Chapter Notes on Marketing Management by Philip Kotler 10th Edition

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Chapter 1        Marketing in the 21st century

Chapter 2        Building Customer Satisfaction Value and Retention

Chapter 3        Winning Markets: Market Oriented Strategic Planning

Chapter 4        Gathering Information and measuring market demand

Chapter 5        Scanning the Marketing Environment

Chapter 6        Analyzing Consumer markets & Buying Behavior

Chapter 7        Analyzing Business markets and Business Buying Behavior

Chapter 8        Dealing with the Competition

Chapter 9        Identifying Market Segments and Selecting Target Markets

Chapter 10        Positioning the Market Offering Through the Product Life Cycle

Courtesy: Marketing Management by Philip Kotler 10th Edition

Chapter 1    Marketing in the 21st century

Scope of Marketing

Marketing people are involved in 10 types of entities:

  • Goods like eggs, steel, cars (Maruti!!!! Wow)
  • Services like airlines, hotels, barbers
  • Experiences like Walt Disney world’s magic kingdom, at planet Hollywood
  • Events like Olympics, trade shows, sports events
  • Persons like celebrity marketing by making major film star as brand ambassador etc.
  • Places like cities, states, nations to attract tourists, factories, company headquarters, and new residents, like we use TAJ or say Nainital
  • Properties like real state owners market properties or agent markets securities
  • Organizations  thru’ Corporate identity ads like by using tag line ‘Lets make things better’, or like Richard Branson (virgin) or Phil knight of Nike are some identity
  • Information like thru encyclopedias, CDs and visit the internet for information. This is information marketing
  • Ideas like the buyer of a drill are really buying a hole. Church should market itself as a place of worship or a community center.

Eight different states of demand:

  • Negative demand: if a major part of market dislikes the product and may even pay a price to avoid it – vaccinations, gall bladder operations etc. Marketing task is to analyze why the market dislikes the product and whether a marketing program can change beliefs and attitudes.
  • No Demand:  Target consumers may be unaware of or uninterested in the product. Ex. College students may not be interested in foreign language courses. Marketing should look for ways to benefit others with their product and of course thus sell their product
  • Latent demand: Market feels strong needs for some products like harmless cigarettes. Marketer needs to measure size of this market and develop such goods
  • Declining demand: Market for product declines. Then marketer need to know the causes and rectify
  • Irregular demand: Demand of many products and services are seasonal. Marketer needs to devise ways called synchro-marketing like flexible pricing, promotions and other incentives
  • Full demand: sometimes full demand is there. Marketing task is to maintain current level of demand in face of changing consumer preferences and increasing competition.
  • Overfull demand: sometimes demand is higher than what organization can handle. Then marketing task, called de-marketing is required. like thru raising prices and reducing promotion and service. Selective marketing is reducing demand from some parts, say not so profitable, of the market
  • Unwholesome demand: Unwholesome products will attract organized efforts to discourage consumption. Like unselling campaigns against cigarettes, alcohol, handguns. Marketing can use fear messages like raising prices, reduced availability.

Marketing managers face a host of decisions, from major ones such as what product to make, what features, how many salespersons to hire etc. These questions vary according to marketplaces.

Consider following four markets

  • Consumer market: mass consumer goods and services such as soft drinks, toothpaste, and air travel etc.
  • Business Markets: Companies selling business goods and services face well trained and well informed professional buyers. They buy goods for their utility or to make or resell a product to others.
  • Global markets: goods and services for global marketplace. They have to decide which country to enter, how to enter, has to have a fit the cultural practices etc.
  • Nonprofit and Governmental Markets: goods to nonprofit organizations like churches, universities, governmental agencies need to be priced carefully. They have to follow long government procedures to get this market.

Marketing Concepts and Tools:

Defining Marketing:

Social Definition:

Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering and freely exchanging products and services of value with others.         (One marketer said that marketing’s role is to deliver a high standard of living)

Managerial Definition:

Often described as the art of selling.

Marketing is not just selling.  Selling is only the tip of the iceberg!

Peter Drucker:  The aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous.  The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself.

American Management Association:  Marketing (management) is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational goals.

Kotler: We see marketing management as the art and science of choosing target markets and getting, keeping and growing customers through creating, delivering and communicating superior customer value.

Core Marketing Concepts:

Target Markets and Segmentation:

Marketers can rarely satisfy everyone in the market.  So they start with ‘Market segmentation’. Identify and profile different groups of buyers. Target segments that present the greatest opportunity – those needs the firm can meet in a superior fashion.

For each chosen target market, the firm develops a market offering, which is positioned as offering some central benefit. Marketers view the sellers as constituting the industry and the buyers as constituting the market.


Need markets (the diet seeking market)

Product markets (the shoe market)

Demographic markets (the youth market)

Geographic market (the French market)

Other markets like voter markets, donor markets and labour markets.

Marketplace v/s marketspace – physical v/s digital


Gooda and services

Services, money



Taxes, goods


Marketers and prospects:

Marketer is someone seeking response in the form of attention, purchase, vote and donation. The response is sought from prospect.

Needs, Wants and Demand:

Needs describe basic human requirements. Example need for food, air, water, education, entertainment etc.

Needs become wants when they are directed to specific objects that might satisfy the need.

Need for food ---> Want for a Hamburger

Demands are wants for specific products backed by willingness and ability to pay.

Marketers do not create needs. Needs pre-exist marketers. Marketers along with other social influencers influence wants.

Product or offering:

A product is any offering that can satisfy a need or want.

Major typed of basic offerings: Goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information and ideas.

A brand is an offering from a known source.

Value and satisfaction:

Value is what customer gets and what he gives. Customer gets benefits and assumes costs. Benefits include functional and emotional benefits. Costs include monetary costs, time costs, energy costs and psychic cost.


        Benefits             (functional and emotional benefits)

Value =       -----------   =    ---------------------------------------------

                Costs        (include monetary costs, time costs, energy costs and psychic cost)

Value of customer offering can be increased by:

Raise benefits

Reduce costs

Raise benefits AND reduce costs

Raise benefits by MORE THAN the raise in costs

Lower benefits by LESS THAN the decrease in costs

Exchange and transactions:

Exchange is one of the four ways in which a person can obtain a product.

Exchange is core concept of marketing. Exchange involves obtaining a desired product from someone by offering something in return. For exchange potential to exist, five conditions must be satisfied:

  1. At least two parties
  2. Each party has something that might be of some value to the other party.
  3. Each party is capable of communication and delivery
  4. Each party is free to accept or reject offer
  5. Each party believes that it is appropriate or desirable to deal with the other party.

Exchange is value-creating process as it leaves both the parties NORMALLY better off.

Exchange is a process rather than an event.

A transaction is a trade of values between two or more parties.

Monetary transaction: Paying money in exchange of goods

Barter transaction: Goods or services for other goods or services.

Dimensions of a transaction:

At least two things of value

Agreed upon conditions

A time of agreement

Place of agreement

Transaction differs from transfer. In a transfer A gives goods to B but does not receive anything tangible in return. Example: Gifts, charities, subsidies etc.

Relationships and networks:

Transaction marketing is a part of larger idea called relationship marketing. Relationship marketing has the aim of building long term mutually satisfying relations with key parties – customers, suppliers, and distributors – in order to earn and maintain their long term preference and business.

Relationship marketing builds string economic, social and technical ties among the parties.

A marketing network consist of companies and its supporting stakeholders (customers, employees, suppliers, distributors, retailers, ad agencies, university scientists and others).

Marketing Channels:

To reach a target market marketer uses three different kinds of marketing channels.

Communication channel: The marketer uses communication channels to deliver and receive messages from target buyers. These consist of dialogue channels (e mail, toll free numbers).

Distribution channels: To display and deliver the physical product or service to the buyer or user. They include warehouses, transportation vehicles and various trade channels such as distributors, wholesalers, retailers etc.

Selling channels: They include not only the distributors and retailers but also the banks and insurance companies that facilitate transactions.

Supply chain:

Supply chain represents a value delivery system. When a company moves upstream or downstream, the aim is to capture a higher percentage of supply chain value.


Competition includes all the actual and potential rival offerings and substitutes that a buyer might consider.

Four levels of competition:

Brand competition: Similar products or services to the same customers at similar prices.

Industry competition: All companies making the same product or the class of product.

Form competition: All companies manufacturing the products that supply the same service.

Generic competition: All companies that compete for the same consumer dollars.

Example: Company – Volkswagen

Brand competition: Honda, Toyota and other medium price automobiles

Industry competition: All automobile manufacturers

Form competition: Automobiles + Motorcycles + Bicycles + Trucks

Generic competition: Consumer durables + Foreign Vacations + New Homes

Marketing Environment

Competition represents only one force in the environment in which the marketer operates. The marketing environment consists of the task environment and the broad environment.

The task environment includes the immediate actors involved in producing, distributing, and promoting the offering. The main actors are company, suppliers, distributors, dealers, and the target customers. Included in the supplier group are material suppliers and service suppliers such as marketing agencies, advertising agencies, banking and insurance companies, transportation and telecommunication companies. Included with distributors and dealers are agents, brokers, manufacturer representatives, and others who facilitate finding and selling to consumers.

The broad environment consists of six components: demographic environment, economic environment, natural environment, technological environment, political-legal environment, and social-cultural environment. These environments contain forces that can have a major impact on the actors in the task environment. Market actors must pay close attention to the trends and the developments in these environments and then make timely adjustments to their marketing strategies.

Marketing Mix

Marketers use numerous tools to elicit desired responses from their target markets. These tools constitute a marketing mix.

Marketing mix is the set of marketing tool that the firm uses to pursue its marketing objectives in the target market.

McCarthy classified these tools into four broad groups that he called the four P’s of marketing: Product, Price, Place and Promotion. The particular marketing variables under each P are shown in figure 1.5. Marketing mix decisions must be made for influencing the trade channels as well as the final consumers. Fig 1.6 shows the company preparing the offering mix of the products, services and prices and utilizing a promotion mix of sales promotion, advertising, sales force, public relations, direct mail, telemarketing, and internet to reach the trade channels and the target customers.

Typically, the firm can change its price, sales force size, and advertising expenditures in the short run. It can develop new products and modify its distribution channels only in the long run. Thus the firm typically makes fewer period-to-period marketing-mix changes in the short run than the number of marketing-mix decision variables might suggest.

Note that the four Ps represent the seller’s view of the marketing tools available for influencing the buyer. From a buyer’s point of view, each marketing tool is designed to deliver a customer benefit. Robert Lauterborn suggested that the seller’s four P’s correspond to the customer’s four Cs.

                Four Ps                                Four Cs

        Product                                Customer Solution

        Price                                        Customer Cost

        Place                                        Convenience

        Promotion                                Communication

Winning companies will be those who can meet customer needs economically and conveniently and with effective communication.

Company orientation towards the market place

We have defined marketing management as the conscious effort to achieve desired exchange with target markets. But what philosophy should guide a company’s marketing efforts? What relative weights should be given to the interests of the organization, the customers and the society? Very often these interest conflict. Clearly, marketing activities should be carried under a well-thought out philosophy of efficient, effective, and socially responsible marketing. However, there are five competing concepts under which organizations conduct marketing activities: the production concept, selling concept, marketing concept, customer concept and societal marketing concept.

The Production Concept:

The production concept is the oldest concept in business. The production concept holds that consumers will prefer products that are widely available and inexpensive.

Managers of production-oriented business concentrate on achieving high production efficiency, low costs and mass distribution. They assume that consumers are primarily interested in product availability and low prices. This orientation makes sense in developing countries, where consumers are more interested in obtaining the product than its features. It is also used when a company wants to expand the market.

Some service organizations also operate on the production concept. Many medical and dental practices are organized on assembly-line principles, as are some government agencies (such as unemployment offices and license bureaus). Although this management orientation can handle many cases per hour, it is open to charges of impersonal and poor quality service.

The Product Concept:

Other businesses are guided by the product concept.

The product concept holds that consumers will favor those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features.

Managers in these organizations focus on making superior products and improving them over time. They assume that buyers admire well-made products and can appraise quality and performance. However, these managers are sometimes caught up in a love affair with their product and do not realize what the market needs. Management might commit the “better-mousetrap” fallacy, believing that a better mousetrap will lead people to beat a path to its door. Such was the case when WebTV was launched during Christmas 1996 to disappointing results.

The Selling Concept:

The selling concept is another common business orientation. The selling concept holds that consumers and businesses, if left alone, will ordinarily not buy enough of the organizations products. The organization must, therefore, undertake an aggressive selling and promotion effort.

This concept one assumes that consumers typically show buying inertia or resistance and must be coaxed into buying. It also assumes that the company has a whole battery of effective selling and promotion tools to stimulate more buying.

The selling concept is practiced in the non-profit area by fund-raisers, college admission offices, and political parties. A political party vigorously sells its candidates to voters. The candidates’ flaws are concealed from the public because the aim is to make a sale and not worry about post purchase satisfaction. After the election, the new official wants and a lot of selling to get the public to accept policies the politician or party wants.


The marketing concept is a business philosophy that challenges the three business orientations we just discussed.

The marketing concept holds that the key to achieving its organizational goals consists of the company being more effective than competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating customer values to its chosen target markets.

The marketing concept rests on four pillars: target market, customer needs, integrated marketing and profitability. The selling concept takes an inside-out perspective. It starts with the factory, focuses on the existing products, and calls for heavy selling and promoting to produce profitable sales. The marketing concept takes an outside-in perspective. It starts with a well-defined market, focuses on customer needs, coordinates all the activities that will affect customers, and produces profits by satisfying customers.

Target market

Companies do best when they select their target markets carefully and prepare tailored marketing programs.

Customer needs

A company can define its target market but fail to correctly understand the customers’ needs.

Understanding customer needs and wants is not always simple. Some customers have needs of which they are not fully conscious. Or they cannot articulate these needs. Or they use words that require some interpretation.

We can distinguish among five types of needs:

  1. Stated needs
  2. Real needs
  3. Unstated needs
  4. Delight needs
  5. Secret needs

Responding only to the stated need may shortchange the customer. Consider a woman who enters a hardware store and asks for a sealant to seal glass windowpanes. This customer is stating a solution and not a need. The salesperson may suggest that tape would provide a better solution. The salesperson met the customers need, not her stated solution.

Integrated marketing:

When all the company’s department’s work together to serve the customer’s interests, the result is integrated marketing. Unfortunately, not all employees are trained and motivated to work for the customer. Integrated marketing takes place on two levels. First, the various marketing functions-sales force, advertising, customer service, product management, marketing research-must work together.

Second, the other departments must embrace marketing; they must also think customer. Marketing is not a department so much as a company wide orientation.

To foster teamwork among all departments, a company should carry out internal as well as external marketing. External marketing is marketing directed at people outside the company. Internal marketing is the task of hiring, training, and motivating able employees who want to serve the customers well. In fact, internal marketing must precede external marketing. It makes no sense to promise excellent service before the company’s staff is ready to provide it.

Managers who believe the customer is the company’s only true profit center consider the traditional organization chart- a pyramid with the president at the top, management in the middle, and front-line people and customers at the bottom-obsolete. Master marketing companies invert the chart.


The ultimate purpose of the marketing concept is to help organizations achieve their objectives. In the case of private firms, the major objective is profit; in the case of nonprofit and public organizations, it is surviving and attracting enough funds. A company makes money by satisfying customer needs better than its competitors.

Most companies do not embrace the marketing concept until driven by circumstances. These are

Sales Decline: When Sales fall, companies panic and look for answers. Today newspapers decline as people are more replying on Radio, TV and Internet for the news

Slow Growth: Slow sales growth leads companies to search for new markets. They realize they need marketing skills to identify and select new opportunities

Changing buying patterns: Many companies operate in markets characterized by rapidly changing customer wants. These companies need more marketing know-how if they are to track buyers changing values

Increasing Competition: Complacent industries may be suddenly attacked by powerful competitors. AT&T was quite complacent in a regulated market-naïve Telephone Company until government allowed other companies to sell Telephone equipments. Companies in deregulated industries all find it necessary to build up marketing expertise

Increasing Marketing Expenditures: Companies may find their expenditures for advertising, Sales, Promotion, marketing Research and Customer Service to be poorly done. Management then decides to take a serious audit to improve its marketing

Companies need to attract and retain customers through superior product offerings, which deliver the Customer satisfaction. This is also influenced by other departments who must cooperate in delivering this Customer Satisfaction

In the course to converting into marketing orientation, a company faces 3 hurdles

  1. Organized Resistance
  2. Slow Learning
  3. Fast forgetting

Some company departments like R&D, Manufacturing, and Finance etc. believe a stronger Marketing department threatens their power in the organization. Resistance is especially strong in the industries where Marketing is introduced for the first time-like law offices, colleges, deregulated industries and government offices. But in spite of resistance the Company president establishes a Marketing department, marketing talents are hired and seminars conducted, Marketing budget increased and Marketing planning and Control systems introduced. Companies face a difficult task in adapting ad slogans to International markets, many of which are interpreted wrongly


The Societal Marketing Concept holds that the Organizations task is to determine the needs, wants and interests of target markets and to deliver the desired satisfaction more effectively and efficiently than competitors in a way that preserves and enhances the consumers and the societies well being.

It calls for social and Ethical considerations in marketing. They must balance the conflicting criteria of Company profits, consumer want satisfaction and Public Interest. In an age of environmental deterioration, resource shortage, explosive population growth, world hunger and poverty and lack of Social Services Marketers needs to be sensitive on these issues

How Businesses and Marketing are changing?

Market place is changing as a result of major societal forces like

  1. Technological Advance
  2. Globalization
  3. Deregulation

Customers increasingly want higher Quality, Lower Price, Service and Customization. They perceive fewer Brand Loyalty and Product differences. They ca obtain Extensive Product information from the Internet and other sources and shop intelligently. Brand manufacturers are facing intense competition from domestic and foreign brands, rising promotion costs and shrinking profits.

Store based retailers are suffering from an over saturation of retailing. Small retailers are succumbing to growing power of Giant retailers and category killers. Store based retailers are suffering from competition from catalog houses, Direct mail firms, TV direct to customer ads, Telemarketing, Tele-shopping etc.

Company Response and Adjustments

Here are some current trends

Reengineering: Focusing on Functional departments to reorganize the key business processes, each managed by multidiscipline teams

Outsourcing: From making everything inside to buying more goods and services outside, to obtain them cheaper and better. Few companies are outsourcing everything making them Virtual companies owning very few assets and therefore extraordinary rates of return

E-Commerce: Making all products available on the Internet. Customers can now shop online from different vendors, have access to a lot of Pricing and Quality and Variety information. Click and pay systems are evolving along with B2B systems and B2C systems, with buyers and sellers in Real Time Systems

Benchmarking: Adopting the best practices of World Class performers

Alliances:  Network of partners

Partner-Suppliers: From many suppliers to a few reliable suppliers who work more closely in Partnership relationships with the company

Market-Centred:  From organized around the product to organized around the Market segment

Global and Local: From being local to being both Global and local called global

Decentralized: More intrepreneurship at the local level

Marketer responses and adjustments:

Relationship Marketing: From focusing transactions to building Long Term profitable Customer Relationships. The 80-20 rule

Customer Lifetime value: From making a profit on each sale to making Profits by managing Customer Lifetime value. Like the EDLP of Wal-Mart

Customer Share: From focusing on gaining on Market Share to focusing on gaining Customer Mindshare by selling a large variety of goods and services, training employees to do Cross-selling and Up-selling

Target Marketing: From selling to everyone to serving better well defined market segments

Individualization: From selling the same offer in the same way in the target market to individualization and Customization. Customers designing their own products on the web pages and all

Customer Database: Customer Knowledge Profiling, Data Mining, Data Warehousing, purchase preferences, demographics

Integrated Marketing Communication: From relying on one communication tool like advertising and Promotion to blending several tools to deliver a consistent brand image to customers at every brand contact

Channels as Partners: From thinking of intermediaries as Customers to treating them as Partners in delivering value

Every Employee as a Marketer

Model based Decision making: From making decisions on intuition to basing decisions on models and facts. 

Chapter 2 Building Customer Satisfaction Value and Retention

Customer Value

Customer Value or Customer Delivered Value is the difference between Total Customer Value and Total Customer Cost. Customer Value = Product Value + Service Value + Personnel Value + Image Value

Total Customer Value is the bundle of benefits that the customers expect from a given product or service.

Total Customer Cost is the bundle of costs customers expect to incur in evaluating, obtaining, using and disposing of the product or service. Total Customer Cost = Monetary Cost + Time Cost + Energy Cost + Psychic Cost

Customers make their purchases based on Customer Delivered Value or on the basis of value-price ratio. Value – price ratio = Total Customer Value / Total Customer Cost

Seller who is at a delivered value disadvantage has two alternatives:

Increase Total Customer Value: strengthen product, service, personnel and image benefits

Decrease Total Customer Cost: reduce price, simplify ordering and processing process, absorb buyers risk by offering warranty etc.

Customer Satisfaction

Customer Satisfaction is a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations

Customer Satisfaction is a function of perceived performance and expectations of the customer.

A company must develop a competitively superior value proposition and a superior value delivery system.

It often happens that customers are dissatisfied because of a wide gap between Brand value and Customer value. So it is recommended that marketers pay as much attention to building brands as in influencing company’s core processes.

The goal of a company should be to maximize customer satisfaction, subject to delivering acceptable levels of returns to the other stakeholders within constraints of its resources.

Four methods of tracking customer satisfaction:

  1. Feedback and Suggestion Forms
  2. Customer Surveys
  3. Ghost shopping
  4. Analyze lost customers

Nature of High Performance Businesses

Stakeholders – A company should strive to perform above the minimum expectations of all of it’s stakeholders, including the employees, customers, suppliers so that this dynamic relationship ultimately leads to higher profits and hence stockholder satisfaction.

Processes – The trick lies in overcoming the problems posed by departmental organization. The successful companies are those which achieve excellent capabilities in managing core business process through cross – functional teams.

Core processes here could be new-prod development, customer attraction, order fulfillment, etc

Resources – The major businesses are nowadays trying to own and nurture only their respective core resources and competences, while out sourcing the rest of the processes.

Companies are paying increasing focus on their core competences and distinctive capabilities. One should go in for outsourcing, if through outsourcing, better quality can be obtained, and lower costs are incurred, if resources are less critical

Core competence has 3 characteristics

  1. Difficult for competitors to imitate
  2. Source of competitive advantage if it makes significant contribution to perceived customer benefits
  3. Potential breadth of application to a wide variety of markets

Organization and Organizational Culture

According to the article Built to Last, there are 3 commonalities amongst the visionary companies –

They all held a core value system from which they did not deviate

They expressed their purpose in enlightened terms

They have developed a vision for their future and they strive towards it. They communicated it to their employees and embrace a higher purpose beyond making money

Senior management must encourage fresh ideas from 3 groups with respect to strategy making

Employees with youthful perspectives

Employees away from headquarters

Employees new to the industry

Delivering Customer value and satisfaction

Here are two important concepts from the customer value point of view –

Value chain – Michael Porter defined 9 processes as vital to a value building network of a company, viz.

Primary Activities: Inbound logistics, Operations, Outbound logistics, Marketing Sales and Service.

Support Activities: Infrastructure, HRD, Technology development, Procurement.

A firm’s task is to examine all costs and performance of these processes and try and improve them for better value-creation. Also a firm’s success depends upon how each of these processes are coordinated to seamlessly perform the following core business processes –

New – product realization

Inventory management

Customer acquisition and retention


Customer service

Value delivery network – A firm needs to partner with its suppliers, distributors and customers to gain significant competitive advantages by creating a superior value-delivery network.


Attracting and Retaining customers

Customer Acquisition – This process is accomplished in 3 steps viz.

Lead generation – to generate leads, the company develops ads and places them in media that will reach new prospects; its sales person participate in trade shows where they might find new leads and so on. All these produces a list of suspects.

Lead qualification – the next task is to qualify which of the suspects are really good prospects, and this is done by interviewing them, checking for there financials, and so on. The prospects may be graded as hot warm and cool. The sales people first contact the hot prospects and work on account conversion, which involves making presentations, answering objections and negotiating final terms.

Computing cost of lost customers –

Too many companies suffer from high customer churn namely they gain new customer only to lose many of them. Today companies must pay closer attention to their customer defection rate (the rate at which they lose customer).

The steps involved here are

A company must define and measure retention rate

The company must distinguish the causes of customer attrition and identify those that can be managed better. Not much can be done for customer who leave the region or go out of business but much can be done about the customer who leaves because of poor service shoddy products or high prices.

The company needs to examine the percentages of customer who defect for these reasons.

Third, the company needs to estimate how much profit it loses when it loses customer. In case of an individual customer the lost profit is equal to the customers lifetime value that is the present value of the profit stream that the company would have realized if the customer had not defected prematurely.

Fourth the company needs to figure out how much it would cost to reduce the defection rate. As long as the cost is less than the lost profit the company should spend the amount to reduce the defection rate.

The key to customer retention is customer satisfaction. A highly satisfied customer:

  • Stays loyal longer
  • Buys more as the company introduces new products or upgrades existing products
  • Talk favorably about the company and its products
  • Pays less attention to competing brand s and advertising and is less sensitive to price.
  • Offers product or service ideas to the company

Importance of retaining customers – The following statistics are helpful to this end

Acquiring new customers costs 5 times more than retaining old ones

A 5% reduction in customer defection can increase profits by 25% to 85%

Customer profit rates tend to increase over the lifetime of the customer.

The two ways of retaining a customer would be –

To erect high switching costs customers are less inclined to switch to another supplier when this would involve high capital costs, high search costs, or loss of loyal customer discounts.

Deliver high customer satisfaction

Relationship marketing

The task of creating strong customer loyalty is called Relationship Marketing.

The steps in customer development process is

Suspects -> Prospects -> First-time customers -> repeat customers -> Clients -> members -> Advocates -> Partners.

There might be defections from any of these levels, in which case, relationship marketing works on customer win-back strategies.

There are 5 different types of levels of investment in customer relationship marketing –

Basic marketing: the sales person simply sells the product

Reactive marketing: the salesperson sells the product and encourages the customer to call if he or she has questions comments or complaints.

Accountable marketing: the salesperson phones the customer a short time after the sales to check whether the product is meeting the expectation.

Proactive marketing: the company salesperson contacts the customer from time to time with suggestion about the improved product uses or helpful new products.

Partnership marketing: the company works continuously with the customer to discover ways to perform better.

There are also certain marketing tools which can be used for added customer satisfaction –

Adding financial benefits - through frequency marketing programs and club marketing programs. Club membership programs to bond the customer closer to the company can be open to everyone who purchases the product or service, such as frequent flier or frequent diner club, or it can be limited to the affinity group.

Adding social benefits – developing more social bonds with the customer; help make brand communities; etc.

Adding structural ties – Supplying customers with special equipment or computer linkages to help them manage their payrolls, inventory, etc. better.

Customer profitability the ultimate test

Ultimately, marketing is the art of attracting and retaining profitable customers. The well known 20-80 rule says that the top 20% of the customers may generate as much as 80% of the company’s profits. The largest customers who are yielding the most profit. The largest customers demand considerable service and receive the deepest discounts. The smallest customers pay full price and receive minimal service, but the costs of transacting with small customers reduce their profitability. The mid size customers receive good service and pay nearly full price and are often the most profitable.

A company should not pursue and satisfy all customers.

A profitable customer is a person, household, or company that over time yields a revenue stream that exceeds by an acceptable amount the company’s cost stream of attracting, selling, and servicing that customer.

Implementing Total Quality Management

TQM is an organization wide approach to continuously improving the organizations processes, products and services.

There is an intimate connection between the quality delivered by a company and the corresponding customer satisfaction and company profitability. This is because higher levels of quality support higher prices while delivering high satisfaction at lower costs.

Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.

A company that satisfies most of its customers’ needs most of the time is called a quality time.

Conformance quality is satisfied if all the units deliver the expected quality.

Performance quality, however, is different in that it is based upon the grade.

E.g. A Mercedes and Hyundai may both deliver Conformance Quality, but Mercedes can be said to deliver higher Performance quality.

The main responsibilities of a Marketing Manager are –

They must participate in formulating strategies and policies designed to give company total quality.

They must deliver marketing quality aside production quality.

In implementing TQM, a marketer’s job could subsume the following –

Identifying customer’s needs

Communicate these requirements to the product designers

Ensure that customer’s orders are filled on time and correctly

Ensure customer is trained enough to use the product well

Ensure after sales service and satisfaction

Get improvement suggestions from the customers, convey them to respective depts.

Chapter 3 Winning Markets: Market Oriented Strategic Planning

Strategic planning consists of 3 actions broadly –

Managing a companies’ portfolios

Assessing each business’ strength by considering the market’s growth rate and the company’s position fit in that market.

Formulating a game plan for each of its businesses to achieve long-term objectives.

Strategic Planning is done in 4 levels –

Corporate Strategic Plan – It decides what resources to allocate to which business and what businesses to diversify into

Division Plan – It decides how much funds to allocate to the SBUs.

SBU Plan – It decides the business functioning.

Product Plan – It describes the product policy, pricing structure, etc.

Corporate and Division Strategic Planning

This basically subsumes 4 activities –

Defining corporate mission

Establishing SBU

Assigning resources to each SBU

Planning new businesses, downsizing older ones

Defining the Corporate Mission –

A good mission statement provides employees with a shared sense of purpose, direction and opportunity.

A good mission statement has 3 characteristics –

They focus on a limited number of goals

They stress on major policies and values the company wants to honor

They define the major competitive scope within which the company will operate. Some of such scopes are: industry scope, products scope, geographical scope, etc

Establishing SBUs –

Companies should define business units in terms of needs, not products.

A business can de defined in terms of three dimensions –

Customer groups, Customer needs and Technology.

Characteristics of an SBU are –

It is independent in terms of the policies it needs

It has its own set of competitors

Assigning Resources to each SBU –

The BCG Approach (Growth-share matrix) –

Plots the Market growth rate (%, Y-axis, 0 – 20%) against Relative market share (fraction, X-axis, 10 – 0.1). The area of the circle denotes the volume of the business. Based upon the position in the chart, the businesses are classified as –

After plotting the matrix, the company can judge the health of its portfolio and can take one of the following 4 actions to determine the budget to assign to each SBU–

Build – to increase market share, at the expense of short-term earnings, if necessary. Done on dogs

Hold – to preserve market share. Done on cash cows

Harvest – to increase short term flow, regardless of long-term effect. This generally diminishes the value of the SBU. Done so that the costs are reduced at a faster rate than the fall in sales. Done on losing cash cows, dogs and question marks

Divest – to liquidate the business. Done on question marks and dogs

The General Electric Model –

Plots the Market Attractiveness (Y-axis, 1 – 5) against the Business Strength (X-axis, 5 –1). For each business the two dimensions are calculated after setting the values for the parameters under each of the two, and then using their weightages. The area of the circle is the size of the market, shaded part being the business’s share.

The 9 cells are divided into 3 zones –

3 cells on top left – strong SBUs in which the company should invest and grow

3 diagonal cells – medium in overall effectiveness

3 cells in bottom left – weak SBUs. Divest or harvest these.

Planning new Businesses, Downsizing old ones

The company can try one the following 3 strategies to increase its business –

Intensive growth – a review of whether any opportunities exist for improving the existing business performance. This can be achieved in 4 ways (Ansoff’s Model) –

Integrative growth – By backward Integration, Forward Integration, or Horizontal integration.

Diversification growth – Exploiting opportunities in new businesses.

Business Strategic planning

The unit strategic planning for a business consists of the following steps-

Business Mission –

Each business unit needs to come up with a mission within the broader company mission.

SWOT analysis

This is further carried out into parts

Opportunity and threat analysis (External Environment analysis)

In general companies need to identify the major macroeconomic forces (demographic, economic, technological, socio-cultural, etc.) and the major microeconomic forces (customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, etc) that have an effect on its profitability. Further, they need to trace trends in these factors then identify which can be their opportunities and weaknesses.

A marketing opportunity is an area of buyer need in which a company can perform profitably.

A threat is a challenge posed by an unfavorable trend which, in absence of marketing action would lead to fall in profitability. A company needs to chalk out a strategy for dealing with these threats.

After the opportunity and threat analysis is done, a business’s overall attractiveness can be identified.

Strengths and Weaknesses analysis (Internal Environment Analysis)

A company’s internal strengths and weaknesses in various departments need to be identified periodically.

Goal Formulation

Goals are developed to facilitate the management in planning, implementation and control of achieving the targets.

Most businesses pursue a variety of objectives, which should ideally meet the following criteria

the objectives must be placed hierarchically, in decreasing order of priorities

they should be stated quantitatively

the goals should be realistic

the goals should be consistent with each other

Strategic formulation

Strategy is the roadmap for achieving the envisaged goals. Porter defined strategy as “creation of a unique and valuable position involving different set of activities

Strategy can be formulated into 3 generic types –

Overall cost leadership – here a business aims at delivering its products at the lowest prices in the market and win a large market share. Such businesses require being good at engineering, purchasing, manufacturing and distribution. A disadvantage of this strategy is that some other company will eventually emerge with still lower costs.

Differentiation – here a business aims at achieving superior performance in an important customer area valued by a large chunk of the market. It could strive to be the service leader, the quality leader, the style leader or technology leader.

Focus – Here a firm concentrates on one or more narrow market segments. It first identifies such a segment and then pursues either cost leadership or differentiation in them.

Strategic Alliances

Companies are discovering that to achieve leadership they need to form strategic alliances with domestic or multinational companies that complement or leverage their capabilities and resources.

The strategic alliances could be in the form of marketing alliances in the following ways –

Product or service alliance – one company licenses the other to produce its product, or two companies jointly market their complementary product or a new product.

Promotional alliance – one company agrees to carry the promotion for another company’s product or service

Logistics alliance – one company offers logistic services to another company’s product.

Pricing collaboration – one more companies join in a special pricing collaboration.

Program formulation

After developing the principal strategies, companies must work out detailed supporting programs for them. After formulating the marketing programs, the costs and benefit scenario is calculated. Activity Based Costing should be applied to each program to determine whether the benefits form it outdo the costs.


For the implementation of strategy, McKinsey has come up with a 7-S framework. The implementation part of this framework consists of

Style: employees should share a common way of thinking and behaving

Skills: these should be in consonance with the strategy

Staff: includes hiring able people, training them and then assigning them to the right jobs

Shared values: employees should share the same guiding values.

Feedback and Control

A firm needs to constantly track and monitor new developments in the internal and external environment. For when the marketplace changes, the company will have to rethink the implementations, programs, strategies, or even objectives.

A company’s strategic fir with the environment will definitely erode, because the market environment changes faster than the 7-S s.

Drucker says it is important to “do the right thing” than “doing things right”.

The Marketing Process

The value delivery sequence –

The traditional physical process sequence assumes the company knows what to make and that the market will buy enough units to produce profits for the company. But such a sequence could only exist where the supplier calls the shots.

 In the value delivery sequence there are 3 parts

“Choose the value” – the marketing staff does segmentation, targeting and positioning of the market.

“Provide the value” – after the STP process has chose the value, the product’s specifications and services should be detailed, the price decided and then the product should be manufactured and distributed.

“Communicate the value” – the customers are communicated about the value of the product through the sales force, promotion and advertisement.

The marketing process consists of analyzing markets, researching and selecting markets, designing marketing strategies, planning marketing programs and organizing, implementing and controlling the marketing effort.

Analyzing market opportunities – A company should identify long term opportunities given its core competences and market experience. This needs reliable market research and information systems. Both the Macro environment, consisting of demographic, socio-cultural, economic, technological, etc forces; and the Microenvironment, consisting of suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers and competitors should be considered.

A way to do it is to divide the market into many segments and evaluate the segments to find which segment serves the company best.

Developing marketing strategies – After deciding upon the product the company shall have to decide upon the product positioning, then initiate the product development, testing and launching. Also the strategy for the different life stages of the product: introduction, growth, maturity and decline have to be decided.

Planning marketing programs – It consists of deciding upon the following

Marketing expenditure – allotting the budget to meeting the marketing objectives, and amongst the products, channels, promotion media and sales areas, and in the marketing mix.

Marketing mix-

Product –

Price – the company has to decide upon the wholesale, retail pricing, discounts to be offered, allowances, etc.

Place – identify, recruit marketing facilitators to supply the products and service to the target market.

Promotion –

Managing the marketing effort –

This final step includes organizing the marketing resources and then implementing and controlling the marketing plan.

Three types of controls may be deployed –

Annual plan control – ensures whether the company is meeting the projections of current sales and profits.

Profitability control – manages the task of measuring the actual profitability of products, customer groups, trade channels and order sizes; and that of different marketing activities.

Strategic control – evaluates whether the company’s strategy is appropriate to the market conditions.

Contents of a marketing plan

Executive summary and table of contents – presents a brief overview of the proposal

Current marketing situation – presents relevant data on sales, costs, profits, market, competitors, distribution, and macro environment.

Opportunity and issue analysis - SWOT

Objectives – defines the plan’s financial and marketing goals in terms of sales volume, market share and profit

Marketing strategy – presents broad approach to be used to meet the objectives

Action programs – presents the marketing programs to be used to meet business objectives.

Projected profit and loss statement – forecasts the plans expected financial outcomes

Control – indicates how the plan will be monitored

The Value Delivery Sequence

Factors Influencing Company Marketing Strategy

Chapter 4 Gathering Information and measuring market demand

The marketing environment is changing at an accelerating rate. Given the following changes, the need for real time market information is greater than at any time in the past:

From local to national to global marketing

From buyer needs to buyer wants

From price to non price competition

Components of a modern marketing information system

Marketing information system consists of people, equipment and procedures to gather, sort, analyse, evaluate and distribute needed, timely and accurate information to marketing decision makers.

Internal records system

The order to payment system cycle

Sales representatives dispatch orders to firm. Sales dept prepare invoices and transmits copies to various departments. Out of stock items are back ordered. Shipped items are accompanied by shipping to various depts. Most of these are being automated lately.

Sales information system

Provides up to minute information on sales, current accounts & customers, provides feedback and reports.

Marketing intelligence system is a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain everyday information about developments in the marketing environment.

Steps taken to improve quality of marketing intelligence:

  1. Train and motivate sales force
  2. Motivate distributors, retailers and other intermediaries
  3. Learn about competitors by purchasing products, tradeshows
  4. Setup customer advisory panel of largest or important customers
  5. Purchase information from outside suppliers like AC Nielsen
  6. Establish marketing information center to collect marketing intelligence

Marketing Research is the systematic design and collection, analysis and reporting of data and findings to a specific marketing situation facing the company.

Suppliers of marketing research:

In-house marketing research dept

Engage b-school students or professors to design and carry out projects

Use the internet for public domain information at low cost

Checking out rivals through products, advtg etc

Companies also purchase research from:

Syndicated service research firms: they gather research and sell for a fee

Custom research firms: They design and carry out specific projects customized for the company concerned

Speciality line marketing research firm: provide specialized research services. e.g.: field service firm does only interviews.

Marketing research process

The Marketing Research Process

Step 1: Define the Problem and Research Objectives

Management must not define a problem too broadly or too narrowly.

Example of an ideal problem definition:

“Will offering an in-flight phone service create enough incremental preference and profit for American Airlines to justify its cost against other possible investments American might make?”

Specific research objectives:

What are the main reasons that airline passengers place phone calls while flying?

What kinds of passengers would be the most likely to make calls?

How many passengers are likely to make calls, given different price levels?

How many extra passengers might choose American because of this new service?

How much long-term goodwill will this service add to American Airlines’ image?

How important is phone service relative to improving other factors such as flight schedules, food quality, and baggage handling?

Not all research projects can be specific. Some research is exploratory- its goal is to shed light on the real nature of the problem and to suggest possible solutions or new ideas. Some research is descriptive- it seeks to ascertain certain magnitudes, such as how many people would make an in-flight call at $25 a call. Some research is causal- its purpose is to test a cause-and-effect relationship. For example, would passengers make more calls if the phone were located next to their seat rather than in the aisle near the lavatory?

Step 2: Develop the Research Plan

This stage calls for developing the most efficient plan for gathering the needed information. The cost of the research plan must be known before it is approved. Designing a research plan calls for decisions on the data sources, research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan, and contact methods.

Data Sources

The researcher can gather secondary data, primary data, or both. Secondary data are data that were collected for another purpose and already exist somewhere. Primary data are data gathered for a specific purpose or for a specific research project. Primary data is costly while secondary data provide a starting point for research and offer the advantages of low cost and ready availability. The WWW is a powerful source of secondary data and can provide information on associations, business information, government information, international information.

When the needed data do not exist or are outdated, inaccurate, incomplete, or unreliable, the researcher will have to collect primary data. Primary data can be collected by individual and group interviews.

A customer or prospect database is an organized collection of comprehensive data about individual customers, prospects, or suspects that is current, accessible, and actionable for marketing purposes such as lead generation, lead qualification, sale of a product or service, or maintenance of customer relationships.

Data warehousing and data mining techniques are becoming increasingly popular. Companies are using data mining, a set of methods that extracts patterns from large masses of data organized in what is called a data warehouse. A company could benefit in several ways:

Knowing which customers may be ready for a product upgrade offer

Knowing which customers might buy other products of the company

Knowing which customers would make the best prospects for a special offer

Knowing which customers have the most lifetime value and giving them more attention and perks

Knowing which customers might tend to exit and taking steps to prevent this

Research Instruments

There are 2 main options:


Mechanical Instruments


Sampling plan after deciding on the research approach, the marketer researcher needs to draw up a sampling plan. For this he needs to make 3 decisions

Sampling unit – who is to be surveyed..? The target population to be surveyed so as to have the right kind of population representation

Sample size – how many people to be surveyed…large samples give more accurate results but it may not always be feasible to sample the total population

Sampling procedure – how should the sample be selected to have the right kind of representation. Probability sampling methods with confidence intervals for sampling errors

  1. Contact methods    how to contact the subject (people to be surveyed)
  2. Mail questionnaire
  3. Telephone interviews
  4. Personal interviewing
  5. Arranged interviews
  6. Online interviewing
  7. Attached with such interviews are incentives that should be given to respondents to attract them to answer such questions

STEP 3. collect the information

Collecting the information is most expensive and prone to error.

However technology (computers etc) are making things easier and enhancing the process of data collection and analysis.

STEP 4 Analyse the information

Develop frequency distributions, averages, measures of dispersion etc to analyse the information collected

STEP 5 Present the findings

Present the main findings to the marketing decision makers.

Seven characteristics of a good marketing research

  1. Scientific method
  2. Research creativity
  3. Multiple methods
  4. Independence of models and data
  5. Value and cost of information
  6. Healthy skepticism
  7. Ethical marketing

A market is the set of all actual and potential buyers of a market offer.


Market demand – total vol. that would be bought by a defined customer group. In a defined geographical area in a defined tie period in a defined marketing environment under a defined marketing program.

There is a minimum market demand which will occur without any marketing also. As we increase marketing expenditure, demand increases and will stagnate at a point. This is an expansible market.

If there is no effect of marketing spending, it is a non-expansible market.

Only one level of industry marketing expenditure will occur. The marketing demand corresponding to this level is Market Forecast.  

Market Potential – if the limit approached by market demand as expenditure reaches infinity for a given marketing environment?

Company demand – is the company’s estimated share of market demands at alternate levels of company marketing effort in a given time period.

Company sales forecasts – is the level of company sales based on a chosen marketing plan in an assumed marketing environ.

Sales quota – is the sales goal set for a product line, company division or sales rep. It is used to define and push for sales efforts. It kept higher than forecasts to give stretch targets.

Sales budget – is a conservative estimate of the expected volume of sales. It’s used for current purchasing, production and cash flow decisions.

Company sales potential – Is the sales limit approached by company demand as company marketing efforts increase relative to competitors. Maximum is market potential.


Marketing executives need to estimate total market potential, area market potential and total industry sales and market shares.

Total market potential

It is the maximum amount of sales that might be available to all the firms in the industry during a given period under a given level of industry marketing effort and given environmental conditions.  A common way to estimate total market potential as follows: Estimate the potential no. of buyers times the average quantity purchased by a buyer times the price.

Area market potential

Companies need to measure the market potentials of different cities, states and nations. Two major methods of assessing market potentials are: the market build up method, which is used primarily by business marketers, and the multiple factor index method which is used primarily by consumer marketers.

Market build up method: It calls for identifying all the potential buyers in each market and estimating their potential purchases. This method gives us accurate results if we have a list of all potential buyers and a good estimate of what they buy.

Multiple factor index method: Like business marketers even consumer marketers also have to estimate the area market potentials. But the consumers of consumer companies are too numerous to be listed. Thus the most common method is the straightforward index method.

Industry sales and Market shares.

Identifying competitors and estimating their sales do this. The industry trade association will often collect and publish total industry sales, using this information each company can evaluate its performance against the whole industry. Another way to estimate is to buy reports from a marketing research that audits total sales and brand sales. These audits can give a company valuable information about its total product its total product category sales and its brand sales. It can compare its performance to the total industry and/or any particular competitor to see whether it is gaining or losing market share. Business marketers have typically harder time in estimating sales than consumer goods manufacturers do.


Very few products lend themselves to easy forecasting. In most markets total demand and company demand are not stable. Good forecasting becomes a key factor in company’s success. The unstable the demand the more critical is forecast accuracy and the more elaborate is forecasting procedure.

A three-stage procedure is used to prepare a sales forecast. They prepare a macro economic forecast, followed by an industry forecast then by a company sales forecast.

Firms develop their forecasts internally and externally as:

Market research firms specialized forecasting firms and futurist research firms.

All forecasts are built on three information bases: what people say, what people do and what people have done.

Survey of buyer’s intentions

Forecasting is the art of anticipating what buyers r likely to do under a given sat of conditions. The survey looks inquires into the purchase intentions of consumer, their present and future personal finances and their expectations about the economy. This can be analysed and major shifts in consumer preferences can be anticipated and production schedules and marketing plans changed accordingly.

Composite of sales force opinions.

Where buyer interviewing is impractical there companies ask their salespersons to estimate their future sales. Each of them estimates how much each current and prospective customer will buy of each of the company’s products. To encourage better estimating the company could supply certain aids or incentives to sales force. The benefits are:

  1. Better insights into developing trends
  2. Greater confidence in sales representatives and more incentive to achieve targets.
  3. Provides detailed estimates broken down by product, territory, customer and sales representatives.
  4. But some sales representatives may use them for their advantage like setting smaller forecasts for low targets and sometimes they are not aware of the recent major economic developments.

Expert opinion

Companies also obtain forecasts from experts including dealers, distributors, suppliers marketing consultants and trade associations. Dealer estimates are subject to the same merits and demerits of sales representative’s estimates. the experts estimates are done by group discussion method or pooling of individual estimates method or Delphi method where every estimate is refined and re-refined.

Past sales analysis

Sales forecasting is also done on the basis of past sales.

Time series analysis (breaking down the past data into trend, cycle, seasonal and erratic), exponential smoothing (combining the past sales and recent ones by giving more weight to the latter), statistical demand analysis (impact level of each set of casual factors e.g.… income, price, marketing expenditure etc) and economic analysis.

Chapter 5 Scanning the Marketing Environment

“Today you have to run faster to stay in the same places”

Successful company take inside out view of their business. They recognize that environment is constantly spinning new opportunities and threats and understand the importance continuously monitoring the and adapting to the environment.

The major responsibility for identifying significant marketplace changes falls to the company’s marketers. They must be trend trackers and opportunity seekers. Marketers have 2 advantages.

They have disciplined methods – marketing intelligence and market research.

They also spend more time with customers and more time watching competitors.

Analyzing Needs and trends in the macro environment

Successful companies recognize trend and respond profitably to unmet needs and demands.

A trend is a direction or sequence of events that have some momentum and durability

We can draw distinction between fads. Trends and megatrends.

A fad is unpredictable, short and without social, economic and political significance

Trends are more predictable and durable. It reveals the shape of the future – has longevity, is observable across several market areas and consumer activities, and is consistent with significant indicators occurring or emerging at the same time.

Megatrends have large social economic political and economical changes that are slow to form, and once in place they influence us for some time

A new product is more likely to be success if it is in line with the strong trends than otherwise.

Identifying and responding to the major macroeconomic forces.

Companies and their suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customers, competitors and public all operate in a macroeconomic environment of forces and trends that shape opportunities and pose threats. These forces represent “non-controllable” which a company must monitor and respond to. In the economic arena, companies and consumers are increasingly affected by global forces. These include:

World trade enablers

Asian economic power

Rise of trade blocs

International monetary crises

Use of barter & countertrade

Move towards market economies

“Global” lifestyles

Opening of “new” markets

Emerging transnational firms

Cross-border strategic alliances

Regional ethnic & religious conflict

Global branding

With rapidly changing environment, company must monitor six major forces. – demographic, economic, natural, technological, political legal and social cultural.

Demographic environment:

The first macroeconomic forces that the marketer monitors are the population because people make up the markets. Marketers are keenly interested in the size and growth rate of population in different cities, regions, and nations, age distribution and ethnic mix, educational levels, house hold patterns and regional characteristics and movements.

World population growth.

It’s a major concern because certain resources needed to support human life are limited.

Also population is a concern because population growth is maximum in countries which can least afford it. An explosive population growth has major impact on business. It does not mean growing markets unless these markets have sufficient purchasing power. Nonetheless companies that carefully analyze their markets can find major opportunities.

Population Age Mix

Population varies in their age mix. A population can be subdivided into 6 age groups: preschool, school-age children, teens, young adults (25-40), middle aged adults (40-65) and older adults (65+).

Ethnic Markets

Countries vary in ethnic & racial makeup. Each group has certain specific wants and buying habits. Marketers must be careful not to over generalize about ethnic groups.

Educational Groups

The population in any society falls into 5 educational groups: illiterates, high school, dropouts, high school degrees, college degrees, and professional degrees.

Household Patterns

The “traditional household” consists of a husband, wife and children (and sometimes grandparents). Yet in US one out of eight households today is “non traditional” and includes single live alones, adult live together, single parent families, childless married couples and empty nesters.

Geographical shifts in population

This is a period of great migratory movement between and within countries. Population movement also occurs as people migrate from rural to urban areas and then to suburban areas. Location makes a difference in goods and service preferences.

Shift from Mass market to Micro markets

The effect of all this is fragmentation of the mass market into numerous micro markets differentiated by age, sex, ethnic background, education, geography, lifestyle and other characteristics. Each group has strong preferences and is reached through increasingly targeted communication and distribution channels. Companies are abandoning the ‘shotgun approach’ that aimed at a mythical average consumer and are increasingly designing their products and marketing programs for specific micro markets.

Demographic trends are highly reliable for the short and intermediate run. There is little excuse for a company’s being suddenly surprised by demographic developments. The Singer Company should have known for years that its sewing machine would be hurt by smaller families and more working wives, and yet it was slow in responding. In contrast, think of the rewards marketers reap when they focus on a demographic environment. Some marketers are actively courting the home office segment of the lucrative SOHO market. Nearly 40 million Americans are working out of their with the help of electronic conveniences like cell phones, fax machines, and handheld organizers.

Economic Environment:

Markets require purchasing power as well as people. The available purchasing power in an economy depends on current income, prices, debt, savings, and credit availability. Marketers must pay close attention to major trends in income and consumer-spending patterns.

Income Distribution: Nations vary in level and distribution of income and industrial structure. There are four types of industrial structures:

Subsistence economies: Majority of people engage in simple agriculture, consume most of their output and barter the rest for simple goods and services. These economies offer few opportunities for marketers.

Raw-material-exporting economies: Economies rich in one or more natural resources but poor in other aspects. Much of their revenue comes from exporting these resources. Examples are Zaire (Copper) and Saudi Arabia (Oil). These countries are good markets for extractive equipment, tools and supplies, material-handling equipment, and trucks. Depending on the number of foreign residents and wealthy native rulers and landlords, they are also a market for Western-style commodities and luxury goods.

Industrializing economies: Manufacturing accounts for 10 to 20 percent of GDP. Examples include Egypt, India and Philippines. As manufacturing increases, the country relies more on imports of raw materials, steel, and heavy machinery and less on imports of finished textiles, paper products, and processed foods. Industrialization creates a new rich class and a small but growing middle class, both demanding new types of goods.

Industrial economies: Major exporters of manufactured goods and investment funds. They buy manufactured goods from another and also export them to other types of economies in exchange for raw materials and semi finished goods. The large and varied manufacturing activities of these nations and their sizable middle class make them rich markets for all sorts of goods.

Marketers often distinguish countries with five different income-distribution patterns: very low incomes; mostly low incomes; very low, very high incomes; low, medium, high incomes; mostly medium incomes.

Savings, Debt and Credit Availability

Consumer expenditures are affected by consumer savings, debt, and credit availability. Japanese save about 13.1% of their income and Americans save 4.7%. Marketers must pay attention to major changes in incomes, cost o living, interest rates, savings, and borrowing patterns because they can have a high impact on business, especially for companies whose products have high income and price sensitivity.

Natural Environment:

The deterioration of the natural environment is a major global concern. In many cities, air, chemical and water pollution have reached dangerous levels. Chemicals create hole in the ozone layer and cause ‘green-house effect’. In Europe, ‘green’ parties have pressed for public action to reduce industrial pollution. In the U.S. watchdog groups like Sierra Club and Friends of the Earth carried these concerns into political and social actions.

Shortage of raw Materials: Earth’s raw materials consist of the infinite, the finite renewable, and the finite non-renewable. Infinite resources such as water and air pose no immediate problem. Environmental groups have lobbied for a ban on certain propellants used in aerosol cans because of the potential damage they can cause to the ozone layer. Water shortages and pollution are already major problems in some parts of the world.

Finite renewable resources like forests and food must be used wisely. Forestry companies are required to reforest timberlands in order to protect the soil and to ensure sufficient wood to meet future demand. Because the amount of arable land is fixed and the urban areas are constantly encroaching on farmland, food supply can also be a problem. Finite non-renewable resources-oil, coal, platinum, zinc, silver- will pose a serious problem as the point of depletion approaches. Firms making products that require these increasingly scarce minerals face substantial cost increases. They may not find it easy to pass these cost increases on to customers. Firms engaged in R&D have an excellent opportunity to develop substitute materials.

Increased Energy Costs

One finite nonrenewable resource, oil, has created serious problems for the world economy. Oil prices shot up from $2.23 a barrel in 1970 to $34 a barrel in 1982, creating a frantic search for alternative energy forms. Coal became popular again and companies searched for practical means to harness solar, nuclear, wind, and other forms of energy. In the solar energy field alone, hundreds of firms introduced first generation products to harness solar energy for heating homes and other uses. Other firms searched for ways to make a practical electric automobile, with a practical electric automobile, with a potential prize of billions for the winner.

The development of alternative sources of energy and more efficient ways to use energy and the weakening of the oil cartel led to a subsequent decline in oil prices. Lower prices had an adverse effect on the oil exploration industry but considerably improved the income of oil using industries and consumers. In the mean time, the search continues for alternative sources of energy.

Increased Pollution Levels

Some industrial activity will inevitably damage the natural environment. Consider the dangerous mercury levels in the ocean, the quantity of DDT and other chemical pollutants in the soil and food supply, and the littering of the environment with bottles, plastics, and other packaging materials.

Changing Role of Governments

Governments vary in their concern and efforts to promote a clean environment. For example, the German government is vigorous in its pursuit of environmental quality, partly because of the strong green movement in Germany and partly because of the ecological devastation in the former East Germany. Many poor nations are doing little about pollution largely because they lack the funds or the political will. It is in the richer nations’ interest to help the poorer nations control their pollution, but even the richer nations today lack the necessary funds. The major hopes are that companies around the world will accept more social responsibility and that less expensive devices will be invented to control and reduce pollution.


One of the most dramatic forces shaping people’s lives is technology. Technology has released such wonders as penicillin, open heart surgery and the birth control pill. It has released such horrors as the hydrogen bomb, nerve gas and the submachine gun. It has also released such mixed blessings as the automobile and video games.

Every new technology is a force for creative destruction. Transistors hurt the vacuum tube industry xerography hurt the carbon paper business autos hurt the railroads and television hurt newspapers. Instead of moving into the new technologies many old industries fought or ignored them and their businesses declined.

The economy’s growth rate is affected by how many major new technologies are discovered. Unfortunately, technological discoveries do not arise evenly through time the rail road industry created a lot of investment and then investment petered out until the auto industry emerged. Later, radio created a lot of investment, which then petered out until television appeared. In the time between major innovations the economy can stagnate.

In the mean time, minor innovations fill the gap: freeze dried coffee, combination shampoo and conditioner antiperspirant deodorants and the like. Minor innovations involve less risk but critics argue that today too much research effort is going into producing minor improvements rather than major breakthroughs.

New technology creates major long run consequences that are not always foreseeable. The contraceptive pill led to smaller families more working wives and larger discretionary incomes – resulting in higher expenditures on vacation travel, durable goods and luxury items.

The marketer should monitor the following trends in technology: the pace of change the opportunities for innovation, varying R&D budgets and increased regulation.

Accelerating Pace of Technological Change

Many of today’s common products were not available 40 years ago. John Kennedy did not know personal computers digital wristwatches video recorders or fax machines. More ideas are being worked on the time lag between new ideas and their successful implementation is decreasing rapidly; and the time between introduction and peak production is shortening considerably. Ninety percent of the entire scientist who ever lived are alive today and technology feeds upon itself.

The advent of personal computers and fax has made it possible for people to telecommute that is work at home instead of traveling to offices that may be 30 or more minutes away. Some hope that this trend will reduce auto pollution bring the family closer together and create more home centered entertainment and activity. It will also have substantial impact on shopping behavior and marketing performance.

Unlimited Opportunities for innovation

Scientists today are working on a startling range of new technologies that will revolutionize products and production processes. Some of the most exciting work is being done in biotechnology, solid-state electronics robotics and materials sciences. Researchers are working on AIDS cures, happiness pills, painkillers totally safe contraceptives and non-fattening foods. They are designing robots for firefighting, underwater exploration and home nursing. In addition scientists also work on fantasy products such as small flying cars three dimensional television, and space colonies. The challenge in each case is not only technical but also commercial to develop affordable versions of these products.

Companies are already harnessing the power of virtual reality the combination of technologies that allows users to experience three dimensional computer generated environments through sound, sight and touch. Virtual reality has already been applied to gathering consumer reactions to new automobile designs, kitchen layouts, exterior home designs, and other potential offerings.

Varying R&D Budgets

The United States leads the world in annual R&D expenditures ($74 billion) but nearly 60% of these funds are still earmarked for defense. There is a need to transfer more of this money into research on material science, biotechnology, and micro mechanics. Japan has increased its R&D expenditures much faster than has the US and is spending it mostly on non-defense related research in physics, biophysics, and computer science.

A growing portion of U>S R&D expenditures is going into the development side of R&D raising concerns about whether the US can maintain its lead in basic science. Many companies are content to put their money into copying competitor’s products and making minor feature and style improvements. Even basic research companies such as DuPont bell laboratories and Pfizer are proceeding cautiously. Much of the research is defensive than offensive. And increasingly research directed toward major breakthroughs is being conducted by consortiums of companies rather than by single companies.

Increased Regulation of Technological change

As products become more complex the public needs to be assured of their safety. Consequently government agencies powers to investigate and ban potentially unsafe products have been expanded. In the US the federal food and drug administration must approve all drugs before they can be sold. Safety and health regulations have also increased in the areas of food, automobiles, clothing, electrical appliances and construction. Marketers must be aware of these regulations when proposing developing and launching new products.


Marketing decisions are strongly affected by developments in the political and legal environment. This environment is composed of laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals. Sometimes these laws also create new opportunities for business. Mandatory recycling laws have given the recycling industry a major boost and spurred the creation of dozens of new companies making new products from recycled materials:


Business legislation has three main purposes:

  1. To protect companies from unfair competition
  2. To protect consumers from unfair business practices
  3. To protect the interests of the society from unbridled business behavior

Major purpose of business legislation and enforcement is to charge businesses with the social costs created by their products or production processes.

Marketers must have good knowledge of the major laws protecting competition, consumers and society. Companies generally establish legal review procedures and promulgate ethical standards to guide their marketing standards. As more and more business takes place in cyberspace marketers must establish new parameters for doing business ethically.


Society shapes our beliefs, values and norms

Views of themselves:

In 1960-70 “pleasure seekers” sought fun, change and escape. They bought dream cars, dream vacations etc. Today, people are more conservative in behaviors and ambitions. More cautious and value driven.

Views of others:

People are concerned more about homeless, crime and other social problems.

At the same time people are seeking there “own kind” and avoiding strangers.

These trends portend a growing market for social support products and services that promote direct relations between human beings such as health clubs, cruises and religious activity.

They also suggest a growing market for “social surrogates”, things that allow people who are alone to feel that they are not. E.g. Television, chat rooms on the Internet, video games.

Views of organizations:

People vary in their attitudes towards organizations

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They are willing to work for them in spite of being critical about them

There has been overall decline in organizational loyalty

People see work as a chore required for money and not as a source of satisfaction

This outlook has several marketing implications:

Companies need to find new ways of generating employee and customer confidence.

Need to make sure that they are good corporate citizens and that their consumer messages are honest.

Hence companies are turning to social audits and public relations to improve their image.

Views of society:

Attitudes towards society can be as follows

Preservers- who ...

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