Discuss the role of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous Zeitgebers in biological rhythms In relation to biological rhythms, endogenous factors are internally caused, as distinct from external causes. The main pacemaker for endogenous rhythms is the superchiasmatic nucleus. This is a small group of cells in the hypothalamus. It lies just above the optic chiasm. It can then receive input directly from the eye; rhythm can be reset by the amount of light entering the eye. It also generates its own rhythms, as a result of protein synthesis. The cells produce a protein for a period of hours, until the level inhibits further production. When the level drops below another threshold the SCN starts producing the protein again. This generates the biological rhythm. Kalat says it produces protein until you have enough. However, this is only one study and so cannot be used to generalise to everybody and therefore lacks validity. Morgan (1995) removed the SCN from hamsters and found that their circadian rhythms disappeared. These rhythms could be re-established by transplanted SNC cells from foetal hamsters. Morgan also transplanted the cells from hamsters who had been bred to have shorter cycles than normal and found that the transplanted hamsters took on the mutant rhythms. However, the validity of animal research is questionable, as the results cannot be generalised to humans.
FIVE FACTORS, (IN DECENDING ORDER OF IMPORTANCE) THAT MAKE ME HAPPY Introduction Are you happy? What does it mean to be happy? Basically, being happy means that you are in a state of mental ease or joy. According to dictionary.com, happy can be defined in five different ways, them being " . delighted, pleased, or glad, as over a particular thing: to behappy to see a person. 2. characterized by or indicative of pleasure, contentment, or joy: a happy mood; a happy frame of mind. 3. favoured by fortune; fortunate or lucky: a happy, fruitful land. 4. apt or felicitous, as actions, utterances, or ideas. 5. obsessed by or quick to use the item indicated (usually usedin combination): a trigger-happy gangster. Everybody is gadget-happy these days" (Dictionary.com). It is believed that the word was first used in the mid 14 century. From these definitions, we can say that the word "Happy" means to express a feeling of pleasure or joy, usually in the form of a smile or other joyful expressions or actions. Happiness/ being happy are other forms of the word happy. Although there are many quotes on happiness, Byron Pulsifer's own is one I hold in high regards, he said that "Happiness is a state of mind not what's in your wallet". According to him how rich a person is doesn't really affect how happy he/she is, this particular quote has lead me to do research on factors which
The bystander effect: sex differences in helping behaviour in emergency and non-emergency situations literature review
The bystander effect: sex differences in helping behaviour in emergency and non-emergency situations literature review The circumstances of Kitty Genovese's murder in 1964 triggered much research. The woman was brutally murdered outside her home in New York while numerous onlookers in their apartments (surrounded by one another) did nothing. A number of researchers (Darley & Latane´, 1968) have investigated the bystander effect-the phenomenon that a lone bystander is more likely to help than any of a group of bystanders. Darley & Latane´ (1968) said that in an emergency, a lone bystander feels the full responsibility to help, while multiple bystanders are able to diffuse this responsibility. It is possible that other factors influence the bystander effect; people may be influenced by characteristics of the person in need or of the situation itself. Another view is that bystanders are influenced by the urgency of the situation. Fischer, Greitemeyer, Pollozek and Frey (2006) recently countered this idea. They found that the bystander effect is actually reduced in an emergency. However, Darley & Latane´'s (1968) earlier research stated that "interpreting the event as an emergency" is a key factor when one is deciding to take action. Thus, bystanders are more likely to help if they interpret the situation as an emergency. Shotland & Huston (1979) agreed with Darley & Latane´
Multicultural Paper. This paper will discuss how psychologists are encouraged to understand and to become knowledgeable about other cultures and their belief of the world. Psychologists are also advised to examine their selves when interacting with clien
Running head: MULTICULTURAL COMPETENCY PAPER Multicultural Competency Paper PSYCH 535 University of Phoenix Multicultural Multicultural has a major effect on our society; our world is made of different races, socioeconomic statuses, languages and cultures. According to Hall, (2010) multicultural is define as having multiple ways of viewing the world. The way a certain group look at something may not be what another group perceives it to be. Culture is how people look at their world, people first look at their culture in order to understand another culture. This paper will discuss how psychologists are encouraged to understand and to become knowledgeable about other cultures and their belief of the world. Psychologists are also advised to examine their selves when interacting with clients of different cultures. In American Psychological Association, (2003) guideline 1 talks about psychologists may be bias and hold attitudes, beliefs that can have an effect on their perception with interacting with individuals who are different from themselves. Psychologists are encouraged to learn how other cultures view the world. This article expresses how psychologist or just people in general view other people in categories in order to understand that person’s behavior (American Psychological Association, 2003). These types of behavior easily lead to bias and ineffective
Sarah Jayne Makinson TMA03 Part One What does this table tell us about the identities of people visiting England's National Parks? The table (Natural England leisure visits data 2005, cited in Open University, 2011, p. 22-23) shows data collected about the people visiting the National Parks in England. This data devises a numerical summary and provides possible suggestions as to the characteristics and descriptions of these people. 'Car-owning household' gives a notable statistic. Of all adults asked, 75% own a car within their household and 87% of these are National Park visitors which is a large amount. On the other hand, the 25% of the adults that do not own a car show a percentage of just 13 visiting the National Parks. This statistic could indicate that access to a vehicle is an important factor for those who may or may not visit these National Parks. Looking at sub-heading 'Ethnicity' it is clear to see that adults from a white population are more prominent National Park trip takers. There is a great difference in percentages of White and Non-White people visiting the parks with 96% being white and a mere 2% being Non-White. The Non-White category holds 2% of visitors not only to the National Parks but that of all rural trip takers. This suggests that the Non-White people are of marked identity as they are not as included within the National Parks and with this
Deception in Psychological Research Briana Conner University of Phoenix PSYCH/540 Research Methodology Dr. Neil Stafford April 16, 2012 When conducting research studies many code of ethics come into play. A researcher has an obligation to follow the code of ethics. Many ethical standards must be followed when dealing with research. When conducting research as well as gathering data there are several ways to do so. Depending on whom you ask some ways are considered ethical and appropriate and some are unethical and inappropriate. Using deception to obtain information is a debatable issue on whether it is ethical or unethical by obtaining data in such a manner. The following paper will define what ethics is along with, discussing the concept of risk/benefit ratio, describing exactly what deception in research is, as well as evaluating the impact deception in research has on psychological research. Deception occurs whenever participants are not completely informed of procedures and goals of the research. According to Wikipedia, "ethics is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about mortality, how moral values should be determined, how a moral outcome can be achieved in a specific situation, how moral capacity or a moral agency develops and what its nature is, and what moral values people actually abide by (Wikipedia). Ethics deals greatly with morals.
Alcohol use in adolescence. By learning and studying what leads young people to drink alcohol, and how this will affect their lives, we can then determine what action need to be taken to help remove ourselves from our ever-increasing attraction to alcoho
Alcohol use in Adolescence Reuben Rolle Mrs. Carey PSY 101: Introduction To Psychology 27th October 2011 Table of Content Page Introduction 3 Why Young people Use Alcohol? 3 Can Alcoholism be genetic? 4 Review of Literature 5 Theory and Hypothesis 6 Methodology 7 Measures 7 Results 8 Conclusions 9 Discussions 10 References 11 Introduction Alcohol abuse is a growing problem in our society. Daily people are injured and killed in alcohol-related accidents and this has an effect on each and every person as a result of these occurrences. Whether we are personally involved or have directly suffered from the activities of someone who is under the influence of alcohol, we all suffer from the negative consequences of alcohol. Many young persons in high school and college engage in such activity as this. Since we have those persons who choose to abuse these privileges we need to develop consequences for them. By learning and studying what leads young people to drink alcohol, and how this will affect their lives, we can then determine what action need to be taken to help remove ourselves from our ever-increasing attraction to alcohol. Why young people use alcohol? During a research Michael and Rebecca C. Windle discovered several reasons that provide incentives for
Drawing upon what you have learned about City Road in Cardiff, outline how differences are made and remade on a street which you know
Miss Sarah Kurkowski DD101 B8627894 TMA 01 Part 1 Drawing upon what you have learned about City Road, outline how differences are made and remade on a street which you know. We are going to be using the High Street in the town of Ashford to highlight the differences that are made and remade and compare them with City Road. Ashford used to be supported by the railway works industry as well as being a market town. The high street has changed dramatically through the years and in this assignment we shall be looking at social change and the change of the High Street including the layout and use. I shall also be comparing these changes with City Road in Cardiff. Firstly, we shall be looking at the layout of the High Street. The High Street used to be the main road of the town centre many years ago. These days it is completely pedestrianised during the day then opened to the small amount of traffic that uses it in the evenings until the early morning. City Road has not changed in this way, but has become more used by people using it as a conduit to get through to other places (‘Material lives’, 2009, scene 2). This highlights the change of social organisation of both streets. In the High Street, where years ago it used to be used as more of a through road with parking at the sides, it is now used as more of a shopping and relaxing environment during the
A study to assess the effect gratitude has on happiness and positivity Lekha Ravichandran PID: 720020560 November 2010 Dr. Barbara Fredrickson PSYC 62: Positive Psychology ________________ ABSTRACT This experiment sought to investigate the level of happiness and positive outlook on life as dependent variables by practicing the “Three Blessings” (based on Emmons’ and Seligman’s studies) gratitude intervention. This exercise involves incorporating gratitude into everyday life in order to assess the positive impact it could have on overall well-being. The study is based on a self-experiment by a 17 year old college freshman, the only participant to partake in this research. It required an individual to keep a daily journal to write down three things one is grateful for at the end of every day for two weeks. A positivity ratio test and supplementary measures to test happiness and gratitude were taken immediately afterward and compared with previous three weeks of similar baseline data (sans gratitude intervention). Based on the data results, the overall level of well-being notably increased during the two weeks experimental situation, when the gratitude intervention was introduced, relative to the three weeks of the control period. This matches up to the previously carried out research by Emmons and Seligman. Therefore, it can be concluded there is a strong
Attachment and Adulthood: A Neurobiological Perspective Tammy D.Schamuhn, MS Candidate Portland State University Couns 510 What is Attachment? Attachment theory, as defined by Bowlby and Ainsworth, asserts that strong early relationships serve as a secure base from which to go confidently out into the world (Bowlby & Ainsworth, 1991). These fundamental relationships are those that individuals form and try to maintain because they are fundamental to feelings of belonging, security and protection from fear (Sable, 2008). The research suggests that a secure, close connection is a source of strength and personality integration (Siegal & Hartzell, 2003). Research puts forward that healthy development is dependent on secure parental attachment, where in the child or adolescent feels safe enough to explore his or her environment, while knowing his parental figures are accessible and responsive when called upon (Bowlby, 1988). "This secure attachment is associated with the individuals' ability to connect with others and cope with affective or stressful problems" (Ketterson & Blustein, 1997, p, 14). Siegal and Hartzell (2003) clarify that when children have primary caregivers who are consistent in their behaviors, are emotionally attuned (the inner state of the child is matched with that of the parent), and respond to the child in such a way that accurately matches the child's