Cognitive Dissonance in Marital Satisfaction

Introduction Most people get married because they love their partner. They like the way they are with each other, honest, loving, understanding, fun, etc. Some are arranged marriage as they are unable to find the love of their life. However some get divorced as they are no longer compatible and they get turn off very easily. They are frustrated and bored. For those who want to continue to stay in an unhappy marriage due to many reasons such as the kids, their reputation, family, etc. as an alternative to divorce will ignore their feelings and convince themselves that the marriage is working well. They tend to adopt a cheerful attitude. They offered patience and understanding to make it appear as if the marriage was happy. Cognitive Dissonance is a feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that is inconsistent with one's belief (Franzoi, 2009, p.162). Basically it is a disagreement between one's personal beliefs and one's actions. It is the difference between how they would like to be and how they are. Cognitive dissonance is an aversive drive that causes people to (1) avoid opposing viewpoints, (2) seek reassurance after making a tough decision, and (3) change private beliefs to match public behavior when there is minimal justification for an action. Self-consistency, a sense of personal responsibility, or self-affirmation can explain dissonance reduction.

  • Word count: 1015
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Television and its Negative Conditioning on Children.

Television and its Negative Conditioning on Children "I believe television is going to be the test of the modern world, and that in this new opportunity to see beyond the range of our vision we shall discover either a new and unbearable disturbance of the general peace or a saving radiance in the sky. We shall stand or fall by television." -E.B. White The flickering blue box, once invented to bring information into the homes of Americans, has defeated its purpose. Our children are now getting too much information at too early an age. On an average night of viewing, children as young as six see violent images, explicit sexual acts, and the luring power of commercials. Television represents one of the most important and underrecognized influences on children's health and behavior. In this essay, I'll be examining the negative conditioning of television on children, including content, commercialism, messages, and health. Some of the most important and crucial teachings of a person's life happen in childhood. What is done to introduce a child into our complex and enigmatic world affects a person for life. Childhood is a time when people are forming their beliefs about the world. When children are taught not by their guardians and environment but by television, they may become susceptible to the misleading teachings of this medium. Conditioning should be done by

  • Word count: 1014
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Alcoholism In Young Age.

Alcoholism In Young Age Alcoholism In Young Age Alcoholism and alcohol abuse is a growing problem in our society. Daily, people are injured and killed in alcohol-related accidents and this has an effect on each and every person as a result of these occurrences. Whether we are personally involved or have directly suffered from the activities of someone who is under the influence of alcohol, we all suffer from the negative consequences of alcohol. Since we have those who choose to abuse these privileges we need to develop consequences for them. By learning what leads people to drink alcohol, and how this affects their lives, we can then determine what actions need to be taken to help remove ourselves from our ever-increasing attraction to alcohol. Because the abuse of alcohol often begins with adolescents and young adults, most research is based around them. At this particular time in life we hope to find out why these young adults choose to drink, and what motivates them to drink. Michael and Rebecca C. Windle, in their research, were able to show several reasons that provided incentives for adolescents to consume alcohol. Using a written survey, it was determined that the high-school students being studied used alcohol to cope with problems in their lives, including "task-oriented", "emotion-oriented", and "avoidance coping (Windle & Windle, 1996, p. 551)." The only

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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To Investigate How Aggression Affects Performance in Rugby

To Investigate How Aggression Affects Performance in Rugby Aggression is the intent to physically, verbally or psychologically harm someone who is motivated is avoid such harm. Baron (1977) defines aggression as the following: "Any behavior directed at the goal of harming or injuring another being who is motivated to avoid such treatment." There are certain types of aggression, some that lie within the rules or laws of the game and others that do not. Hostile or reactive aggression is said to be aggressive acts motivated by anger that have the intent and goal of harming another but also is not with in the rules/laws. An example of this in rugby would be a dangerous tackle above the shoulders/ round the head or neck of the opposition, a spear tackle, were a player is lifted off the ground and dropped head first into the ground also throwing a punch is outside the rules and can result in a sending off or sin bin. Another form of aggression is instrumental aggression, which are aggressive acts that are intended to harm another person with the goal of achieving a goal without suffering. In other words "Gamesmanship", which can be said to be cheating within the laws or bending them. An example of this would be going into a tackle and hitting your opponent with your shoulder first then wrapping your arms around them. Assertiveness is not entirely a form of aggression but a use of

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Paper review - Social cognition & the human brain.

Paper reviewed by Melanie Darwood as part of the requirement for Cognitive Anthropology module, BSc Cognitive Science. Paper Title: Social Cognition & the Human Brain, Written by Ralph Adolphs, from Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Humans are extremely social animals, but the neural foundations of social cognition & behaviour aren't well understood. Studies have highlighted structures that have a key role in guiding social behaviour, including the amygdale, ventromedial frontal cortices & right somatosensory-related cortex. They appear to act as a go-between between perceptual representations & retrieval of knowledge. Social cognition refers to processes that subserve behaviour in response to conspecifics (that is, other individuals of the same species) particularly those concerned with the varied & flexible social behaviours found in primates. It is suggested that humans' unique cognitive skills can be traced to development in an environment in which there was a reward for social skills. To support this there is correlation between group size & the ratio of neo-cortex volume to the rest of the brain among numerous primate species, also for other mammals that have a complex social structure. Another suggestion is that brain size correlates with other factors, such as tool use, longevity or dietary foraging strategy, but brain size could be a partial result of primates

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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A study was conducted to examine the motivation and impact of group-based emotions in modern society. The researchers conducted four different studies on members of the Israeli nation

Running Head: Discussion Post Student Name Institution Affiliation Course Professor Name Date General Psychology A study was conducted to examine the motivation and impact of group-based emotions in modern society. The researchers conducted four different studies on members of the Israeli nation where. Many Israelis feel melancholy on Memorial Day despite whether or not the individual has experienced direct remorse ensuing from warfare or terrorist attacks (Porat et al., 2016). In the first study, the researchers investigated whether or not those individuals who had a greater need to experience a sense of togetherness were a little more likely to have a sense of group-based sorrow on Memorial Day. It was explained to the participants that the survey was looking at attitudes and feelings around Memorial Day. (Porat et al., 2016) These participants were provided with a questionnaire where they were asked to express their opinion on whether their motivation to feel remorse on Memorial Day was instrumental in making them feel like part of the larger Israeli society. In the second study, students were encouraged to participate in two experiments that appeared to have no connection to one another to conceal the researchers' intention and provide the basis for unbiased results. In the second study, the researchers wanted to investigate Israelis' perspectives and feelings

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Music is a very prominent social voice in contemporary times - The use of drugs as a recreational pastime.

Music is a very prominent social voice in contemporary times. Many Americans obtain a great deal on many current social and political views through music itself, or music bands, radio stations, television stations, and organizations. The use of drugs as a recreational pastime is one of these issues. Throughout the history of modern music, many bands have spoken out on the legalization of drugs as well as the justification of the recreational use of drugs. Although there are many warnings and censors placed on this type of music, some of the music may pass along its message in a less obvious way. No matter how the message is conveyed, the message in readily absorbed by those listeners that want to be influenced and moved by music. Some of these bands include Pink Floyd, Cypress Hill, The Doors, The Grateful Dead, and even Eric Clapton. Pink Floyd was probably the most influential band throughout the 1970's. Pink Floyd combined the sound of classic rock with developing technology in music distortion to give a new sound that had never been heard before. This particular group was comprised of four men form England that were a late generation of the Beatles who were know for rebelling against the monarchy and traditional lifestyles of England. One of these traditional lifestyles that they rebelled against was that of a drug free society and a drug free lifestyle. Pink

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  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Multicultural Paper. This paper will discuss how psychologists are encouraged to understand and to become knowledgeable about other cultures and their belief of the world. Psychologists are also advised to examine their selves when interacting with clien

Running head: MULTICULTURAL COMPETENCY PAPER Multicultural Competency Paper PSYCH 535 University of Phoenix Multicultural Multicultural has a major effect on our society; our world is made of different races, socioeconomic statuses, languages and cultures. According to Hall, (2010) multicultural is define as having multiple ways of viewing the world. The way a certain group look at something may not be what another group perceives it to be. Culture is how people look at their world, people first look at their culture in order to understand another culture. This paper will discuss how psychologists are encouraged to understand and to become knowledgeable about other cultures and their belief of the world. Psychologists are also advised to examine their selves when interacting with clients of different cultures. In American Psychological Association, (2003) guideline 1 talks about psychologists may be bias and hold attitudes, beliefs that can have an effect on their perception with interacting with individuals who are different from themselves. Psychologists are encouraged to learn how other cultures view the world. This article expresses how psychologist or just people in general view other people in categories in order to understand that person’s behavior (American Psychological Association, 2003). These types of behavior easily lead to bias and ineffective

  • Word count: 945
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Bless the Beasts and the Children by Glendon Swarthout - Review.

John Spinner PSY 323-800 Book Analysis Bless the Beasts and the Children by Glendon Swarthout is a fictional account of a group of adolescent boys on a mission to save a herd of Buffalo from slaughter. The main characters are a group of outcasts at the Box Canyon Boys Camp known as the "Bedwetters." The group is comprised of five adolescent campers(Lawrence Teft III, Stephen Lally Jr., Billy Lally, Gerald Goodenow, and Sammy Shecker), who are led in there endevours by a slightly older counselor named John Cotton. After witnessing the Annual Arizona Fish and Game Department's three- day Buffalo Hunt(which is more a slaughter then a hunt) the "Bedwetters", with the encouragement of Cotton, decide to save the remaining buffalo on the Reserve from a cruel undignified death. Many aspects of Adolescent development are seen as the plot on folds through the characterization of the "bedwetters." Some aspects of adolescent development are seen in the characterization of the group as a whole, while others are unique to the dynamic characterization of the members as individuals. There are three major aspects of adolescent development(social redefinition, reckless behavior, and peer groups) that can be seen in the characterization of the "bedwetters" as a group. The boys are making a transition into adulthood, and their mission to free the Buffalo is there symbolic initiation

  • Word count: 934
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Outline and assess the structionalist themes of crime and deviance Structural theories of deviance are similar to Merton's theory. They

Outline and assess the structionalist themes of crime and deviance Structural theories of deviance are similar to Merton's theory. They explain the origins of deviance in terms of the position of individuals or groups in the social structure. In the 1930's Robert k Merton wrote an article entitled Social Structure and Anomie. It became one of the most influential explanations of crime and deviance. He offered a social rather than psychological or biological explanation. In particular, it was a structionalist theory as it saw the structure of society shaping peoples behaviour. According to Merton, American culture attaches great importance to success - and success is measured in terms of money and material possessions. There are norms which define legitimate means for achieving success. These legitimate means include gaining skills and qualifications and career advancement. The American dream states that anybody can make it to the top if they try hard enough. So much emphasis is placed on material success that many people experience pressure to deviate from accepted norms and values. Deviance occurs when they reject the goals of success and/or the legitimate means of reaching that goal. For example, some people are tempted to use nay means of getting to the top-even if that involves criminal behaviour. Merton refers to this pressure as a 'strain to anomie'. Anomie means

  • Word count: 934
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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