Summary of a Psychology Journal

Tutorial Assignment Summary of a Psychological Journal Joel Falken-Smith Elizabeth R. Tenney, Robert J. MacCoun, Barbara A. Spellman and Reid Hastie were interested in witness credibility. Specifically the confidence shown by a witness whilst delivering evidence to a juror and whether or not their level of confidence affected how credible the juror perceived their evidence to be once it was revealed that some of the evidence was erroneous. Two experiments were undertaken in order to obtain the results necessary to deduce whether or not the hypothesis that the more confident you are about the testimony and it is found to be wrong, the less likely people will believe you even when you are right. However when pitted against someone who appeared less confident about the erroneous evidence they will more likely side with them on the second piece of evidence given. Forty-eight undergraduates took part in the experiment and they were asked to read a nine-page written trial summary of a breaking-and-entering case that allegedly occurred on a college campus. Four versions of the case were constructed to create a 2 × 2 between-subjects factorial design with two levels of witness confidence (high vs. low) and two levels of witness error (no error vs. error). The witnesses were asked to give evidence about a robbery on campus and in the high vs low condition the high confidence

  • Word count: 921
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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In The Future of Love by Barbara Graham, she cites a variety of people and opinions as research about views on romantic love. These views fall into two general schools; those two schools are biological and environmental.

Morton Nancy Morton English 161 Ms Theresa Kahl October 11, 2012 Is It Love or Biochemistry In The Future of Love by Barbara Graham, she cites a variety of people and opinions as research about views on romantic love. These views fall into two general schools; those two schools are biological and environmental. She treats both of these schools of thought as valid and eventually seems to conclude that the way to overcome our cultures preoccupation with romantic love is awareness of that preoccupation. She seems to be working from the presupposition that our culture is over saturated in romantic love. This push towards romantic love influences us even from an early age, and she gives examples from her own childhood. Graham’s article begins by giving a picture of her first “wedding.” She and a friend are on a pier, Graham dressed from head to toe in white and the “groom” dressed in shorts. Graham didn’t seem to notice the disgusted look on his face in the picture her mother took. According to Graham, “We put our hopes on romantic love so early” (Graham), this can be seen in the example of her first wedding. Graham goes on to say that we search for perfect love all too young, which could be a result of growing up with fairytales where everything ends perfectly or “happily ever after.” One aspect she talks about is Joseph Campbell’s Myths To

  • Word count: 910
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Social Influence & Social Cognition

Social Influence & Social Cognition a) Explain what is understood by the term 'compliance'. Compliance is an overt or explicit attempt to influence another. Rather than wait for group pressures to take effect. Asking someone to purchase a product or perform a task are both examples of compliance. There are techniques which people use to increase the likelihood of compliance, for example, the foot in the door technique. b) Identify three factors which might increase the likelihood of compliance. Three factors which might determine compliance are authority, consistency/commitment and reciprocity. c) Describe one study of minority influence. In your answer indicate why the study was conducted, the method used, results obtained and conclusions drawn. Moscovici created an experimental paradigm designed to allow the study of minority influence. In his experiment there were 6 people- 2 confederates and 4 participants. They were shown a set of slides which were blue and asked each person in turn what colour they thought the slide was. The 2 confederates stated that the slides were green. The minority(confederates) were able to influence about 32% of the subjects to make at least one incorrect judgement about the colour of the slides they were shown. Moscovici found that a majority can bring about compliance in a group but the subjects may not necessarily believe in what they are

  • Word count: 903
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Drawing upon what you have learned about City Road in Cardiff, outline how differences are made and remade on a street which you know

Miss Sarah Kurkowski DD101 B8627894 TMA 01 Part 1 Drawing upon what you have learned about City Road, outline how differences are made and remade on a street which you know. We are going to be using the High Street in the town of Ashford to highlight the differences that are made and remade and compare them with City Road. Ashford used to be supported by the railway works industry as well as being a market town. The high street has changed dramatically through the years and in this assignment we shall be looking at social change and the change of the High Street including the layout and use. I shall also be comparing these changes with City Road in Cardiff. Firstly, we shall be looking at the layout of the High Street. The High Street used to be the main road of the town centre many years ago. These days it is completely pedestrianised during the day then opened to the small amount of traffic that uses it in the evenings until the early morning. City Road has not changed in this way, but has become more used by people using it as a conduit to get through to other places (‘Material lives’, 2009, scene 2). This highlights the change of social organisation of both streets. In the High Street, where years ago it used to be used as more of a through road with parking at the sides, it is now used as more of a shopping and relaxing environment during the

  • Word count: 891
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Are phobias best understood as an exaggeration of normal fears?

Are phobias best understood as an exaggeration of normal fears? According to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (APA, 1994) phobias are characterised by a persistent fear of an object or situation which is out of proportion to any threat posed. Moreover, this fear is recognised by the sufferer as excessive yet can still cause extreme avoidance behavior. However, different paradigms have debated the ways in which normal, adaptive and proportionate fear is distinguished from fear that is diagnosed as phobic (Rachman, 1978). The differences between a dimensional interpretation of phobias which sees the disorder as an exaggeration of normal fear and a categorical approach which views phobias as being distinctly different from normal fear will be examined with reference to features of several types of phobic disorders. An overview of influential paradigms of phobias will be given focusing on whether they view this disorder as being categorically or dimensionally different from normal fear and the implications of these interpretations on the understanding and treatment of phobias. One of the earliest attempts to define the etiology of a phobia was made by Freud. He suggested that phobias occur due to the anxiety produced by the phobic's desire to seduce his mother (the Oedipus complex) conflicting with the fear of castration by his father. This

  • Word count: 885
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Compare and contrast the labelling perspective and rational choice theory.

Compare and contrast the labelling perspective and rational choice theory. Intro The extent to which formal sanctions have some bearing on the behaviour of offenders is a focal point of both rational choice theory and labelling perspectives (Baumer, Wright Kristinsdottir & Gunnlaugsson, 2002). Specific deterrence models generally posit that as the severity, certainty, and swift ness of sanctions increase, which in turn reduces re-offending (Gibb, 1975) (Baumer, Wright Kristinsdottir & Gunnlaugsson, 2002). In contrast the labelling theory predicts that formal sanctions increase reoffending by promoting a criminal self concept (Baumer, Wright Kristinsdottir & Gunnlaugsson, 2002). While deterrence and labelling theories are traditionally have been viewed in opposition to one another (Liska and Messner, 1999) recent theoretical contributions have integrated concepts from these and other theories (Baumer, Wright Kristinsdottir & Gunnlaugsson, 2002). Agency Although both perspectives are considered **to be concerning themselves with agency, or individual action, they go about this task in very different ways. Labelling perspective seek to understand the 'meaning' in human behaviour (Young, 1981:286). Whereas rational choice perspective in seeks to understand and control human behaviour (1). Context Labelling perspective initially emerged in the 1960's and early 1970's

  • Word count: 880
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Television, Modelling and Imitation.

EDUF111 Reading Assignment 1. Television, Modelling and Imitation. modelling: A procedure whereby a subject observes a model perform some behaviour and then attempts to imitate that behaviour. There are many who feel that this is the fundamental learning process involved in socialization. (Reber & Reber, 2001) Through models and imitation television characters have strongly influenced those who watch them. Children and adults are both susceptible to television's effect but the difference is that young children lack the perspective and critical reviewing skills needed to separate positive and negative influences (Santrock, 1999). I have chosen two shows, The Simpsons and ER, to examine the effects the characters have on viewers. ER screens on Thursday nights at 8:30pm, it is rated M, and aims at a mature audience while The Simpson's, rated G, airs new episodes Wednesday nights at 7:30pm but with repeats every day at 6:00pm. Who are the main characters and what types of models do they represent? The shows that I observed both have many important characters so I will focus on the on the most recently watched episodes. ER is based around a busy metropolitan hospital emergency room recently the major characters have been Dr Susan Lewis, Dr Luka Kovac and Nurse Abby Lockhart. Dr Lewis has befriended an elderly patient setting a good example of social behaviour with older

  • Word count: 879
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Discuss the role of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous Zeitgebers in biological rhythms

Discuss the role of endogenous pacemakers and exogenous Zeitgebers in biological rhythms In relation to biological rhythms, endogenous factors are internally caused, as distinct from external causes. The main pacemaker for endogenous rhythms is the superchiasmatic nucleus. This is a small group of cells in the hypothalamus. It lies just above the optic chiasm. It can then receive input directly from the eye; rhythm can be reset by the amount of light entering the eye. It also generates its own rhythms, as a result of protein synthesis. The cells produce a protein for a period of hours, until the level inhibits further production. When the level drops below another threshold the SCN starts producing the protein again. This generates the biological rhythm. Kalat says it produces protein until you have enough. However, this is only one study and so cannot be used to generalise to everybody and therefore lacks validity. Morgan (1995) removed the SCN from hamsters and found that their circadian rhythms disappeared. These rhythms could be re-established by transplanted SNC cells from foetal hamsters. Morgan also transplanted the cells from hamsters who had been bred to have shorter cycles than normal and found that the transplanted hamsters took on the mutant rhythms. However, the validity of animal research is questionable, as the results cannot be generalised to humans.

  • Word count: 847
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Outline and evaluate two theories of the cause of aggression

Kim Cao 13F1 Outline and evaluate two theories of the cause of aggression The frustration aggression hypothesis dominated aggression research for several decades. It is suggested that aggression is a direct response that individuals make to frustration. The theory claims that frustration always leads to aggression and that every aggressive act is the result of some form of frustration. The theory also states that aggression can sometimes be displaced, turned to someone or something is not necessarily the cause of the initial frustration. There was some evidence supporting this hypothesis. Doob and Sears (1939) reported that when participants were asked to imagine frustrating and non-frustrating situations, they generally felt angry in the frustrating situations however this hypothesis was attacked because it failed to account for justified and unjustified frustration. When Doob and Sear's experiments were repeated with justified frustration, then anger decreased significantly. The whole hypothesis has been strongly criticised. Frustration does not inevitably result in aggression. It is important to identify the circumstances under which frustration will end in aggression. For example the frustrated individual may well bust into tears, and instead of using aggression as a releaser, may well instead become depressed and withdraw from the situation. This is not surprising

  • Word count: 808
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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Theories of Aggression

Theories of Aggression The social learning theory emphasises that we learn from the example of others, as well as from direct experiences with rewards and punishments. One type of behaviour that can apply to the social learning theory is aggression. According to the theory, children will be aggressive if regularly exposed to aggressive models such parents, same-sex peers and media figures. Reinforcement is another factor to consider as when people see someone getting what they want by being aggressive; they are likely to imitate them. Albert Bandura conducted an experiment to demonstrate the social learning theory of aggression. He took a group of young boys and girls, and individually took them into a nursery, and the child in a corner of the room with a set of toys. The model was seated in the opposite corner with a selection of toys, which included a 5ft Bobo doll and a mallet. In the non-aggressive condition the model played with the toys. In the aggressive condition the model repeatedly hit the doll with the mallet, and was verbally aggressive towards the doll. The children were then taken into a room with a Bobo doll and a mallet, and they too began hitting the doll and used many of the same verbal terms as the model used. The children who were with the non-aggressive model did not hit the Bobo doll, and showed no aggression. This shows strong evidence that children

  • Word count: 796
  • Level: University Degree
  • Subject: Biological Sciences
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