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University Degree: Zoology

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  1. What is a species? How do new species arise? What is the difference between the graduated and punctuated theories of speciation?

    Creationists believe that species are discrete fixed entities, and that their form has not changed since their creation. Books such as Darwin's 'The Origin of the Species' discounted this theory and suggested that species evolved over time by the process of Natural Selection. Philosophers such as Lock and Leibniz believed that species are not real entities, but are constructs of the human mind, trying to impose order on organisms. Unlike creationists, such a Nominalist approach states that species are not discrete, but continuous, and that the term 'species' has no biological basis and that a species merely has its name to distinguish itself.

    • Word count: 1891
  2. What are the differences in social interactions within groups of chimpanzees and groups of bonobos? How have researchers explained these differences?

    Both researchers studied the 'Pan' genus for many years, in an attempt to understand and explain the differences in social activity between the two respective groups. The findings of these two researchers will be used to explain the social interactive differences within groups of chimpanzees and groups of bonobos, along with their own explanations as to why these differences exist. Professor Takayoshi Kano, one of the world's key specialists on the bonobo species, studied the pygmy chimpanzee 'first hand' from 1974 to 1985 in Central Zaire's tropical rain forests, the only place where bonobos are known to exist in the wild.

    • Word count: 1130
  3. Animals in Research: Animals in Cosmetic Testing - Corporate Crime?

    This would suggest that profit motives are imminent and nowhere else is this more apparent as in the cosmetic industry. The origins of product testing on animals stemmed from a 1933 incident involving a woman using Lash Lure mascara (All, 1998). After receiving some of the chemicals in her eye she suffered severe injuries causing blindness and subsequently death. This sparked the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in 1938 which protected the public from unsafe cosmetics (All, 1998). As a consequence of this act, corporations with huge investments in these products had to introduce ways of protecting their consumers.

    • Word count: 1115
  4. Tropical Rainforest Biome

    Warm, moist conditions are ideal for microorganisms so decomposition is rapid > Rapid growth of vegetation requires a rapid uptake of nutrients so they are immediately absorbed when released into the soil > So the constant supply of dead matter means the top layer remains nutrient rich whilst the rapid uptake by vegetation means the soil below remains depleted > The cycling of nutrients between the biomass, litter layer and soil is very rapid. > Precipitation greatly exceeds evapotranspiration so there is much leaching of minerals such as Silicone.

    • Word count: 1214
  5. How adequate are the UK's control systems, governing the use of animals, for testing the safety of medical and commercial products?

    Once granted the licence, the licensee must comply with a strict code of practice. Their research needs to be carefully planned and carried out to the highest standards obtainable, as well as having facilities which are accredited and properly equipped. Also licensee's need to take in consideration the three R's put forward by W. Russel and R. Burch in their 1959 book "The principle of humane experimental technique" which outlines reducing the amount of animals used, refining tests to lower suffering and where possible replacing animals in experiments.

    • Word count: 1441
  6. Only Humans Have Souls. DiscussMost definitions state that a soul is the spiritual essence of a human being

    If you are not dogmatic in your religion, you can use a logical argument to define your belief. If you consider how a dog, a cat, or other animal has a personality and a memory and how it reacts to life, you may find it hard to believe that your pet is just a complex machine that has no spiritual aspect or soul and is gone when it dies. If an animal that has love and feelings is just a machine, why should humans be any different?

    • Word count: 1221
  7. Monash University Philosophy: Caulfield

    Arts Faculty policy requires completion of this cover sheet as a condition for acceptance of work submitted electronically. Students are reminded that plagiarism is a serious offence. Plagiarism is an attempt to obtain undeserved academic advantage. Plagiarism occurs where someone fails to acknowledge that ideas have been borrowed from any source, such as the Internet, published books or periodicals, or another student's work. Specifically it occurs when: * Phrases or passages are copied verbatim without quotation marks and without reference to the author; * An author's work is paraphrased and presented without appropriate reference; * Another student's work is copied;

    • Word count: 1808
  8. "Who's Zoomin' Who?": On "Passing" and the Intersection of Race and Humanity in Alien Resurrection

    successfully fooling an audience that one really is his/her feigned persona, and not an imposter. I call attention to the phrase "by definition" in the first requisite above because historically the term passing has popularly held a racial significance in the United States. As such, to pass racially depends on discrete definitions of race (e.g., the "one drop rule" to determine blackness) as a foundational frame within which passing may operate. One historical application of passing would be those individuals who were, by definition, black (per the "one drop rule"), but who, because they may have appeared white, successfully passed for white in the public arena.

    • Word count: 1870
  9. When One Becomes Two

    Unfortunately, I was unable to observe a single successful reproductive event.(1) In order to understand why the two groups could not successfully mate, it was necessary that I understood the biological factors categorizing separate species. There are different ways in which biologists can define a species, one of the most common explanations being the biological species model. This model states that a species is a population able to interbreed to produce viable, fertile offspring.(2) Based on this definition, I was able to infer that the rodents of St. Kitt's and the rodents of Nevis were two different species, because of their apparent inability to produce any offspring with each other.

    • Word count: 1595
  10. Is the goby hypoxia tolerant?

    Three factors contribute to the low oxygen levels in this setting. The first is the obvious reason of restricted movement of current, not allowing for proper oxygenation. The second occurs when night falls and phototrophs can no longer perform photosynthesis, stopping their normal production of oxygen as a byproduct. The third factor is less significant but should still be considered; the coral and surrounding organisms continue to go through respiration and consume oxygen for use as the terminal electron acceptor in the electron transport chain.

    • Word count: 1112
  11. It All Went Wrong

    Instantly we were madly in love with each other, and it was unabated as we went out together for nine months. Then I married her, and our honeymoon was in Turkey. When our honeymoon was over I had to continue with my first experiments aimely originating a new species of the human race. This species would be able to accomplish tasks which ordinary humans would find impossible. This unique species would be designed to carry out assignments which would involve: walking through fire; running at extreme speeds (even faster than the speed of light), never being ill or be affected

    • Word count: 1598
  12. Due to excessive whaling, many species of whale are near extinction.

    That is a decrease of 216,300, that's 95%. As for the Humpback whale, their original population was 115,000 and now there are only approximately 10,000 left. That's a 91% decrease. Also for the Right Whale, there original level was 100,000, and now, there is only 3200, that's 96% of the population gone. It is clearly evident, just from viewing the population decreases in these 3 species, that the Sanctuary would help the whales increase their populations, and put them at lesser risk of extinction. But a whale sanctuary would not only be beneficial to whales there are many benefits to humans as well.

    • Word count: 1558
  13. The effects of deforestation on animal suffering

    Place all that data together, and you're not likely to have much left within a hundred years. It is said that "If the world continues at the current rate of deforestation, the world's rainforests will be gone within 100 years-causing unknown effects to the global climate and the elimination of the majority of plant and animal species on the planet."* It is due to this that measures must, at all costs, be taken. Some countries have already developed ideas, and plans to fight this, and some have gone to the extent of implementing them. Costa Rica for instance, has protected a full one quarter of its land from deforestation.

    • Word count: 1268
  14. The Inuit society - the cause of change

    Before the Inuit's became dependent on the western world, they lived in an isolated state. They were dependent solely on nature, the animals around them, and themselves. This was clearly evident in the Sears' film as well. Idlout, in the early years of his life, hunted animals in order to survive. It was a way of life. The animals were his means of survival, and he made maximum use of what nature provided. Idlout, along with his people, were nomadic.

    • Word count: 1627
  15. R.E coursework - Animal rights.

    * The right to not be exploited. * The right to live in a suitable habitat. * The right to be valued for who we are, not for how we can be used. * The right to co-operatively share the Earth with other species. * The right to live as much as possible according to our natures and to express our individual characters. There are many arguments for and against using animals to test cosmetic products on here are just a few. Arguments for experimenting on animals Arguments against experimenting on animals Animals do not have the same rights as humans.

    • Word count: 1231
  16. The Great Salt Lake.

    The Great Basin Desert covers much of Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The Great Salt Lake was once part of ancient Lake Bonneville, a massive fresh water lake that existed between thirty-two and fourteen thousand years ago. At its largest extent, Lake Bonneville measured about 325 miles in length, 135 miles wide and about 1,000 feet deep-blanketing much of western Utah and parts of Nevada and Idaho. Unlike its contemporary descendant, Lake Bonneville consisted primarily of fresh water derived from precipitation, river and stream inlets, and melting glaciers. Although a terminal lake for most of its life, the water from Lake Bonneville eventually escaped through Red Rock Pass in Idaho about 16,800 years ago.

    • Word count: 1552
  17. 'Why if at all should we treat animals equally with humans?'

    When talking about equality to animals, it is surely wrong to compare it to such an important moral issue. As quoted 'How can anyone waste time on equality for animals, when so many humans are denied real equality?' However animal equality is easy to dismiss as 'there animals,' however Jeremy Bentham 'The founding father of Utilitarianism' said the question is not can they reason? Nor can they talk? But, can they suffer? Bentham goes on to explain that suffering has no boundaries, it has no barrier.

    • Word count: 1097
  18. Comparing and contrasting the nature of cell signalling employed by plant cells and by animal cells.

    Endocrine signalling is the release of signal molecules from their synthesis site to a distant region of the organism. This is usually achieved in animals by using circulatory systems (such as the bloodstream in mammals) to transport the signal molecules to their intended destination. With paracrine signalling it is only target cells within a close proximity of the synthesis site of the signalling molecule that are affected. It is paracrine signalling that accommodates the conduction of electrical impulses between nerve cells and from nerve cells to muscle cells. The release of signal molecules by cells that then react to the signal molecules that they release is autocrine signalling: this type of signalling is often used by growth factors and tumour cells.

    • Word count: 1737
  19. How many of you here are animal lovers? Well, I have chosen animal cruelty as the topic of my presentation because although it is a common issue, it is one I feel very strongly about.

    But the RSPCA prefers to educate rather than prosecute people. This way they hope to prevent animals from suffering before it actually happens. They watch the treatment of animals in certain cases such as transport, pet shops, boarding kennels and farms and offer useful advice along the way about their care. The RSPCA also teaches students in schools and make sure that the society is constantly in the public eye via television, leaflets, advertising and so on in order to educate the general public.

    • Word count: 1374
  20. Response of turtles to differences in water quality in Wisconsin.

    We are unsure of what species of turtles inhabit the Arboretum because no extensive turtle surveys have been conducted recently. We would like to determine what species are utilizing the Arboretum. We believe that by conducting a turtle survey, we will find out the different water bodies the turtles are using. The different water bodies have different water qualities, and we want to see if there is a relationship between the quality of water and the abundance of the turtles.

    • Word count: 1558
  21. Animals in Captivity - Should or Should Not Be Kept.

    * Scientific research Animals are sometimes kept in captivity for science purposes. They are used to test products, such as medication, on that might otherwise harm humans. * Sanctuaries Sanctuaries are set up for wild animals that have been rescued or injured and are unable to return to the wild. By doing this gives the animal chance to survive to a natural age in an almost a natural environment, with species of their own kind. Should Not Behaviour in captivity is far from what would be exhibited in their natural environment.

    • Word count: 1071
  22. Animals Need Not Die To Save Human Lives or To Satisfy the Cruel Side of Human Nature.

    From the outside I presume it is easier to look at the process and criticise that the search for a cure involves so much unnecessary death. I use the word "unnecessary" as despite decades of intense effort to find cures for diseases such as cancer, more and more people's lives are taken over and end in fatality. Experts however call these efforts, focused largely on improving treatment, a "qualified failure". How can this be so when researchers tell the public that "animals are so similar to human beings that drugging, irradiating and dissecting them provides a valid model for a human disease victim"?

    • Word count: 1127
  23. To Hunt or Not to Hunt?

    That would then be a means for your survival, which is necessary for all species. In today's society, hunting wild animals in the wilderness is no longer needed by the human race. Today we have slaughterhouses that kill livestock to provide for the hungry human population. Hunting for food is ridiculous now days in countries such as the United States. You can purchase what you want from a meat market. Paying for meat at the super market is totally different from hunting down prey for a juicy meal.

    • Word count: 1256
  24. Intensive Farming.

    For example, methods used in dairy farming have allowed for a large increase in productivity. This combined with selective breeding, aimed towards enhancing the milk producing capabilities of the dairy cow, has enabled farmers to gain greater returns from their animals. However, these methods have also been questionable with regard to animal welfare. Most animals held on factory farms are forced to endure poor living conditions. The case of the battery hen is a particularly affecting one. Battery hens are among the most confined animals in modern farming. Chickens have no more than 51 by 46 centimetres of space in the cages in which they are kept.

    • Word count: 1098
  25. Developing the Amazon.

    Plantation forests allow animals is able to eat. Plantation forests grow all different goods for us to eat. Plantation forests also grow drugs in parts, which we use to survive. Plantation forests allow people to have holidays and to examine and find out about what a Rainforest is all about. Plantation forests allow Humans to build roads to make different things and to sell different products to make money. Plantation forests have many animals which people can have a field trip and learn about them which could be a great experience as long as they don't touch anything they shouldn't touch.

    • Word count: 1522

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