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University Degree: Economic Systems

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  1. The EUs policy in the past has been strongly orientated towards market liberalisation. Using examples discuss the likely dangers of greater interventionism by the member states in recent times

    Therefore numerous American real estate banks have to claim high write offs and finally to go into an insolvency. The US real estate crisis is then the beginning of the finance crisis, because this subprime credits have been contra financed by identifying revolving funds. The requirements of the source against the finance slave have been bundled to bond packets and as asset packed bond sold to especially investment banks and hedge-funds. After the illiquidity of the debtors the buyers have to available high write offs.

    • Word count: 4693
  2. With reference to the literature on poverty and development, and using statistical evidence on a developing country on your choice, discuss what progress has been made in reducing poverty in your chosen country over the last 15-25 years

    India's Poverty Gap Ratio gives us a better understanding (See appendix 1). India's PGR fell from 13.6% in 1994 to 10.5% in 2005.8 Furthermore, the total population below the poverty line has fallen from 36% in 1994 to 28.6% in 2000.9 The CIA World Fact-book puts this figure at 25% in 2007.10 Whilst the absolute levels of poverty are decreasing, there is increasing disparity between urban poverty and rural poverty. Academics also acknowledge that India 'has recorded impressive gains in many areas and significant reductions in the intensity of poverty, but there is still much ground to cover in terms of ending human deprivations.'11 Finally, there needs to be a clear distinction made between Poverty Alleviation (PA)

    • Word count: 4724
  3. The rise of the Chinese economy over the past twenty years has been meteoric and its influence on the world economy has also increased during this time. Analyzing these changes through statistics and graphs is an interesting and beneficial exercise.

    2.2 There is a significant difference between GDP and GNP, approximately $4.2 trillion. 2.3 Chinese GNP is greater than GDP, as it takes into account all profits generated by Chinese people and business abroad, whereas GDP only accounts for the value produced within Chinese borders. 3.1 Year Consumption (US$ Billions) 1990 217 1994 316 1998 597 2002 866 2006 1388 2009 2389 3.2 In 1990 Chinese consumption was quite low for a country of its size and population. Throughout the nineties there was a steady and impressive increase. Between 1990 and 2002 consumption quadrupled from $217 billion to $866.

    • Word count: 1264
  4. Assess with refrence to a particular developing country how agriculture has helped its developement

    Brazil's agricultural sector is broken up into two geographic parts; the southern part gifted with frequent rainfalls better infra structure and higher levels of technological advancement and with more experience farmers. Moreover, the northern part of Brazil near the Amazon, which does not have as much rainfall with soil that, isn't the best for farming and is less urbanized so has less technological resources. Using these points further on in the essay I aim to highlight how the success of Brazil's agriculture came about and the importance it has on the Brazilian economy.

    • Word count: 2156
  5. Designing a Future Academic Library

    Organisational requirements can be derived from strategic plans. Thus, strategy should involve all management plan and relevant information. A library has the strategy as well. In recent years, strategies are very important to every university libraries, which even determine their existence. How to survive the impact of information revolution and information technology is placed on the agenda seriously now. Strategy commonly includes the analysis of internal and external environment, stakeholders, resources etc. in current situation. Through the analysis, business environment, values and objectives and resources will be well understood and business requirements will be well captured. In this section, the essay will analyse what strategies should current libraries have for surviving the impact of high technology; organisational requirements will be captured during the analysis as well.

    • Word count: 4948
  6. Has Urbanisation developed too fast?

    Infant mortality in urban areas has been significantly less than in rural areas.(3) LDC rural-urbanisation migration has differed historically to that of more developed countries. Developed countries shifts have been more balanced, whereas LDC migration has been pulled towards the larger cities and it is thought that it won't be too long until mega-cities start to spring up in the developing world.(2) The cost benefits of locating in cities are known as agglomeration economies. LDC governments have tended to pursue policies that favour urbanisation; this is known as the urban bias which further widens the rural-urban gap.

    • Word count: 1373
  7. Business Policy

    Technological environment * Environmental environment * Legal environment Industry analysis * Power of Customers * Power of Suppliers * Threat of New Entrants * Threat of Substitute Products * Rivalry Importance to customers in winning orders Performance of competitor supply chains again Market Segmentation and Opportunities Evaluation of identified issues and impact on business strategy Conclusion References Introduction Insurance business operations play an especially important role for the development of social economic. Business insurances are considered as protection economic organizations, individual and it can be attract the resources investment from overseas.

    • Word count: 2814
  8. Marketing Management

    Therefore, the differentiation can be considered as the most effective way for an organization to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage. In the book "Contemporary Strategy Analysis" of Grant (2005), Mr. Goizueta, Coca-Cola's former Chairman, believes that if the way to sell real estate is location, the way to sell products will be differentiation. So, what is differentiation? In the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2006) there are two differentiation's definitions. The first one is "the act or process of differentiating". And the second definition indicates differentiation as "development from the one to the many, the simple to the complex, or the homogeneous to the heterogeneous" In the book "Differentiate or Die", Trout (2000)

    • Word count: 3169
  9. Marketing Management

    Each type of goods, consumers have many different options on types and brands of goods. So customers can choose what goods the most attractive products to satisfy most needs and interests. In this situation, the requirement of businesses to strive to affirm its position is very necessary. But it is also a pressure on managers because they do not know how to maximize production efficiency. What and How to do likely are big question for all businesses. One of the strategies that managers are most interested in is product differentiation strategy.

    • Word count: 3066
  10. Marketing Management

    In reality, brand is the concept that exists in customers' perception (Tai and Chew, 2008). Brand differentiation will make positive impression to customers when they view the company. If customers cannot find the differentiation between the company's brand and competing brands, they will buy products with lowest price. Therefore, the key of differentiation is "brand" (Kotler et al., 2006). For example, Evian is doing business as selling water. Water is a commodity available everywhere - 80% of the earth is covered by water. But water of Evian is supplied from Alps Mountain. And then mineral is added to this water.

    • Word count: 3023
  11. Hog Industry in USA

    Briefly, the agri-industrial meat production processes that has established in North America has been defined as intimidating the continuing sustainability of small town and rural societies (Biz, 2009). Although some of these consequences happen in both significant-scale production and processing, we will observe them separately. Societies with significant scale-meat production plants have all encountered similar challenges: expansion, often fast and explosive; people mobility; costs related with dramatic growths in cultural and linguistic multiplicity; increasing rates of offense, health, and social issues; strains on communications and social services.

    • Word count: 1445
  12. Analysis of Italian Serie A Players Salaries in Correlation to their Personal Performance

    One reason for the introduction of salary caps is to regulate fairness with in leagues. A high performing athlete brings in great amounts of fans and with the fans comes increased yearly revenue for the clubs. This should not be an issue although, this creates unfair advantages. Clubs with high performing athletes and great amounts of yearly revenues drives the prices of players higher than they should. So, the teams with money to spend will outbid small market teams and give in to high salary requests.

    • Word count: 7086
  13. E-Business - Online Auction

    The relative ease with which portfolio investment can enter and exit countries has been a major contributing factor to the increasing volatility and instability of the global financing system. There is an important distinction between FDI and FPI. FPI is investment by individuals, firms, or public bodies in foreign financial instruments. FPI does not involve taking a significant equity stake in a foreign business entity. FPI is determined by different factors than FDI and raises different issues. 2.1 Forms of FDI FDI exists in many forms. The most common classification is based on the investment type in the foreign economy.

    • Word count: 6139
  14. The Role of expatriation in MNC International Assignments

    (Hodgetts and Luthans, 2003) The literature identifies three main reasons for why MNCs send out expatriates: position filling, transferring technical skills and knowledge; management development, giving international experience to national managers; and organisation development maintaining the structure and decision processes of the parent company (Hamill, 1989; Harzing, 2001; Baruch et al., 2002; Morgan et al., 2004). MNCs should recognise that selection and subsequent management of expatriates will differ, depending on the reasons behind the expatriation. Perhaps the most persuasive argument as to why expatriates are needed in MNCs is due to knowledge transfer (Bender and Fish, 2000; Harvey and Novicevic, 2001; O'Keefe, 2002; Fish 2004; Crocitto et al., 2005; Shih et al., 2005).

    • Word count: 4273
  15. Interest Rate report

    If interest rates are lower, they may have an increased demand for borrowing activities. In general, the lower the interest rate the more money will be demanded at that rate. Cost of Operations Interest rates paid and earned affect the cost of operating expenses. In a business the goal is to keep operating costs low to increase the revenues and profits generated from the sale of vehicles or products sold. The higher the interest rate paid on a loan, the higher the operating costs will prove to be. If costs are declining having liquid cash available may help the business to purchase products and materials at a lower cost.

    • Word count: 707
  16. Discuss the benefits of trade and specialisation and the reasons why some countries impose restrictions or barriers to international trade. Wherever possible, use examples to illustrate your answers

    These firms produce or supply a service which is relatively different from its rivals within the market; their products are differentiated, examples include builders and restaurants. As a result, firms can have some control over price, for example, a burger can be bought for 99 pence at a MacDonald's take away, whereas in some restaurants they can cost between 7 and 10 pounds. Even though the firms have some control over price they are still known as price-takers. Their demand curve would be downward sloping but relatively elastic.

    • Word count: 2069
  17. Proposal to Fix America's Health Care System

    This proposal suggests a one-payer system that promotes wellness and prevention. One-payer systems flourish in many developed countries. In fact, according to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, the United States is the only wealthy, industrialized nation that does not guarantee universal coverage, and because of this, 18,000 people in the United States die every year from a lack of health insurance--that's two people every hour (4). We have the most expensive system in the world per capita, but we lag behind many developed countries on virtually every health statistic you can name.

    • Word count: 2244
  18. strategy of aldi in the french market

    Firstly, I am going to analyze the external environment of Aldi thanks to PESTEL and Porter's five forces. This part will summarize too the opportunities and the threats. Secondly, the next part will include the weaknesses and strengths of Aldi's strategy using the Porter's value chain. TASK A: External environment of Aldi : Porter's five forces analysis http://www.sarkozy.fr/download/?lang=fr&mode=programme&filename=monprojet.pdf ; http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/tableau.asp?reg_id=0&id=301 ; http://lekiosque.finances.gouv.fr/AppChiffre/etudes/tableaux/apercu.pdf ; They permit to simulate a competitive situation. Barriers to entry To enter into the market requires an important investment because it is very difficult to open only one supermarket.

    • Word count: 4163
  19. Economics of Death penalty

    Almost 12 states do not have death penalty but do have life imprisonment laws. This life imprisonment can sometimes be without parole. The rest of the states have different death penalty laws for different kinds and degrees of offences. About 200 to 300 criminals and prisoners are sentenced to death. The use of death penalty as a punishment rose to its heights when the death penalty was reinstated in 1976. Since then more than 600 executions have place in US.

    • Word count: 5996
  20. price elasticity of demand

    The demand elasticity is 'low' if it is a small number and the quantity demanded is insensitive to the price, ('high' or 'low' refer to the size of the elasticity ignoring the minus sign) (Begg, Fischer, Dornbusch 2008:45). The demand elasticity falls when it becomes a smaller negative number and the quantity demanded becomes less sensitive to the price. Elasticity refers to the degree of responsiveness in supply or demand in relation to changes in price. If the elasticity of demand is greater than or equal to 1, meaning that the percent change in quantity is greater than the percent

    • Word count: 1899
  21. Are trade unions in terminal decline?

    Unions face different organizational problems in different parts of the economy. Furthermore, unionization patterns differ remarkably, both in levels and trends, between Europe and the United States, as well as within European countries. Finally, experts have dissimilar opinions about the future of the negotiating between firms and workers and the measures that should be adopted. Role of trade unions Before exploring the reasons that brought on the recent decline of trade unions, it is fundamental to briefly summarize the ways in which these institutions affect the micro- and macro- economy. Some people view labour unions as forms of monopolies that, while benefiting their own members, impose substantial costs on other members of society.

    • Word count: 2499
  22. McDonald's organizational systems and sub systems. How has McDonalds transformed the consumer's dining experience

    Industrial engineers continually measure and evaluate production processes in an effort to improve efficiency. Continual monitoring of internal and external conditions is necessary to facilitate organizational development and adaptation while increasing the likelihood of long-run survival. Managerial subsystem. The managerial subsystem directs, coordinates, and adjusts functioning of the other subsystems to facilitate short, intermediate, and long-run goal achievement. This regulative and adjustment activity is largely achieved through effectively managed communication. Managers develop methods for gathering information about the operation of various subsystems, symbolize their conclusions with others during problem-solving sessions, and communicate directions for adjustment to specific persons across the subsystems.

    • Word count: 4111
  23. The implementation and effects of the national minimum wage in the UK

    It is estimated that 90% of all countries have some kind of minimum wage legislation. Statutory minimum wages were first introduced nationally in the UK on the 1st April 1999 to prevent unduly low pay and to help create a level playing field for employers. It was also introduced to tackle the problem of poverty. Poverty is a problem because it has a negative effect on health and well-being, housing and homelessness, educational attainment and crime. Those most affected by low pay are women, part-timers, younger employees, peripheral workers (seasonal or casual workers), people with disabilities, those working for small companies, those working in certain parts of the private sector (especially hospitality, retail, social, personnel services and healthcare).

    • Word count: 1456
  24. Children Of Alcoholics

    Children of alcoholics face intimacy problems because they do not know what a healthy relationship is like. "They have no frame of reference for a healthy intimate relationship, because they have never seen one" (Woititz, 1983 63). Children of alcoholics normally come from "broken" families because these families tend to have a lot of abuse, lying, cheating, denial, secrets, and little emotional stability. The alcoholic parent changes from loving and warm, and everything a child would want a father to be, to getting involved in big fights with the other parent, coming home late, breaking promises, and maybe even careless (Taibbi 21)

    • Word count: 2102

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Discuss the differences between Fordist and Post-Fordist work.

    "In conclusion, fordism has mass production combined with mass consumption. Post-fordism on the other hand has flexible specialization with new technology. There is a movement from fordist society to post-fordist society where workers tend to have more skills and have a good knowledge about new technology such as computer. However, mass production is still used in most industries combined with some new technology. Reference and"

  • To what extent does the post-fordist workplace mark a fundamental change in the modern forms of work and employment?

    "In conclusion, the extent to which the post-fordist workplace marks a fundamental change in the modern forms of work and employment does appear to be one of some substance. Although academics are reluctant to label any new link between production and consumption and the wider societal level implications derived from this as post-fordism, changes in work and employment have taken place to such a degree to warrant recognition. These changes, stemming from alterations and evolution to production and labour processes can be seen and although each change does exist to a varying degree, change has occurred. The move away from the rigidities of the fordist period to the emphasis upon flexibility in modern day business practices has had huge implications upon the workplace, and this can be seen in the way goods are produced and in the way the labour market has evolved to encompass a great range of factors not explored under the fordism label. It therefore seems reasonable to suppose that workplace changes have occurred in the transition from fordism to post-fordism, and are likely to continue to occur."

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