Managers are one of the most fundamental personnel in a company. They hold more power than non-managerial workers. Managers typically direct the strategy, manage assets and control performance (Storey, 1989). Accordingly, their proficiency and capability have a disparate impact on organisational performance (Grugulis, 2007). Especially, managers’ importance is apparent in a series of aspects. First of all, managers are principal actors in the decision-making procedure. Secondly, managerial staff is key to the effectiveness of transition and change processes within a company. Eventually, managers are directly involved in the creation of collective culture of continuous learning and improvement for all professional groups in a organisation (Mabey and Ramirez, 2004).

It seems critical to comprehend which managerial skills are crucial for a manager’s profession. Failing to identify these characteristics may result in managers’ inability to coordinate work efficiently and to be able to provide feedback. Furthermore, job transitions and various other career development initiatives could be found difficult for managers in case their responsibilities are not well understood (Kraut et al., 1989).    

Throughout the assignment, studies of managers skills will be described further. Finally, changes in the skill set required by a modern manager will be illustrated.

Studies of Managers Skills

In order for managers to be efficient, they must have a well-marked comprehension of whether various skills are hugely important in managerial role. Further, managers must have a reciprocal recognition of the skills and responsibilities indispensable for other managers from identical and different functions and levels in an organization (Kraut et al., 1989). If these responsibilities and skills are not fully comprehended, managers will neither be able to communicate expectations, coordinate work effectively, give feedback, nor be prepared for job changes or any other career growth activities.

Using an illustrative diary way to control managers at work, Mintzberg detect ten roles of management job, which were splitted into three main categories: informational, interpersonal and decisional roles. Expanding upon Mintzberg’s (1973) work, Kraut et al. (1989) examined dissimilarities between managerial levels in the perception of role significance. They found seven key factors of management tasks, namely planning and allocating resources, instructing subordinates, managing individual performance, coordinating interdependent groups, managing group performance, tracking the business encirclement and representing one's employees. These findings also showed clear differences in role importance depending on the managers' level.

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Davis and Luthans (1979) proposed that the two-factor model regarding managerial behaviour lacked an ability to forecast manager success. Moreover, Yukl (1994) attributed the failure of the two-factor model to managerial performance as well as employee attitude to poor measurement and conceptualisation of specific behaviours that make up each factor. It was suggested by Yukl that more specific features of managerial skills that are represented by these factors could be identified and investigated. Accordingly, it transpires that the two-factor model of managerial behaviour could be used as a starting point, redefining the factors with regard to specific managerial behaviours ...

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