Appraisal and performance management
Definitions of Performance Management
In the perfect world, we would all achieve our employer’s objectives effectively, without being supervised (overseen), helped or developed in any way. Without some form of monitoring, guidance and control, we would not know how we are doing and nor will the employer. So, an employer needs some kind of system to address this issue. That is where managing performance comes in.
A business needs to ensure its employees are performing effectively. It will wish to:
- Identify areas which are unsatisfactory
- It may wish to find areas where employees need to be trained and developed.
The term ‘Performance Management’ came into use in the 1980s. It refers to the practice of setting targets, measuring performance against these and suggesting courses of action. An increasingly important way of getting feedback on employee performance is through appraisal. Appraisal is also known as ‘Appraisals- Performance Reviews’. The person who is appraising is called the ‘appraiser’ and the person being appraised is the ‘appraisee’ as defined by Lewis, R. andivitt, (2000)
Adcock, F. & Birth, I. Trivitt, (1988) has stated the benefits of performance appraisal as being:
- It helps to identify training needs.
- It may reveal other problems for example, there may be workplace difficulties with other staff (e.g. It might be caused by sexual or racial harassment).
- It may untap useful new skills.
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- It improves communications between employees and managers, a few words of encouragement and praise for doing a good job are often highly motivating.
- It provides disciplinary documentation- if the employer needs to dismiss somebody, the existence of through appraisal records which identify the person’s inabilities or lack of effort will be very useful.
In Depth in to Performance Management and appraisal:
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT and APPRAISAL
Adcock, F. & Birth, I. Trivitt, (1988) identify that ‘Performance Management absorbs the previous concept of ‘appraisal’ within a structured, active, on-going process that ensures each individual works to a personal performance plan and is helped to achieve the objectives within that plan’.
Unlike the traditional appraisal, with Performance Management the individual works towards objectives within a set plan. A chain of reviews throughout the year with the line manager ensures that the individual is monitored, managed, coached and guided towards successful completion of those objectives (Adcock, F. & Birth, I. Trivitt, 1988: 403-404).
The features that make up the complete process are very simple to set up and very simple to operate, no matter what organisation are planning to set it up.
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AS a SYSTEM
- With this system, each individual works to a plan and is actively helped to follow that plan and achieve their objectives.
- In addition to running the organisation, the management also achieves collective success for the organisation through helping its individuals to succeed.
- This system is equally valuable and relevant to all kinds of organisation, whether engaged in commercial work, fund-raising, voluntary or charitable work. (Lewis, R. and Trivitt, 2000: 519-511)
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND how it’s carried out
Increased benefits can be obtained, away from the job area, from some form of performance appraisal.
According to G. Hunter (2000) appraisal usually takes place at agreed intervals, usually every year or six months.
- The employer will discuss performance and achievements with the individual, looking back over the period under review.
- Usually the main points will be summarised in writing and, depending on the type of organisation, the report may be used in assessing salary or other rewards.
- The individual would be given a clear and factual analysis of their performance achievements during the previous period under review.
- The individual would be given the chance to discuss the way forward. How to improve both on the job and also through training and development opportunities.
Target Setting For Performance Management:
S Target set clear
M Target should be in some form, e.g. Value (as appropriate), Quantity, Quality, Cost, Time,
A Target set should be within the achievable range of the Individual
R Target set should be not only within range but appropriate to job and the individual.
T Timescale should be fixed and agreed on when each target should be achieved.
Discuss Gerard’s handling of Clare’s performance review.
- Discuss and take notes on what you think was wrong.
- Make suggestions for improvement.
HOW GERARD SHOULD MANAGE PERFORMANCE:
The overall aspect is for Gerard to influence the work performance of his individual workers, Gerard can rely solely on day-to-day hands-on supervision or line management. Also Gerard could design and implement a full Performance Management system that works continuously on an ongoing basis and lastly Gerard could do much better by adding some form of appraisal system in which the individual‘s work is reviewed periodically, maybe once a year. Therefore, if Gerard were to take these precautions in to account, Gerard would be successful in improving his performance management. When designing the system, Gerard should draw up good effective support papers Above all, he should not treat Performance Management as a form-filling exercise. That will not do justice to the process, to his organisation or, least of all, to the individual. It is how the employee has performed that counts, not how the forms are filled up
List of References:
Adcock, F. & Birth, I. Trivitt, (1988) ‘Developing and Assessing employees’, Advanced Business. Blackwell: London. pp. 402
Adcock, F. and Birth, I. Trivitt, (1988) ‘Developing and Assessing employees’, Advanced Business. Blackwell: London. pp. 403-404
Brighton and Hove Community Partnership. (22 August 2004), Our Services, [Online], available from:
<http:// > [22 August 2004].
Lewis, R. and Trivitt, (2000) ‘Performance Management’, Business for Advanced GNVQ. Academic Press: London. pp. 510-511