Cara Hannis Student Number - 1209639 Critically Assess Media Representations of Youth Crime. Youth culture is a twentieth century phenomenon that has had repercussions in so many aspects of life. It has allowed us to define a rite of passage that all must experience. However, the connotations that the term holds are rarely positive, youth are perceived to be confused and dangerous. Therefore, the question arises; what single entity is largely to blame for such misrepresentation. The answer to this question lies in an unavoidable part of life, the media. 'Media' and 'youth' are very hard to define as they are always changing and becoming something different. The dictionary defines 'media' as a "means of communicating information" (the new choice English dictionary). This includes a range of sources, for example, television, radio, newspapers, advertisements and the Internet are the most obvious of media devices. 'Youth' is defined as "the period between childhood and adulthood" (the new choice English dictionary). Both definitions are unspecific and therefore difficult to clarify. The two main schools of thought regarding the media and how it represents the world we live in are the Marxist and Plurist ideologies. According to Marxism, the media is a form of government control. The media represents the ideology of the dominant class. Therefore there are strong political
DSE212 TMA01 Parveen Khalid Y0410334 Part I Social categorisation and Social Construction theories and their understanding of identity According to social construction it is through social interactions that people "act and react in relation to others, through these social interactions we learn what is acceptable and what is not. Over time these rules become internalized within us, and eventually become an unconscious part of our lives and our identity. Social Identity Theory asserts that group membership creates in-group/ self-categorization and enhancement in ways that favour the in-group at the expense of the out-group, and associating with a group even under minimal circumstances is enough to create in-group out-group hostility. I will explore the effects of the "contact theory" on intergroup behaviour. It is also the aim of this essay to explain what is meant by the term 'social construction' and "social categorisation" and how these two theories have furthered our understanding of identity. Social categorisation is viewed as a perception, cognition or behaviour that is influenced by people's recognition that they and other are members of distinct social groups. Relations between social groups can have far reaching and persuasive effects on the behaviour of member of those groups, effects that go well beyond situations of face-to-face intergroup encounters.
In today's competitive recruiting environment, organisations are challenged with utilising optimal screening methods in order to find the best candidate for job vacancies. Whilst selection techniques such as obtaining references, interview or application from have been employed for many years, the use of various tests within the process is on the increase (Newell & Shackleton, 1994). This essay will examine the extent to which common selection methods have been influenced by psychological research on the subject. The function of recruitment is to ensure that an organisation is adequately and effectively staffed. Developments, both technical and economic, have meant that job functions are constantly evolving. To this end, for recruitment to be successful, it is critical that job analyses are maintained. When valid they become the main source of information both about any position which should become vacant (job description), and the competencies and attributes of the person required to fill it (person specification) (Stone, 2002). Research has shown that although the job analysis tool is commonly used in large organisations, this is not the case in smaller firms, where job descriptions are reported as vague and out of date (Carroll, Marchington, Earnshaw & Taylor, 1999). This can result in poor candidate selection, as the criteria applied may not reflect the scope of the job.
How May Sensory Changes Affect the Everyday Lives of Older People? Our awareness of the world occurs through physiological mechanisms that process afferent, sensory information. Like all physiological mechanisms these are subject to detrimental changes as the body ages. It is essential to understand these changes so that we can meet any extra requirements that may ensue. This is increasingly important as the proportion of the population that is elderly steadily rises. Individuals over the age of 65 now account for 16% of the population (OPCS, 1991a). This essay will identify the problems that arise for the elderly and suggest ways they can be managed. Gustation shows least age-related decrement because, unlike other neural cells, taste receptors have life spans of only a few days and are continually replaced. Salt and sucrose can easily be identified at all ages, but more complex taste stimuli (eg. carrot) cause difficulties for old people, suggesting that olfaction, rather than gustation, might be impaired (Doty et al., 1984). Olfaction shows marked age-related decline with 25% of 65-80 year-olds, and 50% of people over 80, reporting anosmia (Doty et al., 1984). Possible causes include atrophy of the olfactory bulb (Ordy & Brizzee, 1975), decreased volume of the layers of the bulb (Bhatnagar et al., 1987) and a decreased number of olfactory neurons (Hinds & McNelly, 1981).
CHILD DEVELOPMENT FINAL Chapter 12 Self, Gender, and Identity Development William James: The "I" self; is a subjective entity that constructs and seeks to know the Me Self. The "Me" self; is what can objectively be known about the self. Identity vs. role confusion: fifth stage of psychosocial development, in which an adolescent seeks to develop a coherent sense of self, including the role she or he is to play in society. Also called identity vs. role confusion. The "virtue" that should arise from this conflict is fidelity. Identity forms as young people resolve three major issues: the choice of an occupation, the adoption of values to believe in and live by, and the development of a satisfying sexual identity. Functions of the self: the chief functions of the self in infancy is organization of childhood and adolescence are to shape goals and monitor and regulate behavior Self-concept - (the levels of) the self concept involves both cognitive and emotion. Self concept is our image of ourselves. James divided the me-self or self concept into 3 parts, which may sometimes conflict: (1) Material self (physical attributes and possessions); (2) the social self (the self seen by others, which is different for each "viewer"); and (3) the highest level, the spiritual self an enduring inner core of thoughts, values, dispositions, and the like. Marcia's Research in research
Lying Introduction People lie. That's a fact. But how can we recognize a liar? Is it possible to recognize a liar and what are the methods we can use? Many research has been done by many scientists. But what are the results of those researches? In this ANW project I will tell you about my findings. I will try to give an answer to the question: How to recognize a liar? Some subquestions I asked myself before making this piece of work were: o How do researchers get their results? o What experiments have the researchers done? o How reliable are the results of the experiments? o What's the history about lie-experiments and lie detectors? Thinking about these subquestions I hope I can give an answer to the main question. I hope you will like reading my piece of work! Why do people lie? On average people lie about twice a day. Mostly these lies are small and unimportant. In daily life for example they are made to be nice to your neighbours. Often girls of my age don't give an honest answer to the question if they like my new shoes if I ask them how they think about them. Even if my shoes are very ugly, many would say they liked them. Only to be nice to me. A more important example why people tell lies is (of course) in court. No criminal would tell the truth about the things he did. And if he can prevent a punishment of three years in jail by not telling them the
Prabhav Adhikari Professor Nutting Philosophy 445-01 April 29, 2011 Writing Assignment #2: Sexual Exploitation and Morality The term exploitation, in basic terms, can be defined as an activity that has already been or will be executed, or the act of using something or someone for any purpose or means. For the majority of times when this word is typically employed, it generally denotes a cruel or a rude type of behavior rather than something that would be pleasant or rewarding to understand. To deceive an individual by compelling him to sign a document that will in turn rob him of all his resources and assets, to force somebody directly or indirectly to do something immoral, or to use or manipulate somebody without his or her permission are all examples of exploitation. Similarly, sexual exploitation refers to the abuse or misuse of an individual by another person without his or her consent; it is often seen in the form of power or forceful position used by the controller who solely hopes to engage in sexual contact with his victim in order to achieve his benefits of sexual pleasure. Rape, trafficking, and unauthorized sex are a few examples of sexual exploitation. Rather than the assurance or chance of love and inner feelings to encompass the relationship of a couple, sexual exploitation engenders nothing but torture and harm. With the aid of Immanuel Kant's view on
Environmental and biological factors play a role in the manifestation of aggressive behaviour. Discuss the interaction of these variables in the display of hostility.
Environmental and biological factors play a role in the manifestation of aggressive behaviour. Discuss the interaction of these variables in the display of hostility. This essay will begin by defining aggression and giving some general examples of different types of aggression. The essay will then focus on the biological signals and biological triggers for aggression and discuss how certain environmental triggers act as stimuli for the onset of a particular type of aggressive behaviour and mannerisms. It will do this by giving examples of this type of behaviour in animals, which is a good model for understanding human aggression. The essay will then progress to talk about the significance of nature versus nurture. It will describe how significant biological factors and environmental factors are in the onset of aggression. It will give examples of how this can be proved by studies involving twins and adopted children. It will then discuss the role of television in the manifestation of aggression and violent crimes in children giving an extreme recent example of this. The essay will then develop into the appearance of aggression and violent acts in adults involving examples of road rage and the consumption of alcohol. A summary will conclude the essay and will describe all of the things, which have been discussed throughout the essay. So what is aggression, what are the
How has psychological research and theory helped explain EITHER sex offending OR violent offending? Is there any evidence that these serious offenders on release can lead law-abiding lives?
REPORT TITLE: How has psychological research and theory helped explain EITHER sex offending OR violent offending? Is there any evidence that these serious offenders on release can lead law-abiding lives? MODULE TITLE: Crime in Context STUDENT NUMBER: DATE: 27th May 2003 WORD COUNT: 3288 How has psychological research and theory helped explain EITHER sex offending OR violent offending? Is there any evidence that these serious offenders on release can lead law-abiding lives? Psychological research and theory has attempted to explain the aetiology of sex offending. However, explanations have been problematised by a diversity of complex factors such as heterogeneity of types, styles, process mechanisms and degrees of offence severity of offenders. Such diversities are further complicated by their interrelationship with a variety of developmental, socio-cultural, biological and psychological factors (Marshall, 1996). As a result, contemporary complex multifactorial theories, such as Finkelhor's Precondition Model (1984) and Marshall and Barabee's Integrated Theory (1990), strive to produce a more encompassing explanation of sex offending. Since assessments and treatments based on such models may go some way to enabling these serious offenders to lead a law abiding life, this essay will evaluate both theories, as well as the effectiveness of treatment therapies
An exploration on what is punishment, and evaluation of it really works. Jess Haines Abstract Punishment is a critical part of life due to its major influence on an individual's behaviour. Individuals receive punishment all throughout their life, and act as they do depending on the strength, intensity and timing of the consequence, which need to be suited to the action to alter behaviour as desired. In adding something undesirable or removing a desirable stimulus, an individual's behaviour is affected, however various factors influence the effectiveness. Punishment is considered to be most effective in areas where behaviour is dangerous, however in these cases is often difficult to administer ethically. It has been found, however, that reinforcing positive actions as well as punishing negative ones is most effective in altering behaviour as desired. Punishment is one of the major factors that influences and determines the way an individual acts in everyday life, in that each behaviour an individual performs depends primarily on whether it was punished or reinforced (Tavris & Wade, 2000). Punishment has been defined in many ways, for example, the process by which a stimulus or event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that follows (Tavris & Wade, 2000), but there is one common factor that is agreed upon. This is that punishment is used in order to cease a