"Deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label" Becker. How have symbolic interactionists applied this idea to explain the presence of deviancy in society?
"Deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label" Becker. How have symbolic interactionists applied this idea to explain the presence of deviancy in society? The definition of the word 'deviant' is explained as; (a person or thing) deviating from normal behaviour. This automatically assumes that 'normal' behaviour is the correct and appropriate actions of society; therefore those who do not conform to this are seen as deviant. The concept of deviance is a relative term, meaning its fluid rather than fixed, changeable rather than static. One can discern that the idea of what is deviant according to the above classification is continually up for reinterpretation depending on the context in which it's set in. for example in the 1950's homosexuality was viewed by the majority of society as an illness but today as a legitimate and accepted lifestyle choice. Symbolic interactionist's translation of 'deviance' is that it is socially constructed, retaining a remnant that is so central to sociologists such as Beccaria, that the social realm is 'constructed' by actors. Becker (1974 pg 51)1 argues that 'deviant action is not an unknown, mystical force but that in fact 'we see that social rules, far from being fixed and immutable, are continually constructed anew in very situation.' Deviance according to deviance and labelling theories is the non-conformity with a set of norms
Outline the main features of experimental social psychology and consider the influences that led to its emergence. What do you think are its strengths and weaknesses?
Outline the main features of experimental social psychology and consider the influences that led to its emergence. What do you think are its strengths and weaknesses? Social psychology has many different theoretical perspectives. The focus of this essay will be the cognitive social perspective and its central method of research; experiments. I will therefore refer to this approach as experimental social psychology (ESP). My aim is to argue that despite some downfalls, ESP provides an indispensible contribution to understanding how the mind is structured by society (Haslam, 2007, DVD 1, DD307). To argue this I will outline the key characteristics of the approach which will involve looking at its historical development. This will give us an insight into how the discipline became grounded within scientific principles and was the dominant approach for much of its 100 year history (Holloway, 2007). I will then draw out what features undermined the perspective and will place the favourable and questionable aspects of the approach within four analytical themes called power relations; situated knowledge; individual-social dualism and agency-structure dualism (Holloway, 2007). These will also be used to critically evaluate ESP. Other perspectives will be incorporated to illustrate strengths and weaknesses but I will not go into detail about them. The intent is to finish the essay with
The person centred approach
Essay 1 :The person centred approach The person centred approach has had a major impact in psychology, particularly the counselling field. This approach began formally by Carl Rogers (Hough, 2006).Although this approach is used by other professionals such as social workers, it is particularly important to counsellors as it can be used as a guideline for counsellors as it introduces conditions which are essential in counselling practice. The approach also establishes what is needed in the relationship between client and counsellors to make progress and it helps counsellors to empathize with client to empower the client to want to change for the better and reach their full potential. PC Personality Theory The person centred theory stands out to other personality theories by psychologist such as Freud or Erickson because development is not described in stages or phases. Rogers described personality development using the term 'self concept', he took into account how a person perceives themselves (Hough, 2006). Individuals 'self concept' is said to be affected by their interactions with other people and the environment. Rogers concentrated on the way in which an individual's perception of self is developed by other people's appraisal and expectations. For instance from a young age children aim to satisfy their parents/carers. However the actualising tendency has some similarity
Skinner's behaviorism and Bandura's cognitive social learning of personality
Running head: SKINNER VERSUS BANDURA Skinner's Behaviorism and Bandura's Cognitive Social Learning of Personality An Assignment Submitted in Partial Fulfilment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Social Sciences in Psychology Apirl 2010 Skinner's Behaviorism and Bandura's Cognitive Social Learning of Personality B. F. Skinner and Albert Bandura are the well-known psychologist. Skinner argued that behavior was caused by forces outside the person. Operant conditioning is the theory of B.F. Skinner and is defined as the type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment. The theory of B.F. Skinner is based on the idea that learning is a function of change in overy behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events that occur in the environment. A response produces a outcome. Action on part of the learner is called a response. For an example, purcharsing behaviors is a response occurs in the presence of distinctive stimuli, as people want to buy the cheapest stuffs in supermarket's environment. Supermaket often give us stamps which can be used in exchange for gifts. Stamps is a secondary reinforcer become reinforcing through the association with gift, a primary reinforcer. It encourages purcharsing behaviors through a system of rewards. When a desired
self esteem and personality factors
Title: A re-investigation into the relationship between personality factors and individuals perceived self esteem beliefs. Abstract: This research investigated the relationship between personality factors and an individuals perceived self esteem beliefs, via quantitative data from a one-way independent MANOVA design. The Interpersonal awareness and social interaction questionnaire measured both variables (see appendix ?). An opportunity sample of 162 participants anonymously participated in the study. A one-way independent MANOVA calculation demonstrated a statistically significant main effect between personality and individual self esteem beliefs and represents a large effect size F(5, 165) = 12.92, p<.001, Wilks' ?= .71, partial ?2 = .293. Introduction: The causes, parallels and consequences of high and low self esteem have been widely studied (Baumeister, 1993; Harter, 1998). Self esteem is associated with an individual's perceived sense of self worth and the value they place upon themselves (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1991). Rosenberg (1965), simplified this as having a favourable or unfavourable attitude towards oneself (Cited in John & MacAarthur, 2004). Personality on the other hand is widely measured via the Five Factor Model (FFM) consisting of five primary sub sections being neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness (McCrae &
Discuss the role non-verbal communication (NVC) plays in the operation and effectiveness of verbal communication.
Discuss the role non-verbal communication (NVC) plays in the operation and effectiveness of verbal communication. Everyday interaction depends on a subtle relationship between what we express in words and what we convey through numerous forms of non-verbal communication (Giddens, 2001). Non-verbal communication (NVC) is the body signals that we deliberately or inadvertently make when we are with other people. NVC tends to run in parallel with verbal communication. It can influence another by many means, which may be intentional, or it may be unintentional. "When we communicate with others we not only speak but we also emit non-verbal vocalisations, gestures, facial expressions and gazes. These are closely integrated with words and may amplify or disambiguate them" (Argyle, 1975). Argyle's view shows that NVC is part of verbal communication and is vital to the interpretation of meaning of words. Abercrombie's view supports that of Argyle's. "People speak with the vocal organs but communicate with the whole body" (1968). The three main forms of NVC are body language, paralanguage and appearance. Body language includes eye contact, proximity, gestures and facial expressions. Paralanguage can be non-verbal but vocal, using the voice to modulate words, intonation, voice pitch, tone and volume and 'stressing' of words or a part of a word. Appearance
This author will attempt to show two different forms of prejudice, using African-American Black History, and the persecution of the Jews in World War II.
Prejudism Prejudice. The path of the righteous man is beset on all sides by the inequities of the selfish, and the tyranny´s of evil men. Blessed is he who in the name of charity & goodwill shepherds the weak through the valley of darkness, for He is truly his brothers keeper and the finder of lost children, and I will strike down upon thee with great vengeance and furious anger those who attempt to poison and destroy my brothers, and you will know my name is the Lord when I lay my vengeance upon thee. Ezekiel 25:17. New testament. Introduction. This author will attempt to show two different forms of prejudice, using African-American Black History, and the persecution of the Jews in World War II. What is prejudice? Prejudice is an extreme attitude towards one particular group of people, and it compromises the components of all attitudes including: · Cognitive component, i.e. stereotyping · Affective component, i.e. strong feeling of hostility · Behavioral component, i.e. actions and manners. (Gross-Science of Mind and behavior 1999). Allport (Gross et al 1999) states that the behavioral component may include five different examples: · Antilocution: hostility via verbal expression, verbal denigration & insult, racial jokes and references. · Avoidance: keeping a distance but not inflicting physical harm. · Discrimination: exclusion from civil rights, decent
Evaluate the contribution of the social perspective to our understanding of language and meaning as well as the psychology of sex and gender.
TMA06 Evaluate the contribution of the social perspective to our understanding of language and meaning as well as the psychology of sex and gender. This essay will evaluate the contribution of the social perspective to the understanding of two central issues in psychology: language and meaning as well as the psychology of sex and gender. In the first part of the essay, the impact of the social perspective on sex and gender will be examined and shows how this perspective has widen the knowledge of the topic and what limitations arise. The second part will show how the perspective has contributed to the understanding of language and meaning. Further, it will discussed whether the methodology is appropriate to come to conclusions which provide a full understanding of the topics. The social perspective focuses on the impact of social influences on human behaviour. Other people are an important factor for human´s development and behaviour. Only the other people make humans behave and think as they do. Another important factor are discourses. They constitute a reality which is chosen by humans where they are appropriate. They are culturally and historically specific and produced socially. When looking on language and meaning as well as the psychology of sex and gender, the social perspective makes use of the two factors described above. The third factor to explore issues
To Investigate How Aggression Affects Performance in Rugby
To Investigate How Aggression Affects Performance in Rugby Aggression is the intent to physically, verbally or psychologically harm someone who is motivated is avoid such harm. Baron (1977) defines aggression as the following: "Any behavior directed at the goal of harming or injuring another being who is motivated to avoid such treatment." There are certain types of aggression, some that lie within the rules or laws of the game and others that do not. Hostile or reactive aggression is said to be aggressive acts motivated by anger that have the intent and goal of harming another but also is not with in the rules/laws. An example of this in rugby would be a dangerous tackle above the shoulders/ round the head or neck of the opposition, a spear tackle, were a player is lifted off the ground and dropped head first into the ground also throwing a punch is outside the rules and can result in a sending off or sin bin. Another form of aggression is instrumental aggression, which are aggressive acts that are intended to harm another person with the goal of achieving a goal without suffering. In other words "Gamesmanship", which can be said to be cheating within the laws or bending them. An example of this would be going into a tackle and hitting your opponent with your shoulder first then wrapping your arms around them. Assertiveness is not entirely a form of aggression but a use of
Critically discuss the evidence that viewing violent media causes aggression
Critically discuss the evidence that viewing violent media causes aggression From time to time, the media industry comes under political attack. Allegations are frequently made that viewing violent media has an adverse affect on the viewer. It appears that many a time allegations are linked to a particular tragedy at that moment e.g. the Hungerford Massacre, the columbine shootings, the James Bulger murder, etc. A moral panic is created and people look for something or someone to blame and the media is an easy target. The allegations usually has no support, people have not examined the facts or read the evidence. Violence in the media causing violence in society is such a common claim that probably most people will think its true. Many blame crime rates on the media but the British crime survey shows that the victimisation rates have fallen back to what they were in 1981 so if crime has fallen but yet there is more violence within the media there is no correlation between the two. In Hungerford 1987, Michael Ryan shot dead 16 people before killing himself with a pistol. The media blamed Rambo films for the Hungerford disaster simply because he had a headband on his head at the time. However there has been no evidence ever found that Michael Ryan has ever seen a Rambo film. The Bulger case was another case where the horror film Childs play 3 was blamed for the