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University Degree: Zoology

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  1. Animal Experimentation

    (www.the-body-shop.com Accessed 12/4/02) The most common tests involve dripping a material into rabbit's eyes or applying it to the shaved backs of rabbits or guinea pigs and studying the irritation or damage. Animals are also force-fed or dosed with substances to assess the affects. In some cases the tests can cause suffering and even death. "The Body Shop believes cosmetics testing on animals is unethical, unnecessary and should be banned"(www.the-body-shop.com Accessed 12/4/02) However there are a number of reasons why animals are still used in cosmetic testing.

    • Word count: 773
  2. With the aid of examples, discuss the biogeographical consequences of previously separated continents merging.

    Although the plates move very slowly, only about 5 - 10 cm a year (c*x and Moore 1993), over geologic time, life would be greatly affected. At one point in geologic history all the continents were united as one super-continent known as Pangaea about 260 million years ago. This came from the uniting of Euramerica, Siberia, Gondwana and two portions of what is now China. At this point all land flora and fauna were joined by land and could potentially colonise the entire world causing the spread of certain species and extinction of other species by competition.

    • Word count: 2342
  3. Evolutionary Arms Races.

    not just herbivory), or the insect may have had its detoxification mechanisms in place before encountering the host plant in question. Where two species are co-evolved but have a mutualistic relationship, this is termed mutualistic coevolution. However, where two species are co-evolved but are either competitive or parasitic towards each other, their relationship is termed antagonistic. This is also known as an "evolutionary arms race", because both groups involved are under selection pressure to out-compete the other. The extent with which predators and prey will interact with each other is the major determining factor of evolutionary arms races.

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  4. What is a species? How do new species arise? What is the difference between the graduated and punctuated theories of speciation?

    Creationists believe that species are discrete fixed entities, and that their form has not changed since their creation. Books such as Darwin's 'The Origin of the Species' discounted this theory and suggested that species evolved over time by the process of Natural Selection. Philosophers such as Lock and Leibniz believed that species are not real entities, but are constructs of the human mind, trying to impose order on organisms. Unlike creationists, such a Nominalist approach states that species are not discrete, but continuous, and that the term 'species' has no biological basis and that a species merely has its name to distinguish itself.

    • Word count: 1891
  5. The Medicinal Potential of the Poison Dart Frog.

    However they are currently defined as any nitrogen containing secondary metabolite. But this leads to the problem of deciding whether they are primary or secondary? These alkaloids may have a variety of functions action as poisons, stimulants, hallucinogens and medicines. Frog derived toxins have been used for centuries by the native populations for tipping their hunting weapons. Dart poison frogs, poison-arrow frogs, poison frogs and dendrobatid frogs are all the names used to describe the brightly coloured frogs found in Central and South America. The secretions from all dendrobatid frogs are poisonous, but only few are toxic enough to kill a human.

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  6. Human modernization leads to outbreaks of the Ebola virus.

    In order to prevent an explosion of the Ebola virus into humans, measures must be taken to ensure that exploration of the central African rainforests as well as other ecological and evolutionary practices are taken with greater consideration. The course of an Ebola virus infection is one that usually leads to hemorrhagic fever. The virus incubates in the host and continues to replicate for an average of six to ten days. The incubation period is followed by a series of severe fevers, headaches, muscle weakness and pain, and a reddening in the eyes.

    • Word count: 2058
  7. Anthropology : the problem of cultural evolution.

    However, one living species do not evolve biologically and that is humans. Humans are very much cognitive in nature than other living species. They rely on their complex thinking and creativeness to survive. Humans also have a much higher capacity of learning especially through mistakes. Through their complex thinking, they come up with ways, methods and ideas to solve their problems and through creativeness and trial and error, they invent effective tools to help implement these ideas and methods. It is in all these that lie the differences between biological and cultural evolution.

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  8. What are the differences in social interactions within groups of chimpanzees and groups of bonobos? How have researchers explained these differences?

    Both researchers studied the 'Pan' genus for many years, in an attempt to understand and explain the differences in social activity between the two respective groups. The findings of these two researchers will be used to explain the social interactive differences within groups of chimpanzees and groups of bonobos, along with their own explanations as to why these differences exist. Professor Takayoshi Kano, one of the world's key specialists on the bonobo species, studied the pygmy chimpanzee 'first hand' from 1974 to 1985 in Central Zaire's tropical rain forests, the only place where bonobos are known to exist in the wild.

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  9. This report was commissioned by Sunderland City Council to assess the ecological and educational resources available at the Tunstall Hills site.

    The results for each site (see appendix 2) were then analysed using the computer programme TABLEFIT. In addition these results were double-checked by using a dichotomous key provided in the NVC handbook (NCC, 1989a) 2.3 Survey effort The surveys were conducted by 4 MSc. students from the University of Sunderland's Environmental Management programme. The surveys were carried out on the 18th and 19th of March 2003 during fine weather conditions. The total time spend in the field was around 8 hrs with that time being more or less equally distributed between the phase 1 and the phase 2 surveys.

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  10. Biology is the science of life.

    These groupings have been revised since Linnaeus to improve consistency with the Darwinian principle of common descent. Charles Darwin articulated the concept of evolution that remains central to this day, which he did by proposing natural selectrion as a mechanism. The Linnaeus's System works by placing each organism into a layered hierarchy of groups. The groupings (taxa) of taxonomy from most general to most specific are: 1- Kingdom 2-Phylum (animals) or Division (plants) 3-Class, 4-Order, 5- Family, 6- Genus, 7- Species. In biology, a kingdom is the top-level, or nearly the top-level, grouping of organisms in a scientific classification.

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  11. Investigating the effect that group size has on the vigilant behaviour of flocks of Seagulls.

    thus making any extra vigilant behaviour redundant. If the behaviour is less beneficial to the animal's fitness it is expected to do less of it and more time doing other activities that will benefit its fitness, such as feeding. So, there is a conflict between competing activities and the motivation for doing them and it is expected that animals would make the compromise between these behaviours that would increase their fitness. For example, a tired animal would be expected to spend more time sleeping and less time being vigilant and performing other activities.

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  12. How do animal communication systems differ from human language? Can primates acquire language?

    Wenner (1964) found bees sometimes make a noise whilst doing this dance, and Esch ( 1967) found silent dances had little effect on the other bees. They also use olfactory communication. The smell of the nectar remains on the dancer, and the bees can locate the nectar by searching for the scent smelt on the dancer. Animals commonly use olfactory communication because their sense of smell is often much more advanced than that found in humans. Many mammals leave a scent, either to signal their territory boundaries, or to show they have been present in that area.

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  13. This paper attempts to investigate whether the associated consequences of global warming could lead to an increase in shark attacks on water users in British coastal waters.

    In the second, a surfer was bitten on the hand by a shark whilst riding a wave in Australia. This has lead the author to question whether the effects of Global Warming and the predicted changes in global climate will lead to an increase in shark attacks in British Coastal Waters. 2.0 Sharks. 2.1 Sharks of the world. Sharks are of the class 'Chondrichthyes' and are of the Super-order 'Selachii'. Sharks have certain distinguishable features, 5-7 gill slits on the side of their head, very course skin and cartilaginous skeletons.

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  14. Animals in Research: Animals in Cosmetic Testing - Corporate Crime?

    This would suggest that profit motives are imminent and nowhere else is this more apparent as in the cosmetic industry. The origins of product testing on animals stemmed from a 1933 incident involving a woman using Lash Lure mascara (All, 1998). After receiving some of the chemicals in her eye she suffered severe injuries causing blindness and subsequently death. This sparked the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act in 1938 which protected the public from unsafe cosmetics (All, 1998). As a consequence of this act, corporations with huge investments in these products had to introduce ways of protecting their consumers.

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  15. Many industries use animal testing to research the effects of their products on humans. What are the arguments for and against animal testing? What is your opinion?

    Laboratory testing involves dangerous chemical and surgical practices on animals which painful to them. An example of this is in 1944, when John Draize, an American Food and Drugs Administration toxicologist, experienced an eye irritancy test on rabbits. The experiment involved dropping chemical into one eye of a rabbit; the other eye is for control. The rabbits were kept in cages and treated badly. It took at least three days to appear any sign of eyes damages such as redness, blindness, ulceration or cloudiness. After record the results, the rabbit will be killed. But testing on animals is not a necessary procedure to test a product.

    • Word count: 793
  16. Tropical Rainforest Biome

    Warm, moist conditions are ideal for microorganisms so decomposition is rapid > Rapid growth of vegetation requires a rapid uptake of nutrients so they are immediately absorbed when released into the soil > So the constant supply of dead matter means the top layer remains nutrient rich whilst the rapid uptake by vegetation means the soil below remains depleted > The cycling of nutrients between the biomass, litter layer and soil is very rapid. > Precipitation greatly exceeds evapotranspiration so there is much leaching of minerals such as Silicone.

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  17. If Animals Could Talk

    We kill animals for us to walk around and look nice in furs, run random tests on them to see how they think and function, and simply just experiment on them for our makeup and chemical products. Many people tend to be inconsiderate of animals and their needs and feelings and we place our own needs and wants first as if we are superior to everything else. In Alice Walker's essay Am I Blue? There is a horse named Blue that lives on a meadow with beautiful grass and plenty of acres to run around on but no one to keep him company or socialize with.

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  18. How adequate are the UK's control systems, governing the use of animals, for testing the safety of medical and commercial products?

    Once granted the licence, the licensee must comply with a strict code of practice. Their research needs to be carefully planned and carried out to the highest standards obtainable, as well as having facilities which are accredited and properly equipped. Also licensee's need to take in consideration the three R's put forward by W. Russel and R. Burch in their 1959 book "The principle of humane experimental technique" which outlines reducing the amount of animals used, refining tests to lower suffering and where possible replacing animals in experiments.

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  19. Describe and evaluate arguments for and against the use of non-human animals in psychological research.

    The animal rights argument is heavily based on ethical issues. In his work, Peter Singer described the use of animals in research as a form of discrimination that he termed 'speciesism', and in the same way that experiments are not done on old people because it would be called ageism, experiments cannot be carried out on animals without being hopelessly hypocritical. Certainly, looking at an experiment such as Harlow's Monkeys, it is easy to see how the animal rights argument could be applied.

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  20. Only Humans Have Souls. DiscussMost definitions state that a soul is the spiritual essence of a human being

    If you are not dogmatic in your religion, you can use a logical argument to define your belief. If you consider how a dog, a cat, or other animal has a personality and a memory and how it reacts to life, you may find it hard to believe that your pet is just a complex machine that has no spiritual aspect or soul and is gone when it dies. If an animal that has love and feelings is just a machine, why should humans be any different?

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  21. Ethics In Psychology

    * Deception. The investigator must not withhold any information or try to mislead the participant. Participants must never be deliberately misled without extremely strong scientific or medical justification. * Debriefing. When participants are aware that they are taking part in an experiment and the data has been obtained, the researcher must provide the participant with conclusive information, in order for participant to understand the nature of the research. * Confidentiality. The information about a participant during an investigation must be treated as confidential unless it has been agreed otherwise in advance.

    • Word count: 748
  22. Outline and evaluate two different signalling systems used by non-human animals.

    Not only does it allow s****l selection to occur, but it also helps the prevention of crossbreeding as only animals of a same species would respond to the display. In this case visual signalling is effective as it is easily detected by the other s*x, making the whole process more efficient. It also requires, in some cases, a vast amount of energy, for example the peacock requires effort to first display the brightly coloured feather, but once this has been done little effort is needed to uphold this display.

    • Word count: 817
  23. Monash University Philosophy: Caulfield

    Arts Faculty policy requires completion of this cover sheet as a condition for acceptance of work submitted electronically. Students are reminded that plagiarism is a serious offence. Plagiarism is an attempt to obtain undeserved academic advantage. Plagiarism occurs where someone fails to acknowledge that ideas have been borrowed from any source, such as the Internet, published books or periodicals, or another student's work. Specifically it occurs when: * Phrases or passages are copied verbatim without quotation marks and without reference to the author; * An author's work is paraphrased and presented without appropriate reference; * Another student's work is copied;

    • Word count: 1808
  24. Squealer'S Speech

    Another persuasive technique that Squealer uses to its full advantage is the use of Rhetorical Questions. They all have obvious answers and just remind the animals that they don't want Jones to come back at any cost. Basically there is only one possible answer for all animals to choose, the one which lets the pigs end up with the apples and milk.

    • Word count: 577
  25. Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the pig

    Differing subtypes can be distinguished through their selective antagonists and agonists. Atropine, 4-DAMP, Methoctramine and Pirenzepine and Oxybutynin are antagonists. Carbachol is an agonist, it is similar in structure to acetylcholine but structural differences mean it is less prone to hydrolysis by cholinesterase. The selectivity of these ligands gives us the difference in affinities of the ligands and the receptors and therefore different pKi values. These binding assays can be done to study the receptors in tissue preparations and their modifications by drugs, disease states or experimental conditions. Assays The contractile response practical involved testing a sample of pig detrusor muscle for response induced by different antagonists and the agonist, Carbachol.

    • Word count: 5809

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