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Critically evaluate historical, classical and contemporary approaches to leadership theory.

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´╗┐Critically evaluate historical, classical and contemporary approaches to leadership theory. Leadership is as defined by Terry, ?the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives.?? The key terms of leadership include interpersonal influence, to secure the will of commitment for sharing goals, to create energy and direction and change orientation. Leadership can be explained elaborately with the four main recent theories where these theorists have pointed their view based on different approaches. These theories are as follows: 1. Trait Theory 2. Behavioural theories 3. Contingency theories 4. Transformational theories Trait Theory: Trait theory based on the qualities of the leaders where it means that ?leaders are born, not made.? Leaders consist of different qualities where for an effective leader some qualities like judgment, drive, fairness, energy, initiative, human relation skill and foresight. This theory is discredited more or less. Behavioral theories The styles of leadership are the collections of leadership behavior that are used in different conditions in different ways. Among many classifications of styles, leadership styles are extent to the focus to the leaders whether this is task/performance based or relationship/people based. Two models describes the key terms: Asridge model: Tells: Here all the decisions are made and issues are instructed by the leader that must be followed. Sells: though still all the decisions are made by the leader but subordinates are motivated here to accept those rather than being emphasized. Consults: here ideas are conferred by the leaders with subordinates by taking their view though the final saying is retained by the leaders. Joins: leaders and subordinates both take part in decision making based on the consensus. Blake and Mounton?s managerial grid: Two basic dimensions of leadership have been observed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton through their research one of which is concern for production and the other is concern for people. Mangers could be located from very low to very high concern at any point on a continuum along any of these two dimensions. ...read more.


People want to know about the change, the expectation towards them and their performance assessment process. Leaders need to be cleared and honest about this all. Rewards should be promoted as dramatic reinforcement to embrace change. The Rational Approach to Organisational Change A rational and straightforward approach has been offered by Michael Beer to organizational change where many issues were addressed that were raised by other author. A roadmap is provided by this for the practitioners of leadership who want to implement the initiative of an organizational change. Again, it also provides a diagnostic tool to understand the reason of the failure of change. The model is as follows: 1. D = Dissatisfaction 2. M = Model 3. P = Process 4. R = Resistance 5. Dissatisfaction Organisational Change Process 1. The process of chance is done by merger and acquisition, change of CEO or board. There are usual interruptions of downsizing, restructure, closures and other activities where many unintended consequences are occurred with some kind of successes. 2. There is also an invariable impact on the member with the fear and stress. Though change is possible without harming people but more attention is required for this purpose. 3. The change of an organization is triggered by problem or opportunity usually that can be present or future, real or apparent. 1. There may also the internal of external origin of these problems or opportunities. Organisational Change Triggered by Problems 1. The problems can be described as symptoms or as cause. 2. A problem should be observed for the identification or description. The problems mainly consist of the following groups: Problems that focus people Problems that focus Organization 1. Meetings Climate/Culture 2. Communication Changes in Technology & market Leadership or following Performance, planning, workforce 3. Performance of the Individual Planning 4. Performance of the team workforce 5. Processes of the decision Change or transformation Organizational Change triggered by Opportunities 1. ...read more.


2. Participation can be facilitated by communications ? the willingness of participation in the change enhances with the number of business find out about the change and kept in the loop. 3. Training is enhanced through participation ? when the enthusiasm of participation in the change process is shown by different stakeholders, many training programs can be developed through the organization for the successful implementation of the change. 4. Interviewing the process, systems and job descriptions of the business? one process can be input of another. Different departments may have expertise that is needed to be brought together as a team. 5. If the acting of left and right hand is not combined it will be noticed by the External stakeholders instantly ? external stakeholders consist of general public, environmentalists and the government etc. If the integration of the change is not well in the organization, there is a chance of repeating process and wastage of valuable time and even the refusing of function by the part of the organization. Thus the customers, public and others are negatively impacted by this. Again a negative brand image is also carried out by this. Source : National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2011-2015. Conclusion: Change is vital for any organization depending upon the situation and it should be adopted through proper leadership. Thus leadership should be developed with the proper training and the conception of leadership should be integrated to the mind of every individual. The success of overall strategy of any organizations thus can be properly achieved through the proper understanding of these two vital issues. Reference: 1. Mary P. Follett : Prophet of Management, 1920 2. Bob Terry; Authentic Leadership: Courage in Action 1998 3. Watson, C.M. (), ?Leadership, management and the Seven Keys?, 1983, Business Horizons, March-Apri 4. JOHNSON, G & SCHOLES, K (1999) Exploring Corporate Strategy: Fifth Edition. Prentice Hall, Harlow, UK. 5. Viljoen, J. and Dann, S. (2000) Strategic Management: Planning and Implementing Successful Corporate Strategies, (3rd Ed.), Longman, Frenchs Forest. 6. Marks & Spencer, 2010. Annual report 2009-2010. [Online]. Available at: http://wwwmarks-and-spencer.co.uk/corporate/annual2010/ [accessed 5th May 2011] ...read more.

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