How will ethical issues affect leadership in a business
Contemporary and Pervasive Issues "How will ethical issues affect leadership in a business?" Name: Lauren Canning Student no: 15010789 Date: 31/03/2009 Tutor: Christine Gilligan Word Count: 5671 In this essay I am going to discuss how ethical issues can affect leadership in a business. In order to answer this question the essay will start by giving a brief introduction into the two topics; leadership and business ethics. I will then aim to successfully link them by considering the argument of whether leaders should concern themselves with ethical issues or whether making as much money as possible should be their main consideration. Leadership has many different meanings and there have been numerous different classification systems used to define the dimensions of leadership. Infact as Stogdill (1974) pointed out, "there are almost as many different definitions of leadership as there are people who have tried to define it." One popular definition used for this subject is that "leadership may be considered as the process (act) of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement"(Stogdill, 1974). This definition suggests that it is not a characteristic but is an event that takes place between a leader and his or her followers and that there are three aspects to leadership. Firstly, it involves influence in that
Citigroup in post-WTO China Analyze and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Citibank as they apply to banking in China, and indicate whether other Citigroup activities can build on Citibank's China experience.
GROUP CASE WRITE-UP Citigroup in post-WTO China . Analyze and evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of Citibank as they apply to banking in China, and indicate whether other Citigroup activities can build on Citibank's China experience. Citibank can rely on many advantages to penetrate the Chinese market. Its huge experience with the developing markets first provides the bank a reliable and efficient mainframe to face the difficulties of the buoyant Chinese market. Moreover, China is an historic location for Citibank activities since the group has been present there since 1902. With the first liberalisation phase launched by Deng Xiaoping, Citibank was one of the first foreign banks to reach anew the Chinese shores. Both this specific ability to deal with high-risky markets and this first-coming policy give the bank the opportunity to develop an efficient and well-rooted network in China. Consequently, the bank can boast of having a real top-of-mind brand (professionalism, deep knowledge of the market etc.) among the foreign companies implemented in China. Thus the Bank developed its recognition in China not only with the foreign companies but also with government itself. Regarding the professionalism for example, the managers of the PBOC implemented the Citibank audit procedures to the institution so that China could have a top of the art process of audit for its
This report will focus on the issue of Mexico adopting the US dollar as its official currency.
Dollarization in Mexico Written by: Matthew Baron Eren Pamir Maksym Rubin This report will focus on the issue of Mexico adopting the US dollar as its official currency. We will examine the feasibility behind the surrender of the Mexican peso, the replacement of the country's physical currency with US dollars, and the effects that these actions will have on Mexico from an economic, political and social perspective. In examining these effects, we will determine whether the Mexican government should pursue official dollarization. I. Requirements and processes. Some economists have argued that countries wishing to replace their central banking systems through dollarization must first fulfill certain preconditions, such as a high level of dollar reserves, a solvent banking system, sound government finances, and flexible wages (Joint Economic Committee). However, if these conditions already exist within a country, chances are their monetary policy would already be effective, which would negate the need for dollarization (Id.). In Mexico's case, there would be no preconditions to fulfill in order for the country to consider becoming a candidate for dollarization. However, there are a few important steps that the Mexican government must address once the decision to dollarize has been made. One of the main issues in dollarization is the exchange of all the Mexican peso
Overheating economy in China
How successfully can fiscal policy be used to combat (a) recessions and (b) 'overheating' in the economy? Use examples and evidence to support your arguments. Business cycle is defined as the alternating periods of expansion and contraction in an economy's real output (Welch, 2004: 146). Rather than occur randomly, business cycle tends to be regular which goes through four phases: a recovery during which real GDP increases; a peak where maximum output occurs; a recession during which real GDP falls; and a trough where minimum output occurs (ibid.). There is undoubted those economic fluctuations have influential effects on societies. Fiscal policy, which is the governmental policy used to intervene in the macroeconomics by the overall level of government purchases and taxations, is one of the most important policies used to maintain the stabilisation of the economy (Case and Fair, 1999: 583). Recession and overheating can be seen as the main targets that the fiscal policy tends to deal with (Mankiw, 2005: 723). Critically, it seems to be successful to combat recessions and overheating by fiscal policies, but there are also several limitations. Recession is a period in which the economic growth rate is far below the normal, according to Frank and Bernanke (2004: 645). During a recession, people have fewer stimuli to consume and invest, and the unemployment rate tends to rise
Case Analysis: Slendertone
Ranee Sirirushneekorn MKTG901-49 9/18/04 Case Analysis: Slendertone Problem Definition McDonnell has aimed to develop "Slendertone" into a world-class brand and to achieve sales of over £100 million in two years. In order to achieve this, the company had to develop new markets and redevelop the existing markets. Plus, the company needed to place more emphasis on customer satisfaction issues for both the home based user and professional markets to retain the customer's loyalty which in turn helped to boost revenue. Solution Developing New markets Alternative 1: E-commerce - "Slendertone" can be known in just a single click. Pros Cons . No barrier to entry 1. Leads to higher global competition 2. Reach worldwide potential customers 2. Privacy and Security issues 3. Low cost of Investment 3. Hesitate to buy via online Alternative 2: Directly market to France. Referring to the market research, there is still a high demand in France. The company has to re-penetrate this big market and try to become the market leader there. This achievement will generate millions to the company earnings and help to achieve the company's goal. Thus, it is a must to locate the office in France to manage and control this segment carefully. By using a new infomercial, the company can reach the targeted customers by using real users to be
Case Study Of The Home Video Game Industry from Pong to Dreamcast
Case Study Of The Home Video Game Industry from Pong to Dreamcast Strategic Management 240 Instructor Janet Jones By Ivy Felicia Martin June 27,2003 Introduction The home video game market is a 30 billion dollar booming industry. Technology and entertainment have been combined together to create a world wide phenomena. The year 2001 marked the thirtieth year anniversary of the home video game. Where did it all begin. History, Development, and Growth of the Industry The year of 1972 was a period of innovation for Norman Bushnell. Bushnell vision was to create a video game. Past experience required that the game had to be as simple as possible. Pong was the product that resulted based on the concept table tennis. The game was placed in a bar and soon generated revenue. Norman Bushnell received a line of credit from a local bank and founded his company Atari. The employee's would soon go on to be innovators in their own right, Steve Jobs and Steve Woziak.. Capital was provided by Don Valentine, a successful venture capitalist. The company's first year sales were 3.2 million dollars. Competition began to enter the market and Sears soon came to the rescue. Sears provided a much needed push and sales were reached of 450 million dollars. Atari was sold to Warner Brothers for 28 million dollars and became Atari Inc. Success followed with the Atari 2600
Competitive markets, free from government intervention are the best means of allocating society(TM)s scarce resources amongst its members.
Competitive markets, free from government intervention are the best means of allocating society's scarce resources amongst its members. While economists theorise about markets free from government intervention, regulated markets, though generally less efficient, are also functionally viable. It is through the analysis of both types of markets, and their relative applications within society, that economists can critically evaluate their effect upon the allocation of society's resources amongst its members. A competitive market is an economic forum run by supply and demand, where "price is a result of voluntary transactions1". A market free from government intervention is known as a free market, and under 'perfect conditions' is theorised to be the most efficient. However, it is only through the introduction of regulation, that these markets can be seen as more equitable to members of society. While perfectly competitive markets, in the long run, achieve economic efficiency, in reality, government intervention provides a legal framework to enforce contracts, monopolies, and political, economic, and environmental conflicts. Perfect competition provides a framework to achieve the desired outcome of workable competition, through effective regulation. A market economy free from government intervention is theoretically preferred in many ways, however there are some aspects of its
As the management accountant of a local NHS hospital this report has been written for the senior management to help identify, explore and analyse some of the issues raised by Gordon Brown in comments surrounding poor management within the NHS. The
Introduction As the management accountant of a local NHS hospital this report has been written for the senior management to help identify, explore and analyse some of the issues raised by Gordon Brown in comments surrounding 'poor management' within the NHS. These comments were made in response to the varying range of costs involved in various procedures within the NHS. This report will begin by analysing the costing methods employed and giving a breakdown of the method. Costing is vital to the success of any organisation and the NHS is no exception. Costing allows us to budget, compare and contrast which allow us to benchmark and measure efficiency. The report will then move on to tackle possible causes for the variation in costs and finally look to offer some possible improvements based on the report's findings. Terms of Reference Below are some terms that will appear throughout the report: Direct costs - These are in relation to any cost that has a direct link with a procedure e.g. a specific piece of equipment, direct labour (heart surgeon, neurological surgeon) etc. Indirect costs - These are costs which cannot be directly assigned to one procedure e.g. indirect labour (nurses, admin staff etc.), Utility bills (Heating, electric, water), maintenance etc. Cost drivers- The activity that drives the cost to be incurred. Costing in the NHS "Healthcare systems
Key External Environment of Manchester Airport
The purpose of this report is to detail the key external environment issues surrounding Manchester Airport and how the Marketing Manger and the Operations Manager can attempt to influence or control these. The external environment is considered to be a far environment, therefore can neither be controlled nor influenced. This environment consists of Social, Legal, Technological, Economical and Political factors. For Manchester Airport these are: - . Social - Demographics, Seasons, environmental issues. 2. Legal - Legislations. 3. Economic - Boom/bust cycle, interest rates, taxation and Government expenditure. 4. Political - The Government and legislation. 5. Technological - Information technology. Fig 1, Current environmental issues Social: - The social factors include population factors of age, occupation, lifestyle and wealth distribution. These can all have major impacts on businesses. Age population can determine whether people will travel close to home or further away, as younger people have families, which means there is a budget attached to their spending. Older people tend not to have a young family to cater for and have a larger disposable income. Occupation determines a person's lifestyle through their earnings and thus their wealth distribution. Seasons affect the travel industry as most people prefer to travel in the summer for the warmth; therefore it
Buyer Decision Process
Buyer Decision Process Chad Ramsey April 6th, 2008 AIU Online Buyer Decision Process The purpose of this paper is to examine the buyers' decision process when purchasing a product and/or service. For specific purpose of this assignment, I constructed 5 interview questions pertaining to the buyer decision process. The interview questions were based around the purchase of a laptop computer. My brother, Shane Ramsey, is one person that I chose to interview. I answered the questions in the interview, since I had recently purchased a laptop as well, and because Shane helped me in the buying process. This paper will also analyze the demographic characteristics that influenced the behavior of each consumer involved in the interview. Armstrong and Kotler (2007) break the buyer decision process into 5 stages; "need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and postpurchase behavior". In the interview, the first question was based on "need recognition" (the first stage in the buyer's decision process). "When did you realize you needed a new computer and why?" When I first realized I needed to get a laptop; I had just enrolled in AIU Online and my desktop PC was old and could not support the 2007 version of the software, Microsoft Office, as required. Also, I wanted to be able to take my school with me. Shane quotes, "I realized I needed a