OUTLINE AND EVALUATE TWO EXPLANATIONS OF AGGRESSION One of the theories for aggression is the social learning theory and this theory was proposed by Bandura in 1962. He felt that aggression could not be explained using the traditional learning theory, which states that only direct experiences would explain the gaining of new behaviours. Social learning theory suggests that we also learn by observing others, we learn the form tat aggression takes and where it is targeted. Biological factors are not ignored but it is seen that that the main potential for aggression is what is being learnt. The two process of social learning is observation and mental representation. Social leaning theory is attention, then retention, then production and finally motivation or reinforcements. Observations is when children learn their aggressive behaviours through watching other people such as their role models and the imitating that behaviour. When Skinner (1953) claimed that learning occurs by reinforcement, Bandura argued that learning takes place by observing the people that we relate to and also the people that we identify such as role models. Children also observe and learn the consequences of aggressive behaviour by watching other people succeeding and this is known as indirect or vicarious reinforcement. Children see many examples of aggressive behaviour at home and at school, as well
A Critical Appraisal of the Concept of Medicalization for Understanding Dementia The aim of this paper is to critically appraise the use of the concept of medicalization, as used by sociologists to examine dementia. It will examine medicalization and dementia and the association between the two. Three papers that have used medicalization to understand and explain dementia will be examined. The papers will be critically appraised on the strengths and limitations of the author's application of the concept. The study will use the arguments raised in the three papers to conclude whether the concept of medicalization can be used to understand dementia. Sociologists have been concerned with medicalization for over three decades. The earliest mention focused on the medicalization of deviance (Pitts 1968). However, sociologists soon saw the concept's applicability to a wide range of human problems that had entered into medical jurisdiction (Friedson 1970; Zola 1972; Illich 1976). Medicalization simply describes a process by which non-medical problems become defined and treated as medical problems, usually in terms of illnesses or disorders. Although the literal meaning of the phrase is 'to make medical', it has most frequently been used in the context of a critique of medicalization. While sociologists have
Behaviour in Groups Essay written by: Aiden Fernandez The Psychological definition of a 'group' is broken down into 7 categories: . Interaction - a group is a collection of individuals who are interacting with one another. 2. Perception of belonging - a group consists of 2 or more persons who perceive themselves to belong to a group. 3. Interdependence - group members are interdependent. 4. Common goals - a group is a collection of individuals who join together to achieve a goal. 5. Needs satisfaction - individuals who belong to a group are trying to satisfy some need through group membership. 6. Roles and norms - members of a group structure their interactions by means of roles and norms. Roles consist of sets of obligations and expectations. Norms imply established ways of behaving - that is, uniformity among people in the ways they behave. 7. Influence - a group is a collection of individuals who influence each other. The study of individuals in-groups and group behaviour has been a core of social psychology since its inception in the early 1900s. One of the first "experiments" in social psychology was by Triplett in 1898, considering the effects of the presence of others on performance. The authors examine this phenomenon as well as group communication, task performance in-groups such as problem-solving and decision-making, and leadership characteristics
Midterm Exam Essay Theory of crime Humbert Diazgranados CJ102-03: Criminology Social organizational theorists assume that although the individual's personality (i.e., the characteristic of self-control) remains stable through time, the relationship between self-control and crime is amenable to change. Crime is more likely to occur when an individual's bond to society is attenuated; theorists affirm that early childhood events are significant predictors of later adult criminality (Siegel pg. 67). Recent evidence indicates that insecurely or poorly attached children are more likely to engage in later violent behavior. An insecure attachment produces low levels of empathic understanding suggests that the central underling factor involved in a secure attachment is the experience of empathy. A child develops self-control and empathy as the result of receiving empathic understanding from a parent or guardian (Siegel pg 67). When potential offenders can perceive others as humans rather than as objects, they are less likely to inflict injury upon them. There is strong continuity in antisocial behavior running from childhood through adulthood across a variety of life domains. Social control in adulthood explains changes in criminal behavior over the life span, independent of prior individual differences in criminal propensity. Childhood pathways to crime and conformity
A Critique of Evolutionary In this essay I will assess evolutionary psychology (E.P) as a scientific research programme. I will outline the concept of a scientific research programme and the utility of discussing E.P in this manner. I will also give an outline of the origins of E.P, discussing on the one hand its fundamental principles and their auxiliary hypotheses and on the other the earliest work done in this spirit. I will discuss certain ambiguities and weaknesses present in the programme, those concerning reverse engineering, modularity, adaptation and the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (E.E.A). I will complete the discussion of Archer's claim by assessing criticisms of E.P and their motivation, and providing some warning comments about progress and degeneration. E.P as a Scientific Research Programme Archer (2001) presents the hierarchical theoretic structure of E.P. as outlined by Buss (1990). His basic claim is that the fundamental principles of E.P are not being tested in empirical research; the role of these fundamental principles (the first and second level) is to generate 'novel hypotheses' (the second and third level) which are then empirically tested. To understand fully what is being claimed one needs at least a brief gloss on work done in Philosophy of Science in the latter part of the twentieth century. In his Conjectures and Refutations Karl
Comparing and contrasting the Social learning theory of aggression with the Frustration-Aggression theory of aggression.
Comparing and contrasting the Social learning theory of aggression with the Frustration-Aggression theory of aggression. Filip Cabart In order to examine the two different approaches to aggression there is a clear necessity to define aggression as a term. Aggression is described as aversive behavior, usually directed onto a specific object. The two theories elaborate upon if aggression is or is not only a product of the surrounding environment or a product of the environment combined with the innate factors. The social learning theory is the one stating that aggression is evoked only by the environment, and therefore that it is a learned behavior. The key process in adopting aggressive behavior is the process of modeling, where the observer perceives aggression, usually in a positive manner and then tries to imitate it. All is based on the basic concept of operant and classical conditioning, where the observer is passively reinforced by the consequences of behavior of the observed aggressor and then he would be more or less likely to imitate it, depending if the consequences of observed aggression were positive (reinforcement) or negative (discouragement). To prove the theory, Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1961) conducted an experiment where young children (average age 52 months), were to see an aggressive model hit a bobo doll, and the children were then observed to imitate
Is Behaviour Learnt or Innate? Whether our behaviour, actions and conduct are determined by nature, the genes given to us by our parents or by nurture,
Question: Is Behaviour Learnt or Innate? Whether our behaviour, actions and conduct are determined by nature, the genes given to us by our parents or by nurture, the factors of the environment upon us after birth and through childhood is a debate that has fascinated psychologists throughout history. Starting with Galton's study of Darwin's book on evolution and carrying on with other famous Psychologists such as Pavlov, Watson and Skinner, this is an area of study that is both popular and important. There has been no definitive correct answer to the debate of nature versus nurture and so there are still differing views. Some views have differed in the extreme. For example Galton (1883) suggested "nature prevails enormously over nurture" yet Eysenck (2003) reports John Locke arguing "They (Babies) are born with a mind that is like a blank slate (tabula rasa) and experience records itself in such a way that each individual becomes a unique being. We inherit nothing and all behaviour is acquired as a consequence of experience." It is a very difficult question to answer because it is almost impossible to ascertain whether someone's actions are due to genes or environment. One method used to try and determine whether genes are the most important factor are with identical twin studies. If two monozygotic twins have the same characteristics as each other then it suggests
EDUF111 Reading Assignment 1. Television, Modelling and Imitation. modelling: A procedure whereby a subject observes a model perform some behaviour and then attempts to imitate that behaviour. There are many who feel that this is the fundamental learning process involved in socialization. (Reber & Reber, 2001) Through models and imitation television characters have strongly influenced those who watch them. Children and adults are both susceptible to television's effect but the difference is that young children lack the perspective and critical reviewing skills needed to separate positive and negative influences (Santrock, 1999). I have chosen two shows, The Simpsons and ER, to examine the effects the characters have on viewers. ER screens on Thursday nights at 8:30pm, it is rated M, and aims at a mature audience while The Simpson's, rated G, airs new episodes Wednesday nights at 7:30pm but with repeats every day at 6:00pm. Who are the main characters and what types of models do they represent? The shows that I observed both have many important characters so I will focus on the on the most recently watched episodes. ER is based around a busy metropolitan hospital emergency room recently the major characters have been Dr Susan Lewis, Dr Luka Kovac and Nurse Abby Lockhart. Dr Lewis has befriended an elderly patient setting a good example of social behaviour with older
Throughout history spanking has been commonly viewed as necessary and effective mean of conditioning children to good behaviour.
Throughout history spanking has been commonly viewed as necessary and effective mean of conditioning children to good behaviour. Partly the practice has religious roots, as Bible is often interpreted to require parental corporal punishment (Latif, 2003). Psychological research has yet been unable to draw conclusive understanding of whether and how corporal punishment affects children. Over the past two or three decades corporal punishment of children has no longer been viewed as private family affair but an issue of public concern (Bachar et al., 1997). In increasingly many countries, including the whole Scandinavia, all corporal punishment of children is legally banned. In Britain, however, the government still accepts parental corporal punishment as "reasonable chastisement" (Gershoff, 2002). Conflict on the topic elicits passionate debates within both private and public sphere and even psychologists and other professionals disagree over the use of corporal punishment (Holden, 2002). The controversial and emotionally charged nature of the topic highlights the need to approach the issue of corporal punishment and its effects on child behaviour through scientific and thus objective means, rather than simply relying on ideologically motivated arguments (Holden, 2002; Freeman, 2002). In this paper we shall evaluate some of the psychological evidence that would support the full
Psychology ? Kiren Lakhani "Describe and evaluate two social Psychological theories of aggression. " Aggression is an action which involves hurting others on purpose and Aronson et Al (1997) says, "Aggression must mean to harm somebody. The harm can be physical-intending to cause bodily harm or psychological-intending to cause physical pain." Psychologists have identified different forms of aggression, these being person-oriented aggression, which is designed to hurt some-one else and so causing harm is the main goal. In contrast to that there is instrumental aggression which as its main goal is obtaining some sort of a desired reward. There's also proactive aggression which is instructed by the entity to achieve some of their most desired outcome and there's reactive aggression which is an entity's reaction to someone else's aggression. There are many theories in psychology which consider the cause of aggression. Two social-psychological theories that have considered this are the frustration-aggression hypothesis and the social learning theory. Frustration-aggression behaviour is mainly prompted by frustrating situations. This is supported by Dollard et al (1939) which asserted that when frustration occurs; the outcome is always aggressive, therefore suggesting some very close links between the two. This frustration can also be an unpleasant sensation caused