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Triangulation as mentioned earlier is the process of combining three or more research methodologies when investigating a certain idea or issue.

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TRIANGULATION Introduction: Triangulation is the combination of methodologies (research methods) in the study of the same phenomenon or event. It is a method of establishing the accuracy of information by using and comparing three or more types of independent points of view on data sources (for example: experimental method, surveys and documentation) bearing on the same findings. Experiment Proposal: One example of a good and appropriate triangulation experiment is the effect of writing biology notes in pencil or in pen on the performance of grade 10 students in their biology examination. Performance in this experiment is measurable. It can be measured using a likert scale rated from 1 - 5. This means that the students can rate their biology results according to the likert scale provided. The experimenter has to make sure that the experiment is free from all biases. He/she should try controlling almost all the various variables encountered while structuring this experiment. The investigator should ensure that the sample for (group of students he/she wishes to use) this experiment: belong to the same grade i.e. grade 10, are of the same age group i.e. 13 - 15 years, attend the same number of biology lessons of the same teacher and study the same topic and there are a balanced number of boys and girls i.e. equal number of boys and girls. Although the experimenter will try to control all the variables mentioned above in this paragraph, there might be some parameters present which could interfere with the results of this experiment, and these parameters are called the confounding variables. ...read more.


2. Surveys (carry out a survey research) Survey research is the research in which people chosen to represent the larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior, thoughts or attitudes. The experimenter will carry out a small survey comprising of two important questions which he/she will ask the group of students and will note down their responses. The two questions that the investigator will ask his/her participants are: * In a scale of 1 - 5, how much would they rate their performance in their biology tests and examinations? * Do they write their biology notes in pencil or in pen? By carrying out this survey research, the experimenter will be able to realize the potential of the group of students in terms of their performance in biology tests and examinations and he/she will also be able to know who from his/her participants writes biology notes in pen and who writes them in pencil. Thus, this will help the investigator to evaluate whether those who write their biology notes in pencil perform better or those who write their notes in pen perform better. > Advantages: - Survey research is an inexpensive methodology. In this experiment there is probably very little or no costs associated to the survey research as the experimenter just has to ask his/her sample only two questions which will neither take a lot of their time nor will need any money to be spent on carrying out the survey or designing the questions. ...read more.


For example, the report cards give out scores of other subjects as well and not only biology, and if the experimenter gets to know the participants' other scores it might be unfair for the students and could be unethical if he/she has scored low and has not performed well. - Errors might have been experienced in calculating the mean and standard deviation while using the likert scale in rating students' biology and memorizing performances which could lead to inaccuracy and wrong outcomes. Conclusion: Triangulation as mentioned earlier is the process of combining three or more research methodologies when investigating a certain idea or issue. This process of triangulation has much importance and is beneficial in many ways. The strengths of triangulation are: � The triangulation process strengthens the research design. This means that it results in an experiment more significant and stronger due to a combination of many research methodologies. � By using three or more research methods, the experimenter has access to more sources of information and data and the findings of the experiment are more reliable and valid. � Each research method is linked to its own biases, but by combining many research methodologies together, the process of triangulation helps to minimize these insufficiencies of the individual research method. � When using triangulation, the threats or weakness associated to internal validity are noticed and the experimenter tends to address and work on them in order to eliminate these weaknesses which indeed result into more accurate, precise and more valid outcomes. ...read more.

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