• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

To investigate the effects of abiotic factors specifically pH on the abundance of marram grass.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Aim: To investigate the effects of abiotic factors specifically pH on the abundance of marram grass. Succession is the gradual change in an inhabitable terrain by which organisms are changed and replaced eventually forming a climax community habitable by many organisms. Primary succession begins with a barren terrain is inhabited by a pioneer species which colonises and allows the once inhabitable land to be occupied by other organisms. The succession I will be looking at will begin with a sandy environment, a psammosere. The main pioneer specie here is marram grass (A.arenaria). Pioneer species often have many adaptations that allow them to colonise in an environment that many other organisms couldn't. Marram grass is not different. As it colonises in a psammosere it has many xeromorphic adaptations. The plant is able to stabilise the sand and as it decomposes, it is able to provide nutrients to sand allowing it to become inhabitable by other plant species. The ability of a pioneer species such as marram grass to germinate grow and reproduce is called an Ecesis. Marram grass is a R-selected species. This means that in it's short lifetime it will reproduce a lot. During my experiment I will be investigating the effects of abiotic factors, specifically pH on the percentage abundance of marram grass. Null hypothesis: there is no correlation between pH and the abundance of marram grass Alternative hypothesis: there is a correlation between the pH and the abundance of marram grass. I predict that there will be a positive correlation between the pH level and the abundance of marram grass. I believe this, as marram grass is not adapted to acidic conditions. As we get further away from the beach I expect the number of marram grass to decrease, as the sand gets more acidic. I believe that the sand will get more acidic as we get further from the sea as the amount of humic acid present in the sand will also increase. ...read more.

Middle

Without the correct metabolic processes occurring the plant will eventually die. Pioneer species such as Marram grass, often have many adaptations that allow them to colonise in an environment that many other organisms couldn't. As marram grass colonises in a psammosere it has many xeromorphic adaptations. Marram grass is a R-selected species.1 This means that in it's short lifetime it will reproduce a lot. The plant is able to stabilise the sand and as it decomposes, it is able to provide nutrients to sand making the sand habitable for other plant species. The ability of a pioneer species such as marram grass to germinate grow and reproduce is called an Ecesis. Some of these xeromorphic adaptations are: Long thin leaves - these leaves roll up in dry conditions. This means that the stomata are hidden into the underside of the leaf. The stomata are away from the strong sea breeze. Moist air is trapped within the leaves, which lengthens the diffusion pathway as the water evaporates into the inner area of the leaf and not into the atmosphere, this creates a local humidity and so transpiration occurs more slowly. Hair on leaves (trichores) - the hair on leaves reduces the air current around the stomata making it more humid, this therefore reduces the rate of transpiration. On this picture > 2 you can see the small hairs which maintain the humidity of the plant. Undersides of leaves are smooth and glossy - the smooth and glossy nature of the leaves allows it to reduce the transpiration rate. As the leaves roll up, the underside of the leaves are more exposed to the harsh conditions of the psammosere. The underside is bluish coloured, which helps the plant reflect extreme sunlight Ridges along leaves - the ridges along the leaves again the stomata to be sunken deeply. The ridges also help break up the flow of the wind current reducing transpiration. ...read more.

Conclusion

2 Quadrant size The size of the quadrant we used was too small for the area being measured. The small size of 50cm� did not enable us to gain a comprehensible overview of the abundance of species between the ranging poles. The amount of marram grass present in one quadrant may not be sufficient enough to assume that this was the same for the 10m between the ranging poles. The quadrant may give a false representation of the actual number of species in the given area. Use a bigger quadrant 1m� Although a smaller quadrant has a lower percentage error a bigger quadrant is necessary purely because of the amount of land that was used in the experiment. A larger sized quadrant would enable me to observe a better depiction of the land within the sample. 3 Inbuilt errors Inbuilt errors such as the seawater used could have affected the reliability of the results. The sea water has a solute potential which means that when it was infiltrated the experiment would have taken longer then usual as the osmotic difference changed the rate at which he water was absorbed. Also the water may have contained debris, which again would have added to the solute potential decreasing the rate of infiltration. 4 No standardisation of technique 5 Weather The error bars show the range of results above and below the point, which has been plotted. The point that has been plotted is the mean. The smaller the error bars the more accurate my results and therefore the more reliable my experiment. As you can see from the graph, error bars of four points cross the trend line. This means that these points were very accurate and reliable. The point at a pH of 7.0 is close to the trend line showing that result could be considered accurate and may have been distorted a bit because of an error with apparatus. 1 http://www.microscopy-uk.net/mag/articles/anne1.html 2 http://www.mrothery.co.uk/PowerPoints/xerophytes.ppt ?? ?? ?? ?? Sneha Patel Page 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our University Degree Botany section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related University Degree Botany essays

  1. Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis

    The line goes up steadily but then between a light intensity of 300 and 400 levels off very quickly. This would surgest that at a 0.1M NaHCO3 is sufficient for the plant to photosynthesise at it's maximum rate with it's current environmental conditions.

  2. An investigation to find the effect of bile salts on the digestion of fats.

    15 cm3 To maintain a steady temperature Because it is the easiest and safest way to maintain a steady temperature Magnetic flea stirrer and stand 1 To stir the solution continuously It can stir different solutions at the same speed, keeping the conditions as similar as possible.

  1. Fieldwork at Ainsdale National Nature Reserve; Succession in Sand Dunes.

    with one spatula of the soil sample. 5ml of distilled water was used; distilled water was used to prevent any minerals in the water affecting the pH, with finally 1ml of Universal Indicator. The mixture was shuck and left to settle for a few minutes, the results were then read against a pH colour chart.

  2. An Investigation into Microclimate on a Sand Dune System

    Equipment Used Measuring Poles Air humidifier Thermometer Tape measure Whirling Hydrometer Sampling Methods Outcomes Results Point/ Time Distance (m) Gradient Point Time Distance (m) Gradient 1-2 1:37pm 3m10 +10� 11-12 3:08pm 3m80 - 17� 2-3 1:51pm 2m60 - 5� 12-13 3:21pm 10m00 +2� 3-4 1:57pm 4m50 +14� 13-14 3:28pm 10m00

  1. To examine plant succession across the umbra sand dunes at Magilligan. We set up ...

    * Soil: hypothesis "soil is modified by the accumulation of dead organic matter during succession". We measured 3 aspects of the soil (organic content, moisture content, and the PH level). We used a soil Auger to take a sample of soil we also used a spoon to spoon off the top 2.5 cm of the soil.

  2. The combination of constant warmth and abundant moisture of the tropical regions demonstrates a ...

    any insect alighting on the flower in the forest night will have great trouble finding its nectar, because it is hidden deep onside a narrow tube roughly 30 centimetres long. For this orchid to be pollinated it required an insect with an extremely long proboscis, many times the length of its body.

  1. Induced defence responses against herbivores. The aim of the project was to study ...

    BABA solution resulted in a 23% disease incidence in the treated seeds, whereas in the untreated, control seeds the disease incidence was 98%, showing that treatment of seeds gave 75% protection against disease. Following this, Shailasree et al., allowed the seeds to germinate and gave a secondary does of downy

  2. Mechanisms of insect resistance induced by treatment of Lycopersicon esculentum seeds by jasmonic ...

    The assay reaction of PPO oxidation of catechol to orthoquinone was initiated by the addition of the catechol to the buffer and supernatant solution. Before the catechol was added the spectrophotometer was zeroed out on the assay to give a 0 second reaction rate and to give a control of when the rate was being measured from.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work