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University Degree: Accounting

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  1. Inflation in Hungary.

    Inflation was 38,6% by then. 2. After September 1991 there was a year of dezinflation, then one year of stable of stable inflation growth, after which the inflation grew rapidly again in1994. The main characteristics of this period was that the CPI was mostly 10% bigger than the PPI inflation. 3. In the beginning of the 3rd period the inflation accelerated, it nearly reached its 1991 September level, then it was followed by stable dezinflation. The inflation of CPI was very similar to the inflation of PPI So let us see the three periods one by one: 1.

    • Word count: 959
  2. Analyse the debt of Hungary in the 1990's. Use economic theory to explain the relationship of debt with the macroeconomic aims and indicators.

    According to John Sloman's Economics2 the economic growth means that there will be more goods and services for the people to consume, the rate of inflation means "the percentage increase in prices over a twelve-month period. The balance of payment shows the country's transactions with the rest of the world, and the exchange rate is the rate at which one national currency changes too another. And at last the unemployment rate is the number of unemployed expressed as a percentage of the labour force."

    • Word count: 2504
  3. A comparison of the financial performance between two onlinefashion retailers during and after the 2008/2009 recession.

    Fashion retailers' websites were during the recession the favourite destination for online shopping, whereas in October 2008 and January 2009, books were the most popular category (Mintel, 2009). The rise comes down to the fact that shopping online is generally cheaper than on the high-street and consumers can search out bargains more easily. Figure 1: Weekly average expenditure of all households in the UK on clothing & footwear 2007-2010 Figure 2: Clothing sales online and share of clothing sector 2000-2010 Source: Datamonitor 360 According to a survey ,by Vogue magazine, consumers are looking for more quality during the recession.

    • Word count: 1800
  4. ABS-CBN Financial Analysis. ABS-CBN Corporation is a Filipino media conglomerate and the country's largest and foremost media and entertainment company,

    Divisions ABS-CBN Licensing Group ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs Subsidiaries & ABS-CBN Sports Associates Cable Channels and Print Media Group Central Library Subsidiaries & Communications Management Group Associates I-Post Manila Radio Division Regional Network Group Star Entertainment Group Traffic ABS-CBN Australia Pty., Ltd. (100%) ABS-CBN Canada ULC (100%) ABS-CBN Europe Ltd. (100%) ABS-CBN Film Productions, Inc. (100%) ABS-CBN Foundation, Inc. (100%) ABS-CBN Center for Communication Arts, Inc. (100%) ABS-CBN Global Ltd. (100%) ABS-CBN Global Cargo Corporation (100%) ABS-CBN Global Hungary Kft (100%) ABS-CBN Global Netherlands B.V (100%) ABS-CBN Global Remittance (100%) ABS-CBN Integrated and Strategic Property (100%) ABS-CBN Holdings, Inc.(100%)

    • Word count: 6098
  5. Perspectives on Audit - Why accounts need to be audited and can a legal action be brought against auditors if they make mistakes

    purpose of auditing including; * Audit Opinion * Reporting Requirements * Stages in Audit Process * Liability to Shareholders * Liability to third parties * Auditor professional ethics 2 Why accounts need to be audited 2.1 Misconception about the role of auditors There seems to be an expectation gap in the minds of the public as to the main purpose of auditors. The public believe the auditor's role is to detect fraud and make sure that the company has acted within the law.

    • Word count: 2572
  6. This report will be examining the typical computer based information system used in accounting and how they support the accounting business area and the benefits they bring both to that business area and the organisation as a whole.

    (2000) say that an accounting information system (AIS) is a unified structure that employs physical resources and components to transform economic data into accounting information for external and internal users. As the definition notes, the primary aim of any accounting information system is to provide accounting information to a variety of users, this could include managers and customers of a particular business (Wilkinson, et al. 2000 & Stefanou 2006). Stefanou (2006) highlights that "...information generated by AIS is essential for control and decision making purposes, the design and operation of AIS should take into account both the legal requirements for external reporting as well as the internal users' information requirements".

    • Word count: 2009
  7. How should a limited company value its fixed assets to best inform those who use its financial reports?

    (McMenamin, 1999:267) While adhering to the appropriate International Financial Reporting Standards and country specific accounting standards and legislations from within which it operates. Although all financial reports generated by limited companies require "integrity of financial accounting systems" as stated in the Accounting For Managers Module (AFMM 2007: 85), this paper serves to focus on how a limited company can best inform the users of the financial reports as oppose to how to adhere to legal requirements. Historical Cost Principle According to Diewert, through the historical cost accounting method for fixed assets valuation, the "transactions are recorded at the cost when they occurred" (2007).

    • Word count: 2849
  8. Accounting Framework. The accounting issue that is discussed in the article is convergence of accounting standards for financial reporting. Without the convergence, there will be problems and complicated process to prepare the reports.

    Such information can help them to increase the involvement in the company, the interest in work. The profitability, determined on the basis of the information offered by the income statement is essential information in their preparation for negotiating the increase of the wages or the improving of working conditions and benefits offered to them. The third user is Lenders (debtors), customers and trade debtors required information about the ability of the business to survive and prosper. They need to ensure the companies' abilities to repay the loans and interests on term, and does not grant without aa rigorous analysis of the companies' financial performance.

    • Word count: 2352
  9. Management Accounting. A number of factors will influence the outcome of an investment appraisal exercise including inflation, finance and taxation. While there can be no excuse for ignoring the effects of inflation in an investment appraisal the other tw

    One of the financial decision makings is investment appraisal which is an evaluation of the attractiveness of an investment proposal for the company. Investment can be divided into different types, such like investment on assets (equipment), investment on liabilities (loan) and investment on subsidiary company (share). There are four investment appraisal methods using by the company, which is net present value (NPV), payback period, accounting rate of return (ARR) and internal rate of return (IRR). Each of the method provides advantages and disadvantages on the outcome for the company.

    • Word count: 4384
  10. Capital and Revenue Receipts. There are different types of business income whether it is capital receipt or revenue receipt.

    The receipt will be capital receipt and will not be liable to income tax. (Consultant. E, 2004 ; Choong.K.F, 2004) Similar to Dewan case, Mistron Bhd is qualified for a subsidy scheme initiated by the government for the purposes of helping the retarded person employed by the company but not for trading business purposes. So, the receipt of RM8, 000 will be capital receipt and not liable to income tax. Scenario 3: In my opinion, for the last scenario, the receipt of RM25, 000 is a Capital Receipt.

    • Word count: 4004
  11. Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations. This paper provides us an insight of the application of financial management techniques of a Not for profit organisation and also a comparing with For-profit organisation.

    Legally, we can say that a Not For-profit organisation are those organisation that does not declare profit rather utilises all their revenues available with them after meeting their operating expenses for the benefits of the society or public. As per Internal Revenue Service an unincorporated nonprofit organisation is not given a tax exemption status or the designation of 501(c) (3) organization. For profit and non-profit organizations there are various things common, but they cannot be ruled out from some significant differences. One of the main points of distinction between a nonprofit organization and profit organization are the reason of existence.

    • Word count: 1880
  12. Critical Evaluation of the performance of Loughborough Business School from the perspective of undergraduate students

    Different performance measures It is often stated that "Measurement managed companies outperform non-measurement managed companies," (Lingle & Schiemann, 1996) thus an evaluation of various performance methods will be discussed drawing upon one performance measure in particular, the balanced scorecard. Having analysed the theoretical side of the balanced scorecard we will look to see the impact it has in practicality as, "Measuring performance will have no impact unless action is taken as a consequence of that performance measure," (Fitzgerald, 2007). Whilst a range of frameworks in planning and implementing performance measurement systems have been established, the Balanced Scorecard, (Kaplan & Norton 1992), remains the most famous (Chen et al, 2008 cited in Zangoueinezhad & Moshabaki, 2011).

    • Word count: 2546
  13. Accounting For Leases by Lessors. This report is a document that is outlining the critical evaluation of the proposed leasing standard which the IASB / FASB are trying to introduce.

    The report will focus on the retail sector, in particular the supermarkets as an example of the kinds of issues and debates arising. It will then conclude with the overall impression and practicality of the standard using the evidence mentioned in the report. In the "Tesco and Sainsbury's attack lease accounting proposals" (*2)article there is a mistake, the article talks about lease contracts going on the balance sheet as a "asset or liability" when it should say "assets and liabilities".

    • Word count: 3956
  14. Microsoft financial reporting strategy

    Low book value of equity and high market value of equity formed a gap. 2. What effect did Microsoft's software capitalization policy have on its financial statements? Ignore any potential tax effects. Microsoft expensed all their research and development costs as incurred. The effect of this policy reached its apex in 1999 when the expensed R&D cost was $2.97B and respectfully composed 30% of Microsoft's Total Annual Operating Costs and immediately reduced revenues 15%. This accounting treatment directly resulted in lower net income.

    • Word count: 1296
  15. Case study. In the Wilkerson Company case study of Harvard Business School, the main issue that the company is facing lower pre-tax operating margin (3%) comparing to historical pre-tax operating margin of 10%. Currently, the company uses simple Overhead

    Thus based on the company's study on Wilkerson's overheads, ABC would be fair as the selected accounting system to identify the products actual costs, where the manufacturing overheads and other expenses are charged based on the relevant activities level showed in Table 1. Referring to Exhibit 2, the ABC has indicated that valves (46.3%) have the highest actual gross margin, followed by pumps (33.1%) and flow controllers (-9.9%). In fact, it is found that the flow controllers are having negative gross margin due to the extensive workload required to produce and deliver the products.

    • Word count: 2158
  16. Management accounting problem case. The analysis in this assessment is based on the following case study: Digital Communications, Inc.: Encoder Device Division Harvard Business School Reference 9 -189 -083

    Referring to Exhibit 6 from the Case Study, VRE was assigned with $ 3,414,581. Again, substituting this new figure into the calculation, results in the cost of Board 2 as $ 2,067,922 as shown in Table 3. Table 3 Method 3 d. Method 4 - VRE staffs used activity-based costing (ABC) concept to allocate all overhead costs using machines hours, direct labour hours and material dollars as cost-allocation bases to all four VRE subassemblies. Table 4 below provides the detail overview of the indirect cost allocation and the cost of Board 2 was derived as $2,544,884.

    • Word count: 2004
  17. Compare the impact of the activity-based costing model and the traditional based costing model on overhead allocation

    After that, the author will compare the result of calculation by the traditional based costing and the activity-based costing. Finally, the author will focus on the limitation of the ABC model. The case study is based on Plastim Corporation. Plastim Corporation manufactures lenses for the rear taillights of automobiles. Plastim makes two types of lenses to Giovanni: a complex lens, CL5, and a simple lens, S3. CL5 lenses are more complex because various parts in the mold must align and fit precisely. The S3 lens is simpler to make because it has a single color and few special features.

    • Word count: 1792
  18. Case study Pedro Nuts! The use of absorption costing has allowed Knock to explain to Pedro the full costing's of the production of his peanut venture and resulted in him estimating a selling price which includes a sufficient margin of profit

    Identification of direct and indirect costs are essential to Knock because it distinguishes shows whether he would base his thinking on either marginal or absorption but in the case of Pedro due to most costs being indirect to the product as they are already manufactured and for reselling purposes it is clear that absorption costing is necessary. By absorbing the fixed overhead costs such as the rack, it allows knock to recover the fixed costs by allocating them according to the amount of square feet it takes up on the counter and obtaining an absorption rate, if the actual is

    • Word count: 3051
  19. Dispensers of California Case Study - preparing a profit plan and balance sheet.

    It can prove as a good tool for budgeting and can uncover many potential bottlenecks before they occur. Hynes and investors may use the profit plan to decide on goals and objectives that can serve as benchmark for evaluating subsequent performance. Q2: How might the projected transactions impact the company's balance sheet? (Think about each transaction in terms of its impact on both the basic accounting equation and specific accounts.) Ans: Each of the projected transactions from the case study have been filled out in the worksheet (see following page)

    • Word count: 536
  20. Drakensberg Limited Case Report. The main problems are whether to launch a new product and how to treat the residual money with the target of maximizing shareholders profit. This report will use four steps to analyze and solve the question.

    1. Current market position analysis The environment surrounding Drakensberg is analyzed in the macro and micro perspective respectively. SWOT analysis is used to state the internal and external condition of the company which is macro. Product life cycle theory is used to clarify the underlying situation of different products which is micro. 1) SWOT analysis Drakensbergcan be analyzed by four aspects in the following table: Table1.1 SWOT analysis for Drakensberg Strengths Weakness High quality Strong market position High cost, tightly regulated economy and fluctuated per unit cost Limiting factors Opportunities Threats Large excessing demand Launch of new product which has global demand Fierce competition from outsourcing Restriction from government policy Source: The data of Drakensberg Limited i.

    • Word count: 7366
  21. Management Accounting_Ananlysis_project - Aviation Industry in India

    The Hyderabad International Airport has been ranked amongst the world's top five in the annual Airport Service Quality (ASQ) passenger survey along with airports at Seoul, Singapore, Hong Kong and Beijing. The Hyderabad International Airport is being managed by a public-private joint venture of the GMR Group, Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad and the State Government of Andhra Pradesh along with the Airports Authority of India (AAI). Timothy J Roemer, the US Ambassador to India has said that the US will work with the Indian government and the domestic private sector to make the country an aviation hub.

    • Word count: 4146
  22. Explain why listed companies produce financial statements for external users and how these are regulated in the UK. - `The International Convergence Project is considered to be absolutely necessary in this age of globalisation. Discuss.

    Meanwhile financial information is important for owners, nevertheless they might not be aware of the business performance because they delegate that work to managers. Regarding to investors and lenders, the reason why they are a main user group of financial information is because they are interested to know the solvency of an organization. They analyse the financial statement position to know about the safety of their investment and ability to pay interest and repayment of principle amount on the due date.

    • Word count: 3022
  23. Management accounting: Wilkerson Company is in the business of manufacturing valves, pumps, flow controllers etc. Severe industry wise price cuts in the pumps business, which is Wilkersons major product line, has badly affected the company

    This implies overheads are applied directly in relation to labor costs irrespective of relevance. Table 1 - Margin Calculation for Volume Based Costing Margin Calculation Valves Pumps Flow Controllers Planned Selling Price 86.15 107.69 95.38 Actual Selling Price 86 87 105 Per unit Volume Based Costing (Exhibit 2) 56 70 62 Margin (based on Planned SP) 35.00% 35.00% 35.00% Margin (based on Actual SP) 34.88% 19.54% 40.95% Based on the volume based costing method we can clearly see that the Valves are performing within the planned margins, while Pumps are performing well below par (Gross Margin of 19.54% against expected 35%)

    • Word count: 1804
  24. Managerial Accounting Andres Hair Styling Assignment. Find the contribution margin per haircut. Assume that the barbers' compensation is a fixed cost. Show calculations to support your answer.

    Rent and other fixed expenses are $1,750 per month. Hair shampoo used on all clients is .40 per client. Assume that the only service performed is the giving of haircuts (including shampoo), the unit price of which is $12. Andre has asked you to find the following information. * Find the contribution margin per haircut. Assume that the barbers' compensation is a fixed cost.

    • Word count: 349
  25. Managerial Accounting The Ski Pro Corporation Project. Based on the below calculation Ive resolved that the best decision for the Ski Pro Corporation would be to purchase the bindings as opposed to making them.

    If they were to purchase it would cost them $79.50 per pair. And in the other hand if they make them it would cost them $ 80.00 per pair. Therefore even though the savings are only $.050 from a business perspective it would make sense to buy the bindings instead of making them. Direct Labor $ 35.00 - 10% 35 - (35 x 0.1) 31.50 Direct material $ 30.00 -20% 30 - (30 x .2) 24.00 Overhead $ 15.00 -10% 15 - (15 x .1)

    • Word count: 642

"Go as far as you can see; when you get there, you'll be able to see farther."

-J. P. Morgan, former accounting student

If you're highly organised, comfortable with quantitative subjects, and want to see what happens behind the scenes in the business world, then you might want to study accounting at university level. You can study accounting on its own, or as part of a joint degree with finance.

Good communication skills are indispensable in most careers related to accounting, so dont underestimate the importance of writing during your degree. Marked by Teachers can help you reach your full potential: study our collection of accounting essays, and before long you'll be constructing essays as elegant and well balanced as the accounting equation itself.

Depending on your degree, you might complete modules on economics and management, learn about financial and management accounting, and take a year's placement in industry. When you complete your degree, you might go on to get a higher degree, or pursue careers in finance, business, accountancy firms, or entrepreneurship.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the implications short-term capital flows into emerging countries have on the financial stability and the economic development of those countries.

    "In conclusion, short-term capital inflows can be said to have grown faster than any other type of investment. The overall impact in recipient economies has been ambiguous. However, with reference to the recently experienced crises, large unregulated short-term flows have only proved to be volatile in nature, disturbing the economic and financial stability of the emerging nations. A clear pattern is identified, where short-term inflows are eventually reversed sharply causing currency crisis, banks and enterprises bankruptcies, dramatic reductions in output and economic activity in general. The benefits obtained by recipient countries were in many cases impaired by the dramatic outflows of capital. The expected progress to be brought about with financial liberalization was certainly not attained. Tobin (1997), cited in Rodriguez Y (2000), states that "experience has not, not yet anyway, vindicated current orthodox confidence that free global financial markets are the keys to global prosperity." Capital controls are proposed as a probable solution for developing markets in order to reduce the euphoria and the erratic ebbs, flows, and volatility of capital. What is essential is that policy negotiations keep sight of fundamental principles and remember that the financial system must serve the needs of the world economy, not the other way around. (Frank E, 1999)"

  • Discuss the main theories of international finance and assess how each of them would pass Professor Buckley's test of standing up in the real world.

    "In conclusion, there are three main factors, which are used to predict the future exchange rate in freely floating exchange rate system. 1. Expected change in spot rate 2. Difference in expected inflation and interest rate 3. Forward exchange premium or discount rate These three factors are directly related with each other. Due to the assumption that the international money markets are efficient, every factors will change rapidly if there are any changes in any other factors. However, the expected inflation rate is the most important variable that will lead to the change in other factors. So the exchange rate predictors always try to analyse the factors that can lead to the change in inflation rate, such as money supply, business cycle, productivity, and capacity utilisation. 1"

  • State and analyse the arguments for the privatisation of public corporations.

    "The reader must also be aware of the arguments against privatisation. It must be noted public enterprises still have a purpose in society. A PE gives the state control over monopoly power and profits in those areas where monopoly is unavoidable. For example, utilities such as water and electricity. Most opponents of privatisation indicate that privatisation is not always the answer as it corrupts the marketplace. Economic efficiency is concerned with the utilisation of scarce resources. Most private sectors reach certain levels of economic efficiency but they incur social and externality costs such as pollution and unemployment compensation. The government also incurs infrastructure costs. Also, privatisation does not necessarily mean that goods and services will be provided more cheaply or efficiently by the private sector than by the public sector. Public sectors play key roles in the development of countries but they manifest many problems as they are slow at developing and introducing new technologies and they are subject to over-frequent and damaging political intervention. Privatisation seems to offer a means of ridding the state of the financial burden of loss-making activities, while at the same time spreading share ownership. Privatisation when correctly conceived and implemented fosters efficiency, encourages investment, new growth and employment and frees public resources for investment in infrastructure and social programmes."

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