they watched and that social learning is evident in adults. However there is no direct evidence to link homicide rate with those who watched the match. In the study of the bobo dolls, groups of