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University Degree: Sports Science
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- Marked by Teachers essays 1
Discuss the role of feedback in the learning of skills Feedback is the return of information which has been brought about by the result of a process or activity4 star(s)
Proprioceptive is the feedback which is provided by the receptors found in muscles and tendons called proprioceptors and the balance sensors which provide information on how a movement 'feels.' When an athlete becomes familiar with a skill they develop a sense of how the movement should feel and from this are able to identify whether they are performing it correctly or not. This feedback is often used by athletes to make fine adjustments to a movement e.g. a basketball player may realise that they are more likely to score if they put a spin on the ball as they shoot and can make these changes accordingly due to this feedback.
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Violence in Sport. There are various theories that explain the relationship between sports and violence, but a few of them are discussed here, which are considered to be the most fundamental concepts in this area of study.
The concept of 'violence in sports' is elusive. Like other aspects of the social process, such as culture, the family, or crime, everyone thinks they know what it is until challenged to define it, or faced with having to do something about it (Dunning 2000, pp. 141-162). Most people typically conceive of violence in sports as falling into two areas crowd violence, which often involves both crimes against persons and property and player violence. In fact, if the conventional parameters of sports violence are broadened to include violent, abusive or otherwise injurious acts related to sport.
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To do this we either need to accept or reject the hypothesis, this will be done through the results. Hypotheses: there is a significant difference between ego and task involving instruction Null hypothesis: there is no significant difference between ego and task involving instruction. And the p- value was set at p<.05 Methods Participants The subjects use were 173 university students on a sport science degree, males (N= 122), females (N= 53). Between the ages of 18- 38 years (M= 19.50 years, SD= 2.65 years) consisting of some athletes (non professional) ranging from novice level of performance to expert.
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A Critical evaluation of how my learning experiences from the module; Participation and Challenge in Games across the Inclusion Spectrum might impact on my future professional practice.
In future practice, when teaching games, I will incorporate modifications to games and often use adapted games in order to cater for a broad spectrum of abilities. The Disability survey (2000) found that the proportion of children and young people with a disability or severe illness taking part in sport after school (organised or just for fun) was 40% compared to 79% for the general population of young people. Weekend and half term participation in sport was 47% of disabled young people and 74% of the general population of young people.
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The aim of this investigation is to determine how reaction time alters when a person is presented with different stimuli and reaction options.
information is sent to muscles, glands and organs for them to respond correctly. The CNS and PNS are the two divisions of the nervous system that allow these sensory, integrative and motor functions. Hypothesis I expect reaction time to be fastest when there is only one stimulus as there is less information for the brain to process and analyze. Method Donders (1868 ). Type A Task - In a type A task there is a single stimulus and a single response. There will be a warning that the trial is about to begin.
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With respect to the body systems describe a childs limitations to physical activity and explain how a coach would take these into consideration when planning or coaching.
Children will feel short term and long term effects to the cardio respiratory system during and after exercise. Some of the short term effects include an ncreased heart rate meaing the quantity of blood pumped by the heart increases to match the increased demand of the respiratory system (Obolynx website, 2010). Also, there is an increase in stroke volume as well. According to the Obolynx wesbite (2010), this means that the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in the heart in one pump, increases. The body needs more oxygen during exercise and the only way to get more oxygen is to increase the amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle per heart beat(Mathers, 2008).
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To stop this athletes will streamline themselves, so that the air travels around them. "An area of high pressure develops in front where the athlete or object pushes against the air head-on. Immediately to the rear you find an area of turbulence." Carr, G (2004:126). Surface Drag In contrast to form drag, surface drag can cause the fluid to slow down; this is supported by Hall, S, "The layer of fluid particles immediately adjacent to the moving body is slowed because of the shear stress the body exerts on the fluid. Surface drag occurs when a fluid such as air or water comes into contact with the body, this has been supported by Cooke,
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You may be asked to use this feedback to reflect upon your learning and personal development (PDP). Marker Signature :.................................................................. Date:.............................. White Copy for Module Tutor / Pink Copy for Student Name: Adam Merrifield Course: Fitness Testing Word Count: 1,278 Contents Page Introduction 5 Client Profile 5 Client Questionnaire 6 V02 Max Tests 7 Conclusion 10 Bibliography 11 Introduction This assignment will look at the understanding of different fitness tests and the procedure's that are used in these fitness tests.
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Sport Psychology. The athlete to be discussed in this paper found that imagery, feedback, goal setting and confidence played major roles in her overall performance in Sport Aerobics. Sport Aerobics incorporates facets of strength, flexibilty, power, agil
Augmented feedback is provided beyond intrinsic feedback and supplements the information that is naturally available. As the athlete had little experience in Sport Aerobics, it was difficult for her to differentiate between what was the correct technique and what the incorrect techniques were. Therefore, she relied upon feedback supplied by external sources (i.e. her peers, teachers and family members). This augmented feedback aided the athlete's progress throughout the term by giving her the knowledge of skills that she was performing incorrectly and thus what she was required to improve upon. The amount, content, frequency, precision, and type of augmented feedback provided are critical elements in skill acquisition, and manipultaion of these variables can result in different learning outcomes (Li, W., Solmon, M.A., Lee, A.M., Purvis, G., & Chu, H., 2007).
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in a variety of ways, four methods are recognized as the most popular, densitometry (Hydrostatic Weighing), bioelectric impedance, near Infrared Inheritance and skin fold fat thickness. Densitometry or hydrostatic weighing is considered the gold standard in terms of body composition accuracy. Hydrostatic weighing is used to measure body density, from which body composition and percentage body fat may be estimated, based on Archimedes' principle (the weight loss under water is directly proportional to the volume of water displaced by Body Volume). This method provides good results in terms of accuracy however is expensive to complete due to the equipment involved.
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Some people do not see this as leisure, but it makes me feel good inside. I do not think that leisure has to be a physical activity either. I think helping a friend out when he is in need is leisure. I think some people use leisure as a spiritual expression. Many people go to church every Sunday to worship God. It makes them feel good. This can also be considered leisure. Most definitions of leisure have to do with activities. These are not activities that pertain to work, but I think can be leisure.
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Just recently I.T.V commentator 'Big Ron' Atkinson was forced to resign following a r****t remark made towards Chelsea defender Marcel Desailly during Chelsea's 3-1 defeat to Monaco. Atkinson was not aware that he was still on-air and therefore was left with no choice but to resign. On what was said Atkinson responded with " To the people I offended, particularly Marcel Desailly, I would apologise for the comments I made. It was not an intentional comment, but it was an unfortunate one.
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A comparison of maximal heart rates derived from prediction equations compared to actual laboratory measures for cycling and arm ergometry.
Therefore we know that calculating maximal heart rate is important in the clinical and rehabilitation settings but its also important when testing subjects but getting accurate is complicated and unlikely unless performed using direct methods of assessment. For our study we performed maximal exercise tests using arm and cycle ergometers, we done this as the highest HR values are obtained in maximal tests conducted in the laboratory (Santos et al., 2005, p.170) however maximal exercise testing is not feasible in many settings (Tanaka et al., 2001, p.153)
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Figure 2. A Table showing the macronutrient intake, composition of CHO and composition of Fat consumed on day one. Figure 2 shows in detail the breakdown of the macronutrients and their composition. It also shows the total energy intake (1481 kcal) for Day One of the weighed food diary. For an average male this is too low. An average male should consume around 2500 kcal a day, slightly more or less depending on build and lifestyle. Day Two Figure 1. The macronutrients of a weighed food diary. Day Two. The above chart again shows the composition of the subjects diet.
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Bruce Ogilvie began work with athletes and teams and in 1966 with Thomas Tutko wrote Problem Athletes and How to Handle Them. Also in 1966 Spence JT and Spence KW saw a relationship between being psyched up and performance which they called Drive Theory. Sport psychology began to be an applied field between 1975 and 1999 when much advancement took place. Notably The Journal of Sport Psychology is established in 1979, 1988 U.S Olympic team is accompanied by a recognized sport psychologist and The Journal of Applied Sport Psychology begins in 1989.
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Western Africans naturally have a larger muscle mass and a lower body fat percentage. This will mean that they are naturally very powerful and are good at sports which need power. These are events such as the 100 metres and the 200 metres. Another thing that makes them good at the sprinting events is that they have a large proportion of fast twitch muscle fibres. This makes there muscles very strong and powerful which will make them good at the sprinting events. Another sport that West Africans are good at is the long jump event.
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There are three main different types of carbohydrate. These different types can be found in different foods. Carbohydrates that take time to be broken down and give a stedy release of energy are called polysaccharides. These are the largest of the carbohydrates and are complex. They are made from long chains of single sugar units called monosaccharides. This type of carbohydrate can be found in foods like bread, pasta, beans, potato, rice and cereals. During a carbohydrate overload an athlete would eat plenty of this type of food.
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History has proven that the use and abuse of athletes for political purposes only hurts young athletes rather than achieving any political gain.
It may also be the key to why the German Government supported this picture. There underlining purpose in supporting "Olympia" was to promote the positive principles (as perceived by the Nazis) of National Socialism to the world. Germany is an example of politics entering the Olympic stadium. National Socialism was the approach which drove the n**i government. The communist state began segregating between athletes, when it removed any Jewish participants wishing to assist there nation in the Olympics from competing in an East German uniform. This was a direct violation of the Olympic charter; 'oppose any political abuse of sport and athletes'.
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The synthetic state is sometimes more potent than the natural one. Testosterone and progesterone are hormones used in steroids; another kind comes from the adrenal glands, which secrete various necessary bodily chemicals. The steroids themselves can be taken orally, as tablets or powders, and can also be liquids that are injected into the muscles. Testosterone was first synthesized in the 1930's, and introduced as steroids in the sporting arena in the 1940's and 1950's. And although this drug helps to build body tissues quickly, it also comes with drastic side effects.
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Performance-Enhancing Drugs in SportsDuring the past 40 years the use of performance enhancing substances in athletics has increased at every level. Sports have been played by men and women on artificial testosterone for more than four decades
You would also have to look at the fact that your career could end at any time if you get injured. Athletes are also faced with the amount of money they can earn as a professional athlete. Imagine that you are facing a major professional contract worth millions of dollars. This could really change your perspective or even your opinion on performance enhancing drugs. Facing these circumstances you might ask yourself, would you consider using these drugs that could potentially end your career or maybe even your life?
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Critically evaluate your planned coaching session undertaken with children illustrating your awareness of accepted criteria for evaluating coaching sessions
Coaches may not have the same personality traits as the athletes and therefore they may be unable to get on very well and have a conflict in personality, causing the athlete to give up or reduce the amount of effort and enthusiasm they put into the sport. It is important that every coach remembers that every participant is different. Each has different needs and all wish to play their own game. A coach needs to understand how to approach each of these participants and gain a relationship with each of them to suit their needs.
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Also the hard goals should be broken down into smaller and simpler milestones. Therefore, it becomes very important to identify the right goal. Goal identification can by following one or more of the following factors/methods: * God Gifted Abilities * Available opportunities, information and options * Current situation * Advice from well wishers God Gifted Abilities: It has been seen that some people are born with some natural talent. For example Sachin Tendulkar has natural talent of hand eye co-ordination for hitting the cricket ball, Lata Mangeshkar has natural talent in singing, Amitabh Bachchan has natural talent of his heavy voice etc. In such cases it is very easy to identify the goals.
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Trace the development of one major sport for people with a physical disability from an historical perspective and give a succinct analysis of the fitness requirements for this sport.
Sir Ludwig Guttmann also founded the British Sports Association for the Disabled in 1961, later to be restructured and become Disability Sport England. Since then sport for disabled people has become ever more accessible and now in modern times, events like the Paralympics, first held in 1960, are a symbol of how much disabled sport has improved since the early 1900's. Organisations like Disability Sport England (DSE), founded in 1997, have also been important in allowing the development of disabled sports like wheelchair Tennis and Rugby and at current; the DSE has over 40,000 members.
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'Design a preparation phase training plan for a sport of your choice, which focuses on relevant areas of physical preparation
The main event that I will be aiming for is the Northants summer League for hockey. This macrocycle will be the first layer of the periodisation programme. This macrocycle is then divided in mesocycles, which are training phases that lead up and recover from each event or goal. These mesocycles are usually four distinct phases of training; Conditioning - Elements of fitness are trained, for example strength and endurance. Preparation - Here specific training and preparation is carried out to attain each goal.
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Where as the goal attack, although they would need to use ATP-PC for short drives around the circle, would use more lactic as they are allowed in two thirds of the court and would do more longer drives than the goal keeper. (Ashfield, 2004). Another example of the energy systems in netball is the centre and the goal shooter. The centre uses a lot more of the oxygen system, which is used to keep up a medium intensity for long periods of time, because the have to move all over the court and continuously drive for the ball.
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