EFFECTS OF COCAINE ON THE CHILD.2 Summary of journal. The author starts the journal with a brief outlook on the development of research on the effects of drug use during pregnancy. She explains how to begin with it was very difficult to study this topic but as time has gone by the researchers have been able to progress in both animal and human studies. However despite this great achievement when in the mid 1980's cocaine came back on the scene scientists and drug researchers found themselves in difficulty as their differing views were not what the general public was aware of. The public, helped by the media were still in belief that use of drugs such as cocaine during pregnancy would have horrific effects on a child. This view however was in opposition to the view of scientists at that time. The author then informs the reader that throughout the journal she is giving her view of events and how she feels how social events in the past along with the media have played a great role in shaping and moving the development of cocaine research. The journal begins with a brief look at the history of the presence of cocaine in America. Setting the scene and showing how over time attitudes have changed towards the drug by both the public and the media. Over the past century the Americans have had mixed feelings over the issue of cocaine. In the very early days it was known as a
What is the significance of research on equivocation for our understanding of political communication?
What is the significance of research on equivocation for our understanding of political communication? Politicians are roundly derided by the media for their use of equivocation. In some instances, it can become a defining characteristic of their rhetoric - giving them a reputation for deceitful doublespeak that can shadow them for their whole political career. For those not in the political spotlight however, equivocation can be viewed merely as a method used to evade a potentially awkward situation (Bavelas et al., 1990). Defined as: "[The use of] ambiguous language...to conceal the truth or avoid committing oneself (with direct speech)" (Abate, 1999), equivocation has remained a central area of interest in research on political communication, shedding light on the complex relationship between interviewer and politician. Bavelas et al's (1988, 1990) equivocation theory makes the fundamental assumption that when faced with two or more unappealing options (an avoidance-avoidance conflict) in response to a posed question, we will equivocate. Put simply, "equivocation is a good solution to a bad situation" (Bavelas et al, 1990, pp.60) An 'avoidance-avoidance conflict' is used to describe the psychological conflict of approaching a question, only to find that every potential answer would result in similarly compromising consequences. Bavelas et al (1990) argue that
Aggression and violence effect society in a variety of ways. It is the general consensus that our society is becoming increasingly more violent. The Bosnian civil war was the most brutal chapter in the break up of Yugoslavia. On February 29, 1992, the multiethnic republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where Catholic Croats, Orthodox Serb, and Muslim Slavs lived side by side, passed a referendum for independence - but not all Bosnian Serbs agreed. Under the guise of protecting the Serb minority in Bosnia, Serbian leaders like Slobodan Milosevic channelled arms and military support to them. In spring 1992, the federal army, dominated by Serbs, shelled Croats and Muslims in Sarajevo the Bosnian capital. Bosnian Serb guerrillas carried out deadly campaigns of 'ethnic cleansing', massacring members of other ethnic groups or expelling them from their homes to create exclusively Serb areas. Millions of Bosnian (and Croatians) had been driven from their homes by July 1992. In early 1994 the fierce three-way fighting became a war between two sides. In February and March the Muslims and Croats in Bosnia called a truce and formed a confederation, which in August agreed to a plan for 51-49 split of Bosnia, with the Serbs getting the lesser percentage. Despite the Muslim-Croat alliance, the peace proposal, and an ongoing arms embargo against all combatants, the fighting did not
Aggression and the World - Schindler's ListSchindler's List is a poignant and moving film based on a dark period in history, the Holocaust. One of the most stark and prominent
Aggression and the World - Schindler's List Schindler's List is a poignant and moving film based on a dark period in history, the Holocaust. One of the most stark and prominent global themes that the film presents is that of aggression. The film portrays a lowly picture of the German Nazi party at the time; a strongly prejudicial party whose ideology stemmed from a belief in a superior race (Aryan) and a subsequent inferior line of people (Jews, Poles, Gypsies, handicapped and dark-skinned people). Gore Vidal is one of America's most controversial writers and is a zealous critic of the Bush administration. In his essay entitled, `The Enemy Within' (Published in The Observer, London, 27 October 2002) Vidal presents an alternative viewpoint to the widely accepted premise as to who was to blame for the September 11 attacks on the United States. One of the main ideas in this essay is that the September 11 attacks may have been a `blessing' for the Bush administration who were already drawing up plans for an incursion into Afghanistan. He gives details of the US's attempts to negotiate with the Taliban to allow them to construct an oil pipeline across the country as part of a scramble to profit from the surrounding sea's rich recourses. Vidal presents evidence that certain factions of the government were aware of such an impending strike, and that the aggressive attack on New York
Functionalism theory and its explanation of deviance. Various sociological perspectives that exist help us to define, set goals and choose strategies to achieve them. They also enable us to ask important questions and interpret information. My essay will describe the functionalist theory and its development by exploring its main concerns and some of the underlying assumptions. And further look at Durkheim and Parsons approach in relation to functionalism. Then discuss how functionalism helps to explain deviance and crime. I will then explain how my understanding of deviance and crime is relevant to social work values and practice. Functionalism is defined as a; "Framework that conceptualises society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability" (Macionis and Plummer, 1997. p. 19-20). Its development through the works of Comte, Spencer, Pareto and Durkheim later on Brown, Malinowski and Parsons, was based on a biological scientific model called "organic system-comparison of social operations to that of a living organism" (Giddens, 2001. p.16). Its main concern was the overall nature and function of social institutions and structures like the family, religion, education and their moral commitment to shared values. Functionalist approach assumes that societies tend towards "stability, equilibrium and consensus" (Wallace and Wolf,
A study was conducted to examine the motivation and impact of group-based emotions in modern society. The researchers conducted four different studies on members of the Israeli nation
Running Head: Discussion Post Student Name Institution Affiliation Course Professor Name Date General Psychology A study was conducted to examine the motivation and impact of group-based emotions in modern society. The researchers conducted four different studies on members of the Israeli nation where. Many Israelis feel melancholy on Memorial Day despite whether or not the individual has experienced direct remorse ensuing from warfare or terrorist attacks (Porat et al., 2016). In the first study, the researchers investigated whether or not those individuals who had a greater need to experience a sense of togetherness were a little more likely to have a sense of group-based sorrow on Memorial Day. It was explained to the participants that the survey was looking at attitudes and feelings around Memorial Day. (Porat et al., 2016) These participants were provided with a questionnaire where they were asked to express their opinion on whether their motivation to feel remorse on Memorial Day was instrumental in making them feel like part of the larger Israeli society. In the second study, students were encouraged to participate in two experiments that appeared to have no connection to one another to conceal the researchers' intention and provide the basis for unbiased results. In the second study, the researchers wanted to investigate Israelis' perspectives and feelings
Yawning through technical mediums. The object of the experiment was to see if yawns could be induced through a designed video
YAWNING THROUGH TECHNICAL MEDIUMS Yawning Through Technical Mediums with the Aid of Creating a Yawn Inducing Video Christopher Jacob Clemson University Abstract Yawning is a natural phenomenon with very few, if any explanations at all. The object of the experiment was to see if yawns could be induced through a designed video thought necessary on making participants yawn. There were three different control groups/technical mediums that were chosen to induce yawns from participants. These consist of: 1.) the video shown with only the visual component 2.) The video heard with only the audio component 3.) The video delivered with both audio and visual components. The average value of yawns was recorded and compared for each control group. Results showed that the two control groups with visual mediums scored greater means of yawns than the lone auditory medium. This experiment attempted to observe differences between yawning in technical mediums while also creating a video necessary to induce yawns. Literature Review Yawning is a natural habit that every person experiences. However, the science behind yawning is still unknown and still lacks concrete research to explain its occurrence (Sarnecki, 2008). Several theories have developed over time to explain why people yawn, but no evidence has sufficed to
With reference to psychological literature, explain the underlying processes regarding the effects of media violence and increased aggression.
Media Violence and Aggression Assignment . (a) With reference to psychological literature, explain the underlying processes regarding the effects of media violence and increased aggression. (b) Discuss possible ways of counteracting the effects of media violence. The effects of media violence on aggressive behavior have attracted many researchers over the past decade (Bandura, 1961, Berkowitz, 1962, Zillmann, 1988, Anderson, 2003, Huesmann, 2007). As individuals in society displayed more aggressiveness in their behaviors, researchers have endeavored to identify the influence of media violence on person’s action, with the aim of proposing intervention strategies that would minimize the effects of media violence (Baron, Branscombe, & Byrne, 2009). Huesmann and Taylor, (2006) define media violence as ‘visual portrayals of acts of physical aggression by one human or human-like character against another (p 395).’ Human-like or fictional media violence can be encountered on medium such as television and film, video games and music. Psychologists such as Anderson, Berkowitz, Donnerstein, Huesmann, Johnson, Linz, Malamuth and Wartella, (2003) believe that fictional social interaction contributes to increased aggressive behaviors in individuals. These psychologists further
Are humans naturally aggressive or do we learn to be aggressive? Aggression is defined by Anderson and Huesman (2003) as “behaviour directed towards another individual carried out with the proximate (immediate) intent to cause harm” (as cited in Hogg and Vaughan, 2005, pg 446). But whilst psychologists find it relatively easy to agree on a definition for aggression, they find it significantly harder to agree on the causes of aggressive behaviour in humans. This essay will describe the main theories of aggression which are opposed in the age old nature vs. nature debate - the biological approach and social approach - and also consider a third approach which combines the two known as the bio-social approach to come to a conclusion as to whether human aggression is innate or learned. In essence, the biological approach professes that humans are naturally aggressive due to a combination of neural and hormonal mechanisms in the brain, innate instincts and evolutionary characteristics. Both the evolutionary and psychodynamic approach shares this belief, that aggression is innate and instinctive. Freud (1920), the father of the psychodynamic approach, wrote “the tendency of aggression is an innate, independent, instinctual disposition in man...” (p102). He described a ‘death instinct’, Thanatos, which according to Hogg and Vaughan (2005) “is initially directed at
The Behavioural Activation System: lateralization of the BAS and its role in mediating approach motivation
Student Number: 33111538 Mini Project The Behavioural Activation System: lateralization of the BAS and its role in mediating approach motivation The location and role of the Behavioural Activation System have been extensively debated. The present research attempted to extend support for theory which suggests that the BAS is an approach motivation mediator. Additionally, clarification of past debate on motivational lateralisation, as opposed to emotional lateralisation, of the brain was examined. Measures of BAS strength were taken to identify high or low levels of BAS sensitivity between individuals. A hand-contraction task was used to direct activation to the contralateral hemisphere and an approach motivation measure was taken after completion of this task. Scores on the approach motivation measure were hypothesized to be affected by BAS level, hemispheric activation, and an interaction of the two. Two conceptualisations of approach motivation were measured: intrinsic and success motivation. Results were mixed, with a significant effect of BAS strength demonstrated on intrinsic motivation and a significant effect of unilateral hemispheric activation demonstrated on success motivation. Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) has been developed in the quest to understand a biological basis to personality. A multitude of research has been dedicated to investigating