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University Degree: Zoology

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  1. Influence of land use history on plant species richness

    Apparatus Light meter 20m measuring tape 20cm x 20cm quadrat trees and plants book guides camera pH meter 250 ml beakers (eleven) distilled water electronic weighing scales 50ml measuring cylinder stirring rod Method Two separate sites were selected on the Common: one was a site of ancient woodland, and one was a site of newer woodland. A twenty metre long transect line, going from east to west, was employed on both sites. These lines were started five metres inside the tree line at random points on the eastern side of each stand, this was as an effort to ensure the collection of data from random sampling.

    • Word count: 1987
  2. The role of Zoos.

    the numbers will decline again, so the release of captive bred animals alone will have no effect on the overall natural population. This is why habitat conservation is also necessary. Research - The research carried out by zoos is vital in the conservation of endangered species and to advance the care for both captive and wild animals. The research covers topics such as conservation and survival of endangered species, improvement of husbandry veterinary procedures, to better understand species in our care or of interest and to interaction between wild animals and captive bred animals.

    • Word count: 933
  3. Argument against vivisection!!

    The other side may argue that all these animals were needed to find cures for cancer. However, in the next paragraph I will explain that most of the time cures are not found or the chemicals cause side effects. The public believe that vivisection is needed to find cures for cancer and illnesses. But this is not true. According to Dr. J.F. Brailsford vivisection has only found ways of causing cancers but it has not found ways to cure them.

    • Word count: 1335
  4. Analysis on Old Major's Speech - Animal farm.

    He has lived a long life on the farm and knows a lot about the farmer Mr Jones. Over his life Old Major has watched the sinister and wicked ways of Mr Jones and has realised that he is an evil man with a cunning plan. In the beginning he brings intrigue to the barn. "But I will come to the dream later". This adds suspense and keeps the animals paying full attention to him. He addresses his audience as comrades. This brings the feeling of friendliness and makes it personal. It makes the audience feel included. Another effective use of persuasion is repetition.

    • Word count: 558
  5. Animals and heat loss.

    To do this we will be using the simplest amount, and we will be filling each beaker up only half way. We will be measuring the height of water, the volume of water and the diameter of the beaker. We will next fill each beaker with individually with water at 80�c. We will wait one minute and take the temperature, and repeat 10 times. We will be doing this experiment twice for each beaker so we know if the results are varying.

    • Word count: 698
  6. Compare and Contrast two of the five main approaches in psychology.

    Although in Behaviourism it is believed that animals are practically and ethically more convenient to test. The behaviourists believed that the laws of learning were crucial and as there was only a small difference between animals and humans. However the animals were not physically harmed. An example of such an experiment would be Edward Thorndike's, whom also created the 'law of effect'. He said that 'actions that are rewarded are repeated'. Thorndike had to test his theory to see if his hypothesis was right. Therefore he tested it out on a cat. The cat was placed in a box with a lever inside of it that would release an opening.

    • Word count: 1616
  7. "Is there an important moral difference between human beings and (other) animals?"

    The thought of eating human flesh is regarded as 'disgusting', as is the thought of feeling s******y attracted to an animal. However, this may not be a moral concern, defined by reason, but a reflection of social norms and values. Certain behaviour is socially accepted with in society because it is known as the norm, and the thought of eating another human clashes with this norm, and therefore is rejected, but not necessarily because it is morally wrong. For example, other cultures with contrasting norms and values, such as certain native tribes, choose to include cannibalism within their lifestyle and do not view it to be 'morally wrong', because it is socially accepted.

    • Word count: 2098
  8. "There is a lot of opposition to the use of non-human animals in psychological research. The truth is that animals are so similar to us genetically and so convenient to use that we would be foolish not to carry out such investigations."

    very similar to us. This enables the findings to be generalised, in the majority of cases, to human beings. The behavior of non-human animals is definitely perceived to be much less complex than our own, so in that respect it proves easier to study. This is also aided by our ability to detach ourselves from them to a greater degree and so analyse objectively as well as being able to exert a greater degree of control over them.

    • Word count: 510
  9. Do you believe that it is right to keep animals?

    There are also bad points to zoos and safari parks. As I will explain next. The animals are kept in cages and do not have much room to move around. Also the animals are not in their natural habit. The animals also loose their natural instincts and they become used to being fed. They would not be able to catch their own food if they were released into the wild, so they would probably die. The animals are sometimes not fed well in zoos and safari parks and they get malnourished.

    • Word count: 1185
  10. What are the advantages and disadvantages of keeping animals in zoos?

    The question we have to consider is do zoos really achieve these goals? The zoo is a place where you can see all the animals that you wouldn't see in everyday life, with very small risk of being harmed. For example by keeping the lion in a zoo we, as zoo visitors can view it from a closer distance and learn more about it. There is always the chance of young children putting their hands through cages, or of keepers themselves being trampled by an elephant, but in general the risk, although always there, is very small.

    • Word count: 814
  11. Today I am presenting myself to you all to give my views on how strongly I believe that fox hunting should be banned.

    If the fox doesn't manage to escape death for a few minutes more, and doesn't find a hole, it has to carry on going. When it is too weak to run away anymore, the hounds go and basically rip the terrified fox into pieces. Not only is fox-hunting a cold-blooded and cruelly connected sport, it is also seen as a perfectly natural sport! Tell me if I'm wrong but isn't sport meant to be fun? Killing animals... I can not see how that can be fun..

    • Word count: 627
  12. What are Tess Lemmon's main objections to zoos? Summarise them in your own words as a series of numbered points.

    Zoos do not allow any natural and meaningful contact through their bars and concrete between the animals and the humans as it gives the wrong impressions. The only things that zoos can offer are concrete, shortage of space and bars. The only relationship and contact that the animals and the humans have are the relationship that they set as exhibit and visitor. Therefore it does not live up to the natural educational role it says that it has. 4.

    • Word count: 988
  13. Write a speech for a school debate supporting the motion that "Experiments on animals can never be justified".

    We even see the production of a new lipstick or oven cleaner as a good enough reason to inflict pain on animals. The experiments carried out on animals are painful, they are shocked, burned alive, maimed and poisoned till they die, like us the animals have an advanced nervous system, even so there are still tests which measures the pain, they are put on to hot metal plates, dipping their tails into boiling water and injecting acid into their stomach so that when the stomach bursts, the acid in the stomach that itself produces would literally "eat" and "digest" the animal itself.

    • Word count: 815
  14. Is Meat Eating Right?

    This leads to high blood pressure, heart disease and strokes. It has also been proven by scientists and doctors that vegetable protein keeps cholesterol levels at a low rate. The majority of people that I have informed of this information still insist that it is unhealthy to become a vegetarian, but this is not the only risk that eating meat imposes on your health. Scientists doing cancer research have gathered evidence that proves that by eating meat you are greatly increasing the chance that you will develop some form of cancer, especially cancer of the colon, r****m, breast and uterus.

    • Word count: 1804
  15. Define Species.

    The reason why classifying organisms is so important is first of all gets rid of the chaos and confusion because it is human nature to be orderly and be able to organize things for ways to deal with things. Another reason is so that a person could see and understand evolutionary relationships between organisms. Also classifying is valuable because of the predictive value because several members of group have things in common so it would common to them all.

    • Word count: 477
  16. The Concept of a Species.

    The argument may well be a rhetorical one because every kind of organism presents us with a different situation. It is possible that neither of the two definitions can be consistently applied throughout nature. (Asexual organisms, however, are classified into different species according to additional or other criteria such as external morphology, chemical and physiological properties and genetic structure.) Species come about as the result of gradual changes. New traits that result from these changes are selected through a process of natural selection.

    • Word count: 3263
  17. Human Evolution

    The relationship is apparent from the form of the chromosomes, sequences of DNA, and resemblences in proteins. Evidently our ancestors and those of the gorilla and chimpanzee had a common line for several million years after they separated from what is believed to be our earliest ancestor - the orangutan (Birkett 1982). The earliest known hominid remains dated around 4.4 million years, were discovered in Ethiopia in 1992. They belong to a species call Australopithecus ramidus. The bone remains showed a mixture of chimpanzee-like and later hominid-like features (Fortey 1982).

    • Word count: 1908
  18. In what ways are Rainforests special?

    For example animals and plants depend on fruit and rotting leaves from trees for their energy and many trees depend on animals to pollinate their flowers and spread their seeds. So what do they do for us? It is not just a matter of what they do for us, but also what they do for other species of plants and animals. They are the last great wilderness of the world and the only place some animals live, so as we destroy the forest we destroy them, at least one animal becomes extinct every day because of deforestation.

    • Word count: 991
  19. Animal cruelty

    Then what happens is that their lives are spent in a cage until they die. Then there have been lots of reported cases of people doing horrible things to animals such as setting them on fire, because they think it's funny. Sometimes newborn kittens are found on rubbish tips or in dustbins. Also dogs have been found abandoned in empty houses, the list is endless in terms of cruelty to animals. I find this totally wrong and think that we should treat all our animals with respect, as they can bring a lot of pleasure to people.

    • Word count: 733
  20. Christian and Muslim viewpoints on Animal rights How does the belief of the two religions you have studied affect the attitudes towards the treatment of animals?

    St Frances of Assisi proved this, for instance Christians founded the RSPCA. Many Christians have joined campaign groups to fight against animal cruelty. Christians also argue against experimental cruelty to animals for cosmetics. 'Scientists must abandon laboratories and factories of death.' (Pope John Paul II) Jesus occasionally taught the people on how to treat animals, Christians can read these in the Bible and base their decisions on it, fortunately there was no animal testing in the time of Jesus, but this does cause a problem for Christians who are seeking an answer about animal experimentation in the Bible.

    • Word count: 1779
  21. Forces shaping the rocky shore

    Plants and animals living on rocky shores have adapted to being pounded by waves. Tides The tide's rise and fall is one of the main factors affecting life on rocky shores. When the tide falls, plants and animals on rocks are exposed to air. They must develop special adaptations to survive until the tide comes in again. When high tides aren't very big, plants and animals which live high on the shore may be exposed to air for several days. Organisms which live very low on the shore may only occasionally be exposed to air.

    • Word count: 869
  22. A comparison of humans and animals

    Hence the unstated general principle is false. II. ANIMALS IN COMAPRISON TO HUMANS GENETICALLY Narcolepsy - sleeping sickness - is a strange enough disease in humans, but the idea that dogs fall victim to it as well seems far fetched. Except that it's true - both Doberman pinschers and Labrador Retrievers can suffer from narcolepsy. Scottish Terriers can suffer from a type of haemophilia; English Springer Spaniels from anaemia, and Golden Retrievers from muscular dystrophy. A growing number of genetic diseases, that have similar or in some case exact parallels in man, are being discovered in animals.

    • Word count: 903
  23. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is a world leading research-based pharmaceutical company with a powerful combination of skills and resources that provides a platform for delivering strong growth in today's rapidly changing healthcare environment.

    The sites within the GSK manufacturing network - * supply products to over 160 global markets for GSK * produce over 1,200 different brands * manufacture 4 billion packs per year * produce over 36,000 different finished packs per year * supply around 6,000 tonnes of bulk active each year * manage about 2,000 new product launches globally each year Production of nutritional products is in excess of 300 million Lucozade/Ribena bottles, 350 million Ribena tetra packs and 20 million Lucozade carbonated cans per year. The annual output of Horlicks is 50 million kilogram's, equivalent to about 1,000 million servings.

    • Word count: 2729
  24. Kin Recognition - Why should animals be able to recognise their kin? Can they? How?

    Traditional views on the benefits are that it allows the dispensing of nepotism, for example 'helpers' who aid in the raising of closely related animals offspring. It could be summarised by saying that it is better to increase a relative's fitness through acts of altruism as they carry a certain proportion of your genes than to help a complete stranger add to the gene pool for the next generation. Additional benefits of kin discrimination are that it facilitates the balance between inbreeding and out breeding through mate recognition.

    • Word count: 2640
  25. Animal Rights

    These people are called the Anti-vivi-sectionists. They will use many different methods to bring the end of animal testing, sometimes violent. I do not feel as strong as the anti-vivi-sectionists because their views are that an animal's life is as precious a human's. They do not believe that we should make an animal suffer for our own benefit. I am against animal testing for the main reason that the animals go through a lot of pain and suffering for the very small chance that they may help someone someday.

    • Word count: 558

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