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University Degree: Zoology
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- Marked by Teachers essays 1
In other words the individuals of a species are determined by their potential of being reproductively compatible; "This biological species concept defines a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but are unable to produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other populations." (Campbell and Reece, 2005, p.473). Despite the BSC being a commonly universal definition of species, there are some problems with the concept.
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� � Clinical Signs � Malassezia most often begins in summer and/or very humid months, much like allergy season. "Over 70% of the dogs have concurrent dermatoses, especially allergies, keratinization defects, endocrinoptathies, and bacterial pyodermas" (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D. Miller, Jr., and D.V.M. Griffin 363-374). Like many dermatological disorders, the most common clinical sign of a Malassezia infection is an extreme pruritus. The pruritus may be "partially responsive to corticosteroids and antibiotics (D.V.M. Patterson, and D.V.M. Frank 612-622) and can potentially cause further trauma to the skin (Veterinary & Aquatic Services Department, Drs. Foster & Smith). Other signs area alopecia, and in chronic cases, hyperpigmentation and lichenification (D.V.M Scott, V.M.D.
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is essential to point out the dangers and chances for biodiversity conservation, from improvement of climate change over a short and long period. The ecosystem approach shows an ideal system to update the expansion of climate change policies, giving better choice, financial valuation, incentives, ecosystem purpose and thresholds, and reinforce the case for implication and improvement. There is an increasing awareness of the popularity of large-scale approaches to nature conservation in the UK that aim to deliver more functional ecosystems with extensive areas of semi-natural habitat and larger connectivity for wildlife.
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Pigs housed in stalls comprised of vertical bars showed the highest levels of aggression (Barnett, Hemsworth, Cronin, Newman, McCallum 1991). Mental status suggests that neither health, lack of stress or fitness is sufficient to determine that an animal has good welfare. An animals feelings is a major factor. Naturalness suggests that welfare also considers nurturing and accomplishment of animal's nature. An experiment was carried out studying the behaviour of pigs in social family groups, in the natural environment of a Scottish woodland.
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9. Elephants are classified as mammals and herbivores. 10.Even though elephants have enoroumous ears, there hearing is very poor. Asian Elephant Diet The elephant's diet is very large. It is known that they can eat up to 3OO pounds of food. Elephants are herbivores and eat all types of vegetation such as grasses, leaves, fruits, and bark. Their diet varies from types of trees to wild mangos. Life Cycle Female Asian elephants are capable of giving birth approximately every 4-6 years, about 7 calves in a lifetime. Babies are carried inside elephant mothers for 19-22 months, so almost 2 years.
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Mammals must also weigh this up with the drawbacks of social living. The bad aspects include the giving away of position of predators and for prey. Social living also increases competition for resources and food and eases the rate at which diseases can spread. Without much explanation, these all seem fairly weak reasons for societies among mammals, but it is important to stress that the topic is too wide to be fully discussed here. One feature of social living and social interaction that I find particularly interesting is an aspect only recently explored by scientists, altruism.
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Due to their small size they can get through the smallest of openings and are very useful for PMI estimation where the usual carrion insects are not available (Disney 2005). Insect infestation is a huge problem word wide. Insect families, such as, Dermestidae and Cleridae are the major pests for dried/ preserved foods (Rajendran & Hajira Parveen 2005). A forensic entomologist estimates PMI using insect matter, vitally eggs and immature larvae as valuable evidence to determine circumstances surrounding a death, to give indications as to whether the corpse was moved/ disturbed, detect drugs and even match a suspect to the scene (Mendon�a et al 2008).
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DISPLAYED BEHAVIOURS AND THEIR CASUAL/ MEDIATING FACTORS. 2.1. Overview of feline behaviour problems There are a number of behavioural problems exhibited by cats that owners can face. These problems can vary slightly depending on the cat's genetics, but also on environmental factors such as how the owner responds to these behaviours. 'House-soiling is the most common behaviour problem for which cat owners seek assistance, and a major reason why some cats are abandoned or euthanised', (Landsberg, et al, 2003: 365).
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that, human studies take a long time to determine the effects of chemicals which may take ten to twenty years to cause problems . At the same time, animal research industry is necessary in cosmetic testing, because that would protect humans from any type of side effects of the pharmaceutical companies products such as; Shampoo, Make up, Hair dye ....etc.
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It is therefore controversial to say that animals have no rights; few, if any religions, would condone cruelty. In wider society, many people around the world, irrespective of religion would have sympathy with the view of the 19th century philosopher, Jeremy Bentham who asked "...The question is not, Can they reason? nor Can they talk? But, Can they suffer?" Christianity says that animals were made for humans and people are dominant. This is said explicitly in the bible; 'And God blessed them, and he said to them, "Be fruitful, increase, and fill the earth and conquer it. Reign over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air...
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Vivisection was proved beneficial because the Roman scientists grasped a better understanding about human anatomy, which then led to medical advances. However, times have changed and so have people. Before, people had no other way to learn since there was limited research, but now one understands the effect of animal experimentation on the society. Experimenters use animals as tools to find cures, treatments, or test products. They think that if the animal tests positive for a substance or treatment, then the human will too and vice versa.
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A SOCIAL issue is that it is very crucial that the public are taught the importance of not disturbing the animals in the nearby habitat. This would aid their survival after being re introduced into the wild. Chester is involved in a student research project which intends to gain information and also educate. A very popular area of this research is enrichment techniques and scientific evaluation of their effectiveness and also visitor impact on the behaviour of zoo animals. (3)
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During the stories people have submitted, pets are often talked about as if they were humans. Another example of the love the people have for their pets is shown within the story of Sabrina, a cat whose owners took her to the University of Pennsylvania for a full medical work up. The article doesn't mention the cost of this, as do none of the other stories, which brings forward the question of how much it does cost. The webpage contains a lot of positive points about animal testing, and there is a lot of persuasive language used which attempts to
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"I enjoy my inertia and would rather just sit and watch the world go by." "Ooooh, how can you be so content?" fumed the hare. "You're just so smug (huff-huff), I challenge you to a race to show you the consequences and (preen-preen) health risks of such a sedentary lifestyle." The tortoise was appalled. "A ... competition?" He almost choked on the word. "Just to prove that one of us is somehow better than the other? What kind of example is that to set? I'll have no part of it." Some other animals that were standing nearby overheard this conversation and began to listen with interest. "What's the matter (preen-preen), are you . . .
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The Hyracotherium, also known as the Eohippus, originally developed around 55 million years ago; 10 million years after the dinosaurs became extinct (Wikipedia, 2007). Fossil records show that the Hyracotherium was around the size of a fox, around 25 to 50 cm in height, and lived in North America. They had a short head and neck, with an arched back. They had 44 low-crowned teeth in an arrangement typical of an omnivorous mammal (Critters-2-Go, 2007). Their molars were small and bumpy and mainly used for grinding foliage.
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(http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/AfricanSavanna/fact-afelephant.cfm) Keeping Elephants in Captive does not help conserve them. "Elephants have lived in captivity for more than 4,000 years", In captivity, whether in zoos, circuses or safari parks, they experience extremely different lifestyles compared to wild elephants. Elephants are very intelligent and social animals. In British zoos and circuses, many elephants are unnaturally kept singly or in pairs. "Wild elephants frequently bathe in mud and water. This maintains the skin and is a pleasurable experience enjoyed by whole families of elephants. Elephants also dust themselves with dry earth, which it is believed protects the elephants from the sun and insect bites."
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For example Germany give �4.2 million a year in grants while this country only gives �2 million so do we not care as much? Could the amount of money that we put in affect how many alternatives we have? The most known about alternatives are stem and embryo cell testing. However scientists can now work out how a certain group of people would react to things via computer.
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This means simply that humans are subject to freedom within their life and security or safety within their society. Others involved the capabilities of humans and therefore how they should treat others and be punished accordingly for wrongdoing. For example: 'They (humans) are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.' This illustrates the roles of human interaction and also firmly states that every human is capable of making their own decisions and taking the consequences. This in its own way presents potential problems for animal activist arguments. Do animals have a conscience?
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Little did they know that I would be outside risking my freedom for others. Who's going to stand up for those who can't speak and stand up for themselves? I always ask myself that. Just because we humans, as individuals, are living life freely and easily, it doesn't mean that everyone else is. Converting to vegetarianism wasn't enough. Adopting chickens wasn't enough. And that's how I find myself here today, standing in front of 6,000 pound elephants, asking for their freedom. I am not always doing something as drastic as a protest. On any given day, I live a typical life.
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Why is fur considered a must have fashion item? Why do people, take pleasure in wearing dead animal skins? Does it look attractive?
Why are people willing to have a living creature like you and me brutally killed for it's fur? Why is this even legal? Just because it's not illegal to kill animals for their fur does it make it right? Animals on fur farms live out their short painful lives in dark, windowless, cold sheds, surrounded by the bodies of other dead animals hanging off hooks. They are not fed or given water. The tiny metal cages used to transport the animals to the slaughter houses are thrown onto and off trucks, breaking the limbs of the innocent animals inside and injuring them badly.
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failed to function, years later the first successful transplant was achieved in 1954 it was a kidney transplant carried out by Dr. Joseph Murry, the operation was on an identical 32-year-old twins Richard and Ronald Herrick at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. The operation was successful with Richard living another eight years and Ronald the donor is still alive today. Many organs and tissues have been transplanted over the years ranging from kidneys, hearts, livers, lungs, pancreas, bone marrows ,skin, corneas, bones and small bowels can also be transplanted.
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Others say that "almost every medical treatment you use has been tested on animals including anesthetics to prevent human pain and suffering during surgery; without animal testing these drugs could not been used safely." Also that "Operations on animals helped to develop organ transplant and open-heart surgery, surgical techniques like these would not have been developed as easily without animal testing." Scientists claim there are no differences in lab animals and humans that cannot be developed into new tests creating a more reliable result.
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The aim of this is to cultivate compassion and sympathy for everyone - animals as well as other people. Right Livelihood is a way of putting incorporating this precept into your daily life. Work should benefit all living beings, so a Buddhist would not choose killing animals as part of their occupation, whether it was for research or not. The practice of metta (loving-kindness) towards all creatures is an integral part of Buddhism. An harmonious, peace-loving belief system would not condone killing animals even if it is for research. 'Do not harm others. Just as you feel affection on seeing a dearly beloved person, so you should extend lovingkindness to all creatures.'
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Again, it is most that they need to assure authorities or let them check that positive outcomes of the research are apparently possible and plausible as well as valuable. So, animals can be used in scientific research basically when there are no alternatives and results are likely and favorable for human benefit.-110 Secondly, animals used in the positive scientific researches like medicinal and teaching researches should never be the ones brought from their natural habitats and wild stations. They should either be grown up in the breeding farm or produced in bulk through artificial methods like cloning so that their use in such researches does not damage balance in ecosystem and provide challenges to natural environment.
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