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University Degree: Zoology
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An objection to this is argued by Singer; if animals are not autonomous creatures, surely some humans are not either, like young infants and the retarded, whom have no rational thoughts. 5 Regan and Singer would argue, based on Descartes and Kant's views, we could morally eat retarded and young infants as they are not 'self-conscious', as they have no desire or feelings. An objection is young children will eventually become rational adults. Utilitarianism philosophers, like Peter Signer and Raymond Fry disagree with Kant, feeling even humans have not got complete moral status; where it is necessary to harm one person to save another, it is morally right to do so.
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Drawing on examples from the key concepts, discuss the extent to which animals and humans have an innate predisposition to learning.
When they hatched he kept the ones who were separated from the mother with him and left the others with the goose mother. All the hatchlings were then put together in a box and allowed to mix, when they were removed from this box they separated to their respective guardians. Lorenze believed that the developments learned during the critical period were irreversible and long-lasting. The consequences are split up into short term and long term points. In the short term this bonding is necessary for food and safety and in the long term it produces a template for reproductive patterns.
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How far would you agree that environmental issues are more of a concern to a religious believer that to a utilitarian?
I am putting you in charge of the fish the birds and all the wild animals.' So if a Christian believer was using this as a moral guide for the environmental issue of animal rights it could be seen that we have dominion over nature. Deontological interpretations include that of Aquinas. Aquinas argued that animals are beings without souls and are lesser beings than humans. Therefore how they are treated didn't matter. Animals existed for the use of mankind alone and have no rights because they do not share our nature. Therefore it would be acceptable to test on animals because is could be a benefit to the survival of children if a cure to a
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In the 1600's, the people lived off the land of deer, turkey, squirrels, rabbits, doves, and pheasants. In truth, without the existence of hunting the colonist would not have survived. Today, very few hunters are hunting out of a need to survive. Instead, hunting has become more of a "sport". As a result, it has remained popular and many, many species have been wiped out. In Britain, the killing of animals has been taken in several forms: farmers with guns shoot at pheasants to keep them from eating their crops; a group of teenage lads going out at night to
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* Zoo consultancy providing advice on the design and development of new zoos or facilities. All the projects that the zoo run have a wildlife conservation focus and ZSL aims to meet this mission. Endangered species The 2004 update of the IUCN Red List includes assessments for 38,047 species: * 15,589 are threatened with extinction (listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable), * 844 are Extinct or Extinct in the Wild, * 3,700 are listed as Near Threatened or Conservation Dependent, * 3,580 are Data Deficient, and * 14,334 are Least Concern. (facts provided by IUCN)
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The dogs do not attack it all at once and put it out of its misery. Instead they are trained to disable it, so that it can not escape and then the hunters can kill it and parade its head and tail around like a trophy. The fox is not only outnumbered but it also has nowhere to run or hide. The reason that the fox has nowhere to run is that the hunters have filled in all it's holes, not considering that it might have it's young in there.
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"Experiments using animals have played a crucial role in the development of modern medical treatments, and they will continue to be necessary" states Adrian R. Morrison (University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine) in the Scientific American. Some people, like Morrison, are convinced that to restrict research with animals would prevent discoveries that would benefit humankind. Animal experimentation has enabled progress in many aspects of science for humans and it has led to many discoveries such as antibiotics, vaccines, diabetes research, organ transplants and so on.
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Virtually all of them have been animal-tested at various stages of their development. Long before they appear on the shelves of shops, these products have gone through a long testing process that leaves millions of animals mutilated, burned, poisoned and gassed in unnecessary tests. In the LD-50 test, a group of healthy animals, usually rabbits, are forced to consume amounts of a chemical, and suffer excruciating pain in the process as no anaesthetic is used. The test is complete when half of the group die, the rest of the animals are then killed, usually by cracking there neck, autopsied and analysed to see which systems of the animal broke down and why they didn't break during the test.
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An animal born in captivity can still miss, and need, its wild life. A number of people may argue that zoos have an educational value. This really is an inferior argument in favour of zoos. What sort of educational value is contained in watching animals behave in an unnatural way? We - as a group - can answer that question easily. There is little -if any- educational value for visitors to zoos. It has also been proven that animals die prematurely in zoos. For example, in 1991, twenty two of the twenty five Asiatic Lions were born in zoos around the world died.
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Weakened hosts are more vulnerable to predation and less attractive to potential mates. Some infections result in sterility. Some may alter the ratio of host males to females. In such ways, parasitic infections lower the birth rate, raise the death rate and influence intraspecific and interspecific competition. Parasites control the ecological world in number of ways. I would like to reaffirm this by using the examples from an article, "Do Parasites Rule the World?" by Carl Zimmer. Sacculina carcini, a microscopic slug plunges deep inside the depths of the crab after molting.
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I think Jonson illustrates the fable directly in this quotation as the fox is laughing at the crow for dropping his presents and singing his out his declaration of cuckoldry to the court. The animal imagery in Volpone is very obvious immediately to the audience as he names most of the characters after birds or animals and suggests the depravity inherent in each of the individuals, whist at the same time creating caricatures of them. I think in doing this Jonson wanted to draw attention to the animalistic side of society and show how people's behaviour can be no better than animals, which prey on each other.
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Antibiotic use in domestic animals - knock on effects to the environment IntroductionAntibiotics are extensively in livestock, fish
Large volumes of antibiotics (50% of the total global consumption) are administered to food-producing animals for prophylaxis, treatment and growth promotion purposes. About 80% of these prescriptions have been reported to be unnecessary. The rising occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant infections in hospitals and the wider community has led to the question being raised as to the relationship between this growing resistant and the excessive use of antimicrobials in humans and livestock but more particularly in domestic animals such as cows, pigs, sheep, and chickens.
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Whites were viewed by the Native Americans as liars, cheaters, and hostile people. These two groups had a hard time trying to mix cultures. The Native Americans couldn't understand the Whites way of treating the land, animals, and each other. The Whites couldn't understand why the Native Americans didn't want to be Christian, and why they didn't want to join their "enlightened" way of life. A bit later, violent wars between each group became common, and the ending result is that the Whites won. Whites gave the Native Americans small areas of land to live on, which initially already belonged to them in the first place.
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The positive correlation shows that the older the molehill the higher the species diversity index. This could be explained by the fact that when the moles first push up the soil it disturbs the plants
PLAN HYPOTHESIS The compactness of the soil of the molehill will alter with the age of the molehill. The age of the molehill will affect the species diversity of plants growing on it. PREDICTION The compactness of the soil on the old molehills will be greater than the compactness of the soil of the newer molehills. The older the molehill the greater the species diversity index it will have. VARIABLES - That will affect the species diversity 1. Key factor - age of molehills The newer molehills have been formed by pushing the soil from underground onto the surface where it sits very loosely packed.
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more scientific mentality that accompanied the Enlightment, Before this change in legal stance, animals were often thought of as representing the power of nature but as technological advancements rendered nature increasingly under the control of humans it became less and less of an adversary until it could be viewed upon with affection and even nostalgia (Ritvo, 1983). Thus, sentimental attachment to those mammals that humans were interacting with most became widespread and is still special today, worldwide as much as in Britain.
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Using the Grounded Theory to explore people's views on animal use: What factors influence people when they consider their views on animal use?
For example; domestic pets or attractive mammals were rated as less acceptable than unattractive mammals (rats) for the use of product testing research (Driscoll, 1992). A link between empathy towards people and empathy towards animals has been found which could influence people's attitudes towards animal use (Galvin & Herzog, 1992). Undergraduate students found animals used in biomedical research morally acceptable and believed it plays a significant role in the treatment of human diseases which shows that some hold positive attitudes towards animal use (Hagelin, Hau & Carlsson, 1999).
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In helping to form our own opinion, we should address the following questions: 1. Is animal research necessary? 2. Are tests done on animals, such as drug interactions, proved to have the same effects on humans? 3. Are there any alternatives to using animals in research? In the past, animal research has played a major role in the advancement of medical treatment. The French chemist Louis Pastiur studied infectious diseases in animals and found that these diseases derived from external microorganisms.
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Antimicrobial peptides are another example of cytotoxicity that destroys many fungi, bacteria, and protoctists parasites. Agglutination, a molecular defence that involves production of molecules (agglutinins) that binds pathogens together by forming cross-links between short-chain carbohydrates on their surface. This immobilizes them near entry site, not allowing them to move about the host's body, which makes it harder for them to acquire nutrients by diffusion. All animals have agglutinins, which is something they have in common with plants. Wound closure is another type of molecular defence that prevents loss of body fluids and entrance of more pathogens.
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Discuss the importance of human activities in maintaining the biodiversity of semi-natural ecosystems. Include the importance of man-made habitats in promoting biodiversity.
However, conservation management of fen is relatively inexpensive and simple. It is the low fertility of fen soils that keeps their biodiversity high. It is essential, therefore that nutrient enrichment does not occur, or biodiversity will decrease, as dominant species will out compete the rarer sepcies. An example of the negative effects of nutrient enrichment on fens can be seen at Crymlyn bog Fen. Oil leaked from a near by power station and all the species near by were killed.
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Geographical location is one major key component that plays a role in the genetic make-up of humans. Humans with dark skin or narrow eyes did not just randomly appear. The process of natural selection determines which complex traits will allow individuals to produce more offspring and ultimately survive longest in their environment. For example, in extremely cold geographic locations far from the equator, humans are passed on the trait of having their eyes deep set in their sockets. It is no coincidence that Eskimos look very similar to each other, this trait is to help such cultures see better and survive in the cold temperatures and harsh winds.
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This leads to the idea that there may be a cognitive element involved; this could be learnt, or as Seligman proposed, humans may be biologically predisposed to fear certain animals. Throughout our study we hope to find whether this fear of certain animals is a result of genetics or learning (such as classical conditioning). LITERATURE REVIEW Fear Fear comes from the old English word "Faer", meaning sudden danger; where the danger is concrete, real and knowledgeable, so the fright is justified.
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Genes being responsible for behaviour, that is behaviour being the result of 'nature', include instinctive, innate and inherited behaviour. Virtually, all behaviour is influenced by genes, although they are not determined by genes
However, the study did state that environmental interaction was another factor that may contribute to antisocial acts. The estrogen-receptor gene is also attributed to mice sexual rampages. Disruption of this gene is experiments showed an almost complete shutdown of sexual behaviour in males. Absence of the 'ERa' and 'ER�' gene in male mice caused them to be unresponsive to highly receptive females, either by mating attempts or making the ultrasonic vocalisation that normally accompanies pre-mating behaviour. Sparrow mating calls are also slightly due to their inherited genes from their parents. Within the same species, there are regional variations in bird song.
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If you were participating in an experiment, would you object to being deceived? How concerned would you be about invasion of privacy? Under what circumstances, if any, would you regard it as ethical to use animals in medical experiments? Psychology
Being a participant in an experiment I would definitely object to deception. Deception, or manipulation is disrespectful towards participants. They are self-determined to take part in an experiment to help in the advancement of science. In my point of view self-determination is the right of the participant and deception jeopardizes this. Participants have the right to know exactly what they are helping to achieve. Negative effects due to deception may also cause distress or discomfort to participants or psychological "damage".
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In this process the genetic material from one cell is place into a recipient unfertilized egg which had its genetic material removed by enucleation. It is then necessary to activate the cell to start dividing. In mammals the egg must be artificially placed in the womb of a surrogate mother where it will grow until birth. During the mid 1980s, the first mammals were cloned by this process, thirty years after the initial experiments with frogs (Van Eenennam, n.d). Many reports of successful nuclear transfer experiments in mammals have been made, nearly all of them using cells taken directly from early embryos.
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They argue that humans have been assisted from the healthcare developments that have been based on the benefits of animal research and testing for many years now. Supporters for animal testing argue that research is justified because it assists in discovering ways to aid people and other animals in the future. Surgery on animals has helped in developing organ transplant and open-heart surgery techniques. Animal testing has also assisted in developing vaccines against diseases like rabies, measles, mumps, and TB.
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