A critique of Big Five & An applied personal profile As the name indicated, the Big Five (Costa and McCrae 1976) theory consisted of five factors: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. This time, one would critically review the Big Five personality theory. One would discuss the factor analytic technique that used to develop this approach, the reliability of this theory's taxonomy, the compression with other less broad or more detailed approaches and the application of this approach in the temporal states. Finally, the situational behaviors against stable personality would be presented. First of all, the factor analytic technique that was adopted for developing the Big Five has a few problems. McCrae and John (1992) argued that it was not a purely objective method and it required arbitrary decisions on analyzing. During the course of analyzing, there might be other factors which effected the interpretation of relationship between behavior and trait. But these suppressor factors would not be included in the final explanation. As a result, the personality dimensions that appeared in the Big Five might be not reliable because of excluding suppressor factor. In addition, factor analytic method was a subjective technique. The research factors which were proposed by theorists were selected empirically. Therefore, it was possible that the
Abstract Abstract In 1979, Atkins designed a study to investigate the correlation between violence in TV and the aggressive response by the viewers. He found that 45% of heavy TV violence viewers always respond aggressively, only 21% of participants who watch little TV violence respond aggressively. From this previous study, I developed this research. The main aim of this research is to investigate whether there is a correlation between aggressive play in football match and an aggressive response by the watchers, further more, to discover whether there is a positive correlation between these two, that means, whether the players play more aggressively in the match would lead to more aggressive responses by the viewers. To achieve these aims, two questionnaires were used, the first questionnaire was given to football watchers in a pub, the other was given to supporters participating in the playground. Each questionnaire was handed out to 10 participants (totalling 20), 15 of them are male, 5 are female. Participants were selected through self-selected sampling. Results showed that, generally, aggressive play in a football match would lead to an aggressive response, therefore a correlation was found, in addition evidence showing that a positive correlation exists. Introduction Aggression is a type of Anti-social behavior. It can be defined into three aspects. Antisocial
The Neuroanatomical and Neuropharmacological Bases of
Although the exact definition of hooligans is rather open-ended, it can be characterised as violence toward opposing fans, players, and referee's or destruction of objects inside or around the stadium.
Although the exact definition of hooligans is rather open-ended, it can be characterised as violence toward opposing fans, players, and referee's or destruction of objects inside or around the stadium. Violent incidents that occur following a game that fans perpetrate is also often considered acts of hooliganism (Soccer-website). The problem of football hooliganism has its roots deep in social development and is associated with aggression and maturation rituals. Furthermore, the media has negatively impacted the problem by publicising, and exaggerating hooligan activities. What we know today as hooliganism began in Britain in the late nineteen-sixties. Riots, field invasions, beatings, and deaths were characterised by the media as "football hooligans," and thus came era of violence to football. Although sporadic violence in football occurred from 1900 to 1960, it was attributed to nothing more than overzealous or drunk fans. In the 1964 soccer season, fan began to take on a rather peculiar pastime called "taking ends," where fans on one side of the stadium would rush the opposing fans' side and try to take control of their section. These acts of violence, team identification, and ritual aggression developed in a few short years into the social epidemic of soccer hooligans. (Soccer-website) So what has caused these soccer fans to become hooligans? This question has been the
Discuss the proposal that exposure to violence during the early ages of development increases the possibility of later violent behaviour.
Discuss the proposal that exposure to violence during the early ages of development increases the possibility of later violent behaviour. Over the past decade much has been learnt about the way children respond to experiences of violence in their home and their community. By being able to try to predict the children most at risk from future violence, the society will be able to intervene to reduce delinquency or future violence. The literature on childhood experiences and later violence vary in their eitiology. The suggested evidence, which will be mentioned, will include the experience of childhood abuse; including sexual abuse, physical punishment and maltreatment, the influence of the media and the community and domestic violence within the family. Assessments of the long-term criminal consequences of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect was carried out by Widom and Ames (1994), official criminal histories were examined through a large sample consisting of cases of physical abuse, neglect as well as sexual abuse compared to other types of abuse. Widom et al proposed that at adult child sexual abuse victims were at a higher risk of arrest for sex crimes than controls. However this study does not seem to take into account other influences the child may have experienced during childhood, such as their community; schools, peers etc. Thus the validity in
What do the Ways in which human Beings can become 'Self Conscious' Tell Us About the Nature of Selfhood?
What do the Ways in which human Beings can become 'Self Conscious' Tell Us About the Nature of Selfhood? Tangney and Miller (1996) say that self-conscious emotions such as shame, embarrassment and guilt "involve a heightened sense of awareness and evaluation of the self". They move on to suggest that as well as being self-conscious, they should also be considered 'other-conscious', as they often involve the feeling of exposure and a 'heightened concern for others' judgements of the self'. If this is true, it suggests that the nature of selfhood may be directly linked to social interactions. Before this can be explored, however, it is important to understand the meaning of the term 'self-conscious'. In this context when we say self-conscious we mean (as Tangney and Miller suggested) any situation in which a person is brought to be more aware of themselves. Examples of this include Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment and Pride. In each of these emotions, the subject is lead to consider their own actions or even their own identity in response to a violation of social norms or moral beliefs. Historically there has been some argument over whether such emotions (especially Shame, Guilt and Embarrassment) can be considered distinct or if they are merely affective aspects of one larger emotional response. What has now been broadly recognised is that although similar, they are structurally
Critically consider research into the affects of environmental stressors on aggressive behaviour. One type of environmental stressors is heat. Anderson suggested that the hotter regions of the world tend to have more aggression than cooler regions. Hotter years, seasons and days tend to have more incidents of violent crimes than cooler one. In support of this statement, Mcfalane found that more drivers honked their horns more in a response to a car blocking the road at a traffic light as temperature rose. Heat may have an affect on aggression because hot and uncomfortable conditions cause irritability that is prone to temper outbursts and negativity to others (Griffitt). However, Halpern found an inverted 'U' relationship between heat and aggression. This is where aggression goes up as the temperature does but then starts to fall at a certain point. Baron and Bell studied the effect of heat on aggression by seeing how willing participants were to give electric shocks. It was found that the temperature range between 33-35 degrees increased aggression. Extreme heat reduced aggression towards others, perhaps because they were stressed and did not want to add to that by causing conflict with other participants. Baron and Ransberger collected data on incidents of group violence in USA and corresponding weather reports to extend the inverted 'U' hypothesis. They found that
Social Influence & Social Cognition a) Explain what is understood by the term 'compliance'. Compliance is an overt or explicit attempt to influence another. Rather than wait for group pressures to take effect. Asking someone to purchase a product or perform a task are both examples of compliance. There are techniques which people use to increase the likelihood of compliance, for example, the foot in the door technique. b) Identify three factors which might increase the likelihood of compliance. Three factors which might determine compliance are authority, consistency/commitment and reciprocity. c) Describe one study of minority influence. In your answer indicate why the study was conducted, the method used, results obtained and conclusions drawn. Moscovici created an experimental paradigm designed to allow the study of minority influence. In his experiment there were 6 people- 2 confederates and 4 participants. They were shown a set of slides which were blue and asked each person in turn what colour they thought the slide was. The 2 confederates stated that the slides were green. The minority(confederates) were able to influence about 32% of the subjects to make at least one incorrect judgement about the colour of the slides they were shown. Moscovici found that a majority can bring about compliance in a group but the subjects may not necessarily believe in what they are
With reference to the scientific literature in the field, discuss the psychological perspective of the advantages and disadvantages of using the Control Question Test, associated with the polygraph, for judging the credibility of suspects?
With reference to the scientific literature in the field, discuss the psychological perspective of the advantages and disadvantages of using the Control Question Test, associated with the polygraph, for judging the credibility of suspects? From a Hindu medical source dated about 900 B.C. in which persons falsely denying being poisoners were considered to reveal their guilty identity by such physiological changes as blushing. Therefore, people traditionally assumed that telling lie is accompanied by changes in physiological activity within a person's body. At present, in the scientific perspective that stresses different psychological processes, the central problem is that differentiating deception from other processes. This sort of differentiation, as it employs physiological measures such as changes in skin conductance, is part of the science of psychophysiological which studies psychological processes by means of measuring slight changes in physiological functions. Polygraph that refer to an application of the science of psychophysiological, which itself employs physiological measures to study and differentiate between psychological processes. It is an accurate and scientific instrument that used for the psychophysiological credibility assessment record measures from at least three physiological systems, which are controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Recordings
This essay is going to analyse and provide examples of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination/oppression and is going to evaluate some explanations of the origins of prejudice, discrimination and stereotyping. Discrimination means treating someone differently because of something about them - their race, age or sex, for instance - which is not relevant to the situation. It results in people being unfairly denied opportunities. Discrimination can be positive or negative, direct or indirect, individual, institutional and structural. For example, where a person who is black fails to get a promotion because her boss holds prejudiced views about black people, a discriminatory act has occurred. The boss has acted upon his prejudice and has dealt less favourably towards the person as a result. Oppression is linked to discrimination as it refers to the power to make an individual feel inferior. Oppression is the arbitrary and cruel exercise of power. While the term is usually used to describe wrongful acts of government, oppression is rarely limited solely to government action. Oppression is most commonly felt and expressed by a widespread, if unconscious, assumption that a certain class of people are inferior. Oppression is often used to mean a certain group is being kept down by unjust use of force or authority and has been referred to as 'systematic oppression'. The