What Is The Difference Between Agencies Of Formal And Informal Social Control And Evaluate Their Relative Effectiveness, Including Legal Sanctions and Informal Sanctions
What Is The Difference Between Agencies Of Formal And Informal Social Control And Evaluate Their Relative Effectiveness, Including Legal Sanctions and Informal Sanctions Many sociologists argue that people are more likely to commit crime when the social constraints on their behaviour are weakened. Control theory is mainly concerned with identifying the factors which prevent individuals from committing crimes. Writers in the tradition of Max Weber, Émile Durkheim, and Karl Marx have commonly focused on two observable processes in the regulation of standards of behaviour and sentiment. These are the use of social sanctions to deal with rule-breakers, that is, people who do not conform to approved behaviour patterns; and secondly, in psychological terms, the internalization of norms and values, by which acceptable modes of conduct become "second nature" routines of life that can be taken for granted. In its intense version, social control is exerted by totalitarian rulers in the form of terror organizations such as secret police; censorship of the press and other media; propaganda; and repressive laws regulating most forms of human behaviour and communication, such as freedom of speech, and even human sexuality. Social control is s large aspect of an individual's socialisation process. This process helps enable a person to fit into society and respect shared norms and
Compare and contrast the labelling perspective and rational choice theory. Intro The extent to which formal sanctions have some bearing on the behaviour of offenders is a focal point of both rational choice theory and labelling perspectives (Baumer, Wright Kristinsdottir & Gunnlaugsson, 2002). Specific deterrence models generally posit that as the severity, certainty, and swift ness of sanctions increase, which in turn reduces re-offending (Gibb, 1975) (Baumer, Wright Kristinsdottir & Gunnlaugsson, 2002). In contrast the labelling theory predicts that formal sanctions increase reoffending by promoting a criminal self concept (Baumer, Wright Kristinsdottir & Gunnlaugsson, 2002). While deterrence and labelling theories are traditionally have been viewed in opposition to one another (Liska and Messner, 1999) recent theoretical contributions have integrated concepts from these and other theories (Baumer, Wright Kristinsdottir & Gunnlaugsson, 2002). Agency Although both perspectives are considered **to be concerning themselves with agency, or individual action, they go about this task in very different ways. Labelling perspective seek to understand the 'meaning' in human behaviour (Young, 1981:286). Whereas rational choice perspective in seeks to understand and control human behaviour (1). Context Labelling perspective initially emerged in the 1960's and early 1970's
ESSAY PLAN: Discuss the function of sleep (25 marks) Intro Define evolutionary theories: evolutionary theories suggest sleep has evolved because it gives an animal a greater chance of survival when in a dangerous environment. They also suggest that sleep has evolved because it conserves energy and coincides with their eating habits. Define restoration theories: states sleep is necessary to restore biological processes in the body. And then compare the two. Paragraph 1 Outline the evolutionary theory Paragraph 2 Ao2 the evolutionary theory- build an argument! Paragraph 3 Outline the restoration theory Paragraph 4 Ao2 the restoration theory- build an argument! Paragraph 5 Conclusion ESSAY: Discuss the function of sleep (25 marks) The two main theories on the function on sleep are the evolutionary theory and the restoration theory. The evolutionary theory suggests that sleep has evolved because it gives an animal a greater chance of survival when in a dangerous environment. The theory also says that sleep is important because it conserves energy and sleep patterns coincide with an animal's eating habits. Whereas the restoration theory suggests that sleep is necessary to restore biological processes in the body. Therefore both theories suggest that sleep is important but have different reasons as to why. Researchers have looked into the evolutionary theory and
Submitted, Jan, 2004 Critically evaluate socio-economic and cultural predictors of psychological well-being. Over recent years, a shift has occurred in the study of optimal human functioning from illness (or the lack of it) to the more positive view of what it means to be well (Diener, Suh, Lucas and Smith, 1999). Early studies that examined demographic factors produced little support in terms of their predictive value of well-being. However recent investigations, which have tested socio-economic and cultural variables using the tradition of Subjective Well Being (SWB), have offered more compelling evidence. Nevertheless, methodological limitations as well as a lack of theoretical underpinnings within the SWB tradition indicate a need for more comprehensive and complimentary measurements, as well as a more integrated model of well-being that combines the tradition of SWB, with the more theoretically derived tradition of Psychological Well-Being (PWB). Such a typological model could go some way to reflecting a more encompassing view of human well-being. Historically, the major approach used to understand positive human functioning has been through the study of illness. However, the emphasis has shifted more recently to investigations of what it means to be well, since more individuals are well than ill (Diener et al., 1999). Initially, such studies concentrated on
Media Violence Effects Effects of media have been controversial for over a century. The concerns are still continuing, mainly focused on the relationship between mediated violence and its effects on audiences nowadays. There are a large number of people, particularly psychological experts who believe that violence in the media causes or directly affects violent behaviour in the audience. Plenty of psychological research and scientific study have shown that behavioural effects such as modelling, desensitisation and catharsis of mediated violence on viewers do exist. However, achieving an agreement of their conception seems to be very difficult, as other researchers arguing that there is no enough hard evidence to prove that causal relationship (mediated violence causes violent behaviour on audience) and "the scientific evidence simply does not show that watching violence either produces violence in people, or desensitises them to it"(Jonathan Freedman). In my opinion, mediated violence does affect audience's behaviour, psychologically and experimentally. However, I would not agree that violent action in audience is totally and directly caused by violence in media, and there are other factors existing, as well. In the following of this paper, I will discuss using cases involving the media to demonstrate the speculated causality between mediated violence and violent behaviour in
A Discursive Analysis of extracts regarding a male's perception of body image This analysis looks at four young men's perceptions of female body image through the use of discursive analysis. This interview looks at what the participating males think about different body sizes and how important a women's body size and appearance is to them. Discursive analysis is a qualitative method used to analyse data and is used to comprehend spoken interaction and written text which views language as something that constructs reality rather than simply describing it. Extract 1. Cli: but (2.0) m:m its mainly the face that I think its wha- 2 (0.5) you find mos[t attractive 3 Jef: [m:::m 4 Int: yeah= 5 Jef: =but the more slight girls I think I find more beautiful 6 (0.5) 7 Cli: m:::m but 8 Jef: but maybe it's the slightly bigger ones that you find a 9 bit more .hhh fit= 0 Uri: they just look like they've got right angles 1 in ?their body? (2.0) 1 Zan: hehe[hehe 2 Uri: [hehehe (0.5) 3 Jef: its horrible 4 Uri: I kno(h)w (1.0) 5 Int: what can you just state which model that is 6 Jef: models er D again (0.5) like he-her armpit and her 7 shoulder and everything is horr(h)ible 8 Cli: it just [>looks so:: skinny< 9 Jef: [its like a skeleton (.) literally like a skeleton 20 (2.0) Cli draws
To what extent can the problem of alcohol abuse in our society be explained in terms of the genetic makeup of the individual involved?
To what extent can the problem of alcohol abuse in our society be explained in terms of the genetic makeup of the individual involved? 'In most cultures, alcohol is the most frequently used brain depressant and a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality. Fortunately, most individuals learn from these experiences and moderate their drinking, thus avoiding alcohol dependence or abuse' (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Alcohol dependence according to the DSM IV TR is indicated by tolerance and withdrawal and compulsive behaviour towards alcohol, whereas alcohol abuse requires fewer symptoms and is therefore less severe than dependence (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). In both dependence and abuse an individual will tend to experience social and interpersonal problems due to their drinking habits (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). It can often be difficult to compare studies as they vary in there use of alcohol, use, abuse and dependence as dependent variable. Alcohol dependence or addiction requires initial exposure to alcohol followed by behaviours seeking to repeat the experience. After repetitions of this behaviour-stimulus sequence, the addiction, dependence becomes established. (West, 2001) Many theories focus on why particular individuals are more susceptible to alcohol addiction or dependence than others (Clapper et al 1995 cited in West,
Personality: trait theories Trait theories of personality are based on the assumption that a person's personality can be captured in a series of binary oppositions. My students are required when considering their performance in their practical work to take into account a variety of factors which might have influenced their performance. They seem to like to latch on to trait theories of personality as an explanation of, for example, why they didn't complete their work by the deadlines (laziness), why they had difficulty with an interviewee (shyness) and so on. Looking back over their work as a whole, they will often be tempted to explain their success or failure in terms of their own personality characteristics which they see as largely unvarying. I am personally skeptical of trait theories of personality. I find it hard to accept that a personality can be summed up in sixteen (or however many) adjectives and am certainly not persuaded that such supposed traits are relatively permanent. I am really uncomfortable with any talk of 'personality' at all in fact, but maybe that's a personality defect of mine. It seems to me that such theories (or at least the common applications of such theories) overlook the constantly changing situations in which we find ourselves during the course of each day. A little reflection will soon reveal that, although some of us may think of people in
Explain the importance of team building, the stages in the development of team cohesion and analyse the impact of good and poor team cohesion on the British Army, with reference to relevant theorists.
Explain the importance of team building, the stages in the development of team cohesion and analyse the impact of good and poor team cohesion on the British Army, with reference to relevant theorists. Whenever people are brought together as a team to accomplish a task, there are stages that they must go through in order to work together effectively. The forming of the team is the beginning of team dynamics and depending on how team members proceed after this initial meeting usually depends on how the team reacts to one another and how the team can overcome the conflict that will ultimately arise. Very simply team cohesion is the ability of a team to stick together during a project or an exercise. According to Adair a team is: "an energetic group of diverse individuals who are committed to achieving common objectives, who work well together, enjoy doing so, and who produce high quality results."1 Bruce Tuckman is one of the leading researchers in group development. Tuckman's model is a successive-stage theory and specifies the usual order of the phases of group development. He argues that these processes are paramount to a team's success or decline. Each stage identifies major processes that a group goes through and the characteristics demonstrated by the group and its members. The initial forming of a team involves the team members coming together, introducing one another
Cri201 Helen Telfer Examine the social construction of youth crime and consider the myth of youth crime. I have chosen to base my essay on youth crime. It is an area that I have enjoyed learning about and have found the subject very interesting. I am going to examine what is meant by social construction and consider the myth of youth crime. I'm going to start by making clear what is meant by social construction. Muncie explains 'the term has nothings to do with ' the cultures which children construct for and between themselves'. During our period of 'childhood'- both the institution and the construction of - was composed by adults; usually those of the professional middle class. This is not meant to sound conspirational. No attempt is being made to suggest that children's condition is entirely devoid of a biological dimension, or to deny the effects physical being, though the nature of the consanguinity between the social psychological and the biological is extraordinarily problematic. Muncie, is arguing that social construction is nothing to with the cultural background in which we as children are brought up in. I argue that this can't be right, we are who we are and get that from our backgrounds, family, peers etc while growing up. ' Historians agree that ideas like parenthood and childhood are socially constructed and thus can be put together in diverse