Should Steroids be banned from all Professional Sports?
Firakh Patel Patel 1 Mr. Broan Lit & Lang /25/04 Should Steroids be banned from all Professional Sports? It's amazing what athletes will do to achieve higher levels of performance and to be better than the competition. Often people do not realize the long-term effects that result from using steroids. Steroids spread to athletes in the Olympics and other major sporting events during the 1950's. The use of steroids among athletes became clear when Canadian sprint runner Ben Johnson tested positive for steroid use after winning the gold medal for the 100-meter dash during the 1988 Olympics. Now a fifteen year old can just walk down to the local gym and find sellers to get the drug that will make him the best of all his classmates. Being an attractive drug, the user forgets about the effects it has on the body. Steroids should be banned from all professional sports because they can cause physical problems and can cause emotional and mental problems. Steroids should be banned from all professional sports because they can cause physical problems. How would you feel of you were taking steroids for athletic purposes and found out that you had liver cancer? You would never be able to play your sport at a high skill level ever again. With one mistake you can change your life completely around. With continued use of steroids you can jeopardize your career and
A Critical evaluation of how my learning experiences from the module; Participation and Challenge in Games across the Inclusion Spectrum might impact on my future professional practice.
A Critical evaluation of how my learning experiences from the module; Participation and Challenge in Games across the Inclusion Spectrum might impact on my future professional practice. Word count: 1498 Contents Report Evidence booklet 2 Driving up participation 3-4 games and young performers 5-10 mini team games 2-13 success indicators 4-15 zone hockey and badminton 7-19 learning from eachother 20 experiencing and reflecting on adapted games 23 - 25 wheelchair basketball 27 an international perspective 36-39 blind cricket and goal ball Benefits of sports participation The Disability survey (2000) explains the effects that sport can have on young people; 'Participation in sport has the potential to promote the social inclusion of disabled young people and increase their self-esteem. Sport and exercise offer the possibility of overcoming the stigma often associated with disability. Participation can provide the context within which young people exceed the expectations associated with their disability through demonstrations of physical skills or fitness, so emphasising an alternative, more positive, picture of the body and the self.' (www.sportengland.org.uk) Throughout the module I have learnt and experienced a variety of methods when modifying and using adapted games which are developed to cater for a vast audience of participants including wheelchair
Cardiorespiratory Exercise Program.
Brad Crane Professor Josey Lifetime Fitness December 13, 2002 Cardiorespiratory Exercise Program I. Obtain Medical Clearance - I am under the age of 40. I have no signs of Cardiocascular diseases. I have had a physical within the last year and I do not smoke. To my knowledge there has been no problems with hypertension or bloodpressure in my family. Also, none of my family members smoke, therefore I am medically clear to proceed with my cardiorespiratory exercise program. II. Assess Overall Fitness - In class we tested all five of the health components of fitness: Cardiorespiratory endurance, Muscular strength, Muscular endurance, Flexibility, and Body Composition. To test Cardiorespiratory endurance we did the 12 minute run/walk in the gym. I ran 29 laps, which is about 1 3/4 miles. This is a respectable amount in the time given. To test Muscular endurance we did as many sit-ups that we could do in a minute. I did 45, which is good for my age (18). For the Muscular strength test we did as many push-ups that we could do in a row. I did 40 which is slightly below the average for someone my age. We did the sit and reach to test Flexibility. I reached 17 inches. This was good and one of the farthest in my class. To test our Body composition we used the Body mass index. I scored a 20, which is good for my age. III. Set a Goal
The ways in which elite athletes manage stress within their sports.
Lycette Clarke: 5/4/2007 I am going to look at the ways in which elite athletes manage stress within there sports. I will use case studies. Stress effects both the average performer and elite sports athletes, it can lead to depression, insomnia, heightened anxiety, gastrointestinal distress, appetite loss and has been shown to affect the ability to focus on skills and flow in a performance. There are many causes of stress within athletes. Such as injury, mental fatigue, when it is thought that what is being asked of an athlete is beyond their perceived abilities, when too much is asked of the athlete in too short a space of time When unnecessary obstacles are put in the way of achieving goals. Some of these things are intrinsic and some possibly less are extrinsic. It is these factors, which cause most stress in elite athletes. An extreme example of this is female skier Picabo Street (two-time Olympic medallist, gold (Super G in 1998) and silver (downhill in 1994) who was in a major skiing accident in Switzerland 1998. It was the final downhill race of the season in Crans Montana, Switzerland and at split-second speed; Street lost control making a turn around a gate near the top of the course and lay fallen with a broken left femur and a torn right knee ``I went through a huge depression,'' Street said. ``I went all the way to rock bottom. I never thought that I ever
Nationalism, Sexuality, Violence, and Cricket.
Nationalism, Sexuality, Violence, and Cricket In his essay From Game to War, Alan Dundes creates a strong link between the aggressiveness males show both on the field of war and on the filed of play. He believes that this instinct that is shown in sports to check, push, trip, tackle, and hit one's opponent is the same instinctual characteristic shown by soldiers in the army. This masculinity that is manifested by these athletes and warriors come from one single root. Both soldiers and athletes, he argues, attempt to feminize their opponent through aggression and not stop until their opponent has completely sacrificed.1 Since these athletes manifest similar aggression and violence to soldiers and fighters, the fans, or fanatics, watching often inherit these characteristics. For example, in India, and all of South Asia in fact, cricket has become the sporting craze. It has become this craze for numerous reasons. Firstly, it is the sport that unified the country while under British-rule and helped them achieve their freedom. Secondly, it is one of the few sports countries, such as India, excel at on the international stage and thus the fans rally behind their players. Thirdly, and most importantly, the huge rivalries that exist between countries such as India and Pakistan often mirror the amount of tension that is relevant on the international political stage between the two
From Ancient to Modern Olympic Games in Athens.
FROM ANCIENT TO MODERN OLYMPIC GAMES IN ATHENS I - HISTORY AND DESCRIPTION -The ancient Olympic events. There are many different stories about the beginning of the Olympic games. One myth says it was Zeus himself who started the games to celebrate his victory over his father CRONUS for control of the world. Another tradition states that after the Greek hero PELOPS won a chariot race against king OENOMAUS to marry his daughter HIPPODRAMA, he established the games. Since athletics contests were one way that the ancient Greeks honoured their god, it was logical to hold a recurring athletic competition on the site of a major temple. Also, Olympia is convenient Geographically to reach by ship, which was a major concern for the Greeks. Athletes and spectators travelled from Greek colonies as well. The games normally lasted five days during which were held games and different festivities. The festival was also marked by a procession, which required the sacrifice of 100 oxen. Over time, the games flourished and Olympia became a central site of worship of Zeus. The athletes competed for pride patriotism and religious honour. However, some popular athletes were sometimes paid large sums of money, up to ten times the annual salary of a soldier, to participate in smaller athletic contests near their hometowns. Olympic winners received a wreath made of sacred olive tree branch.
Evaluation of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF)
Evaluation of the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) is a comprehensive self report questionnaire, invented by Raymond B. Cattell, that is used to provide in-depth evaluation of the human personality. Cattell et al. (1970) employed a statistical technique called the Multiple Abstract Variance Analysis (MAVA) to identify "surface traits", consistent behavioral responses, and "temperament and ability source traits", underlying variables that determine surface traits. The 16 PF measures these traits by dividing the human personality into sixteen factors - warmth, reasoning, emotional stability, dominance, liveliness, rule consciousness, social boldness, sensitivity, vigilance, abstractedness, privateness, apprehension, openness to change, self-reliance, perfectionism, and tension. Each scale score is interpreted as being low score direction vs. high score direction. By adding points for marked choices, factor by factor, raw scores can be obtained (Schuerger, 1992). Cattell et al. (1970) believed that all 16 factors were necessary for a comprehensive measurement of personality. The test has been modified throughout the years, with the 5th edition being the most recent version, and has now established itself as one of the best questionnaires to evaluate personality trait (Reilly, 1996). The 16 PF has overcome other
Critically discuss and evaluate the theories of anxiety in relation to their effectiveness in examining the relationship between anxiety and sports performance.
Critically discuss and evaluate the theories of anxiety in relation to their effectiveness in examining the relationship between anxiety and sports performance The ability to cope with pressure and anxiety is an integral part of sports, particularly among elite athletes (Hardy, Jones & Gould 1996). With anxiety being such an important aspect of sports performance it has been extensively researched. This research has produced a discrepancy in the operational definition of anxiety, with terms such as stress, anxiety and arousal being used interchangeably throughout (Humara ????) Inverted U Hypothesis Yerkes and Dodson (1908) developed their theory, calling it the Inverted U Hypothesis. (((insert graph))) As the diagram suggests for every type of behaviour there exists an optimal level of arousal (usually moderate) that produces an optimal performance. Levels of arousal positioned on this bell shaped graph either above of below this optimal point are side to generate an inferior performance from the athlete. Also the further the arousal level is from the optimal point the worse the performance is said to be. Again this theory was produced as a result of mainstream psychological research and so its validity with relation to sports performance has been questioned (Hardy & Fazey 1987; Neiss 1988). Not only has the validity been questioned but also the face validity of
Should drugs be legalized?
A. Issues The students will learn that it is important to think critically and apply their values on issues in today's world. (M.U.) Should drugs be legalized? (Issue) B. Possible Alternatives Organized crime is a big business today. Some main products associated with organized crime are guns, drugs and prostitution. What effects do these commodities have on today's society? Today drugs are a big business in the underworld. There is a lot of crime associated with the drug world, so many people who want drugs legalized say that the government could control the sales and ultimately bring down the crime rate and also make lots of money off it. If you look at Holland, that is what the government did and it did have an effect on crime. When we look at this issue we have to take into account our values and apply them to this situation and then come up with our own position, individually. Each of us have different values so we may not come up with the same position. . Yes, drugs should be legalized. 2. No, drugs should not be legalized. 3. Maybe just a few drugs should be legalized? Which ones should be? Cannabis, Cocaine, Heroin? Why should some be considered and others not? C. Positive and negative consequences . Yes, drugs should be legalized. Positive consequences Negative consequences * If the government controlled the sales they could stand to make a lot
Contemporary Sports Issues
Contemporary Sports Issues Should Performance Enhancing Drugs be banned in Sport? History The use of stimulants to improve an athlete's performance can be backdated all the way to the Ancient Greek times '...it was Galen who reported that ancient Greek athletes used stimulants to enhance their physical performance' (Mottram 2003, p29). From then till the modern day one vital thing has never changed, athletes wanting to win. The only discrepancy being how far an athlete will go to achieve this success. Throughout time people have aspired to reach higher levels of achievement in sporting situations to show prestige over others and acquire the feeling of success. Many athletes devote their lives to hopefully get this feeling, a feeling only they can truly appreciate due to the sacrifices that they must have made. But because of human's instinctive desire to succeed, it is needless to say that some looked for the easier routes to success. So even from an early time in history (668bc) some athletes were effectively looking to cheat. One Ancient Greek reported of a competitor being tripped by the opposition's fans, to win a foot race. It's funny to think of the Olympic morals being things such as fair play and competition for all, when even the Ancient Olympics were covered in corruption, fraud and scandal. People throughout time have been looking for that 'magic potion' that