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University Degree: Macroeconomics

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  1. How to alleviate unemployment via fiscal policies

    Although they alleviate unemployment in the short term, their long term affects can become quite dangerous to employment. With loose fiscal policy, the increase in government spending will most likely alleviate mass unemployment. There has been a significant rise in spending in the NHS, from �33 billion in 1996-1997 to approximately �86 billion in 2006-2007.1 The National Health Service alone is the third largest employer in the world with around 1.3 million staff. 2 This enormous amount of staff has increased largely since 1997, which had approximately 1 million staff.3 This increase of 300,000 is in tandem with the increase in spending in the NHS which therefore suggests that the increase in staff numbers is due to the increase in spending.

    • Word count: 1980
  2. Ryanair - Its vulnerability and exposure to the macroeconomic environment

    A firm's average total cost curve (shown below) and the steepness of it can express the firm's vulnerability. The steepness of the curve is mainly determined by the scale of fixed costs and as a result, those firms will experience more volatility in their financial performance. In addition, increasing returns to labour which is particularly found in professional services also impacts on the gradient. Furthermore, firms which are dependent on external inputs, for example, in construction, are vulnerable to shifts in the curve due to increases in the costs of their inputs.

    • Word count: 2103
  3. Overheating economy in China

    During a recession, people have fewer stimuli to consume and invest, and the unemployment rate tends to rise rapidly. The causes of recession seem to be complicated. Keynes (Schiller, 2005: 265-267) has developed a theory that pays attention to the demand-side. In his view, people's expectation plays an important role in short-run recession. If people tend to be more pessimistic about the future, the economy, therefore, is likely to suffer a recession (Mankiw, 2005: 732). In order to overcome this demand-pull recession, the government should implement an expansionary fiscal policy by either increasing the government expenditure or reducing the taxes in order to stimulate the investment and consumption.

    • Word count: 1963
  4. Single Market

    Level of Intergration Main features Period Free Trade Area Free trade among members From 1958 to the early 1960s Custom Union Free trade with a common external tarrifs In theory from 1958 but in reality from early 1960s to 1993 Common Market Free mobility of factors and assets across member states. No internal invisible trade restrictions 1993-1999 Economic Union Harmonization of economic policy Early stages in 1993. Partial economic union in 1999 Political Union Common government The creation of a Single European Market seeks to remove the barriers which restrict the free movement of goods, services and the factors of production between national economies.

    • Word count: 2066
  5. Is the world heading into a world reccession?

    The other factors of the recession are large writing offs in a companies' profits, companies bankruptcy, unemployment and other economic uncertainties1. In February 2008 the outlook for the USA future looked much more positive. The cut of interest rate from 5.25% to 2.25% was quite a big step towards to stop recession to progress.2 The main factor FOR is the subprime mortgage crisis. The prices for property in America fall significantly, but the more worrying thing is that prices still continue to fall and nobody can say there it will stop. This crisis has a straightforward influence to financial sector.

    • Word count: 1725
  6. Financial Crisis in Iceland

    Background & Causes European Economic Area Icelandic government control over the economy has reduced over time. The most dominant decision was when Iceland entered the European Economic Area (EEA) in 1994. When Iceland joined the EEA it got access to European markets and adopted European regulations. Joining the EEA had a positive impact on the economy, however opening an insular economy to the EEA without significant institutional reforms carried with it dangers. Neither the Icelandic authorities nor private firms were prepared to operate in such an environment.

    • Word count: 5738
  7. New product development for ericsson

    How the factors above has affected the company in about 18 months (3) The strategic analysis which includes how the new division will cope in the future. (4) The marketing plans which will provide a description on how the organization can use the marketing mix to ensure that diversification into the new product are successful. Using the steps mentioned above, the company can create this new division in producing high- tech smartphones. This division will be responsible for producing smartphones with in built mobile broadband (in conjunction with a mobile service provider), touch screen interface, cybershot camera with 5 or more mega pixel, Bluetooth, WIFI and etc.

    • Word count: 4648
  8. What Determines the Level of the Interest Rate in the UK?

    As the interest rate is used as an economic tool by the Central Bank to achieve monetary objectives, the interest rate set affects our economy in a number of ways and it is important to see what determines the level of interest rate in the UK. The rate is established by the money market that consists of individuals demanding money and the financial institutions supplying the money. The bank is a supplier of money, and they are able to offer loans with funds that they have and offer an interest rate on this, affecting the amount people plan to hold using that bank.

    • Word count: 1459
  9. Causes of Inflation.

    Mostly, the demand pull inflation problems are faced by developed countries. Source: http://www.economicshelp.org/images/macro/increaseAD-close-full-capac.jpg * Cost push Inflation When the expenses of the corporation increases such as wages, bills, rent, etc, then that corporation increases their product prices to cover their expenses and this cause inflation. Product prices are possibly the most important example of cost-push or supply-side inflation. Economists keep a record of various products and as the prices of one product rises, the price of other relating product increases soon.

    • Word count: 1888
  10. why poor country are poor

    So this make less people travel in Cameroon. This disrupts one of the main incomes of the country such as tourism and giving up chances of investor to invest the country. Douala, the largest city in Cameroon but which is have no real road, infrastructure systems is bad. The road full of the rubble and vast hole and Mostly Taxi in the traffic, which leads to incredible severed pollution. The was used to have buses but buses no longer cope with the decaying road.

    • Word count: 979
  11. Free essay

    The UK economy and Tesco's Positioning

    This economic growth has probably been aided by an expansion in the labour market, due to the influx of migrants into the UK. The government is expected to exceed its target of 2.75% growth this year, and this is likely to continue for the foreseeable future. It would seem that this can only be positive for the UK economy, improving individuals' standards of living and helping to increase confidence in the economy, increasing investment and therefore increasing aggregate demand. However, economic growth also has costs.

    • Word count: 2529
  12. The worst economic problems in Kuwait

    Also, expatriates who are not allowed to own land are forced into the rental market, which pushes rental prices upwards. When people borrow money, they spend most of their income on paying back the loan, meaning less consumer expenditures and less investment, yielding a decrease in GDP. At the same time, local and foreign investors will not be encouraged to invest locally under such circumstances; this will ultimately lead to a big outward shift of investments and capital outflow from Kuwait to neighbouring and foreign countries. In both cases, C and I components will decrease, and hence GDP decreases also.

    • Word count: 1283

    52 TABLE 18 - GRANGER CAUSALITY TEST: MEFO BILL CIRCULATION AND COAL INDUSTRY STOCK RETURNS (N=22) 53 TABLE 19 - GRANGER CAUSALITY TEST: MEFO BILL CIRCULATION AND STEEL INDUSTRY STOCK RETURNS (N=22) 54 TABLE 20 - GRANGER CAUSALITY TEST: MEFO BILL CIRCULATION AND PIG IRON OUTPUT (N=22) 55 Equation 3 - Short-Run Aggregate Supply Movement 56 VII. CONCLUSION 58 REFERENCES: 62 Acknowledgements To you, who have stood beside me, I owe more than my own life. I owe you the future. You have been strong and have not faltered even in my darkest of nights. You have held my hand tight, not allowing me to fall, you have pulled me along and together we have arrived at a better end.

    • Word count: 16198
  14. Lawrence Klein Project

    Figure 2 shows the investment levels from 1921-1943. Investment starts at 2.7 in 1921. Here it falls the next year to -0.2%, after this in general it rises each year until 1927 where it reaches 5.6%. In the next six years it falls to -6.2% in 1933. After 1933 there is a sharp rise in investment every year until 1937 where it flattens at around 2% for two years. From 1939 Investment rises further and in three years it reaches 4.9%. Figure 3 shows the private wages in the time period.

    • Word count: 1756
  15. Russia vs Brazil, A Macroeconomic Comparison

    gave rise socialist ideologies and the famous 'labour theory of income.' The former Soviet Union (Russia today) implemented such an economic system for decades, until the latter part of the 20th century, and still has echoes of the system today (transition to a free market economy is proving more difficult than previously thought). On the other side of the Atlantic, at the time, free market economic ideologies and the notion of the 'invisible hand' were flourishing, and it was probably the most free a market that any economy had been in all history. Much speculation and over valuation led to the stock market crash of 1929, leading to the Great Depression.

    • Word count: 2015
  16. Aggregate Demand

    The circular flow of income illustrates the linkages between these different elements and depicts the flows of money around the economy. "The British economy comprises millions of individual economic units - households, firms and government. Together their decisions generate spending, output and income - three ways of measuring the total economic activity." (http://tutor2u.net/). As it is shown in the graph below, money flows from firms to households in the form of factor payments, and back again as consumer spending on domestically produced goods and services.

    • Word count: 1873

    Many USA mortgages issued in recent years are subprime, meaning that little or no downpayment was made, and that they were issued to households with low incomes and assets, and with troubled credit histories. When USA house prices began to decline in 2006-07, mortgage default increased, and securities backed with subprime mortgages, widely held by financial firms, lost most of their value. The result has been a large decline in the capital of many banks and USA government sponsored enterprises, tightening credit around the world.

    • Word count: 4704
  18. The Pros and Cons of Economic Expansion in Mainland China

    If there is a high rate of economic growth, it means that the income, output and expenditure are increasing. (Riley, G. 2006) There are many pros of economic expansion, one of it is increasing in GDP. It brings a lot of benefits to an economy. First, economic growth can improve living standards and lower poverty rate. As I described in the background, the economic growth is a measurement of national income and national income can be measured by income, output and expenditure of an economy. (Riley, G. 2006) While the GDP increased, the expenditure of the economy will also increase.

    • Word count: 1135
  19. Explain Demand and supply?

    It is defined as % change in an independent variable Elasticity = ? % change in a dependent variable While elasticity can be calculated and used for any two related variables there are four basic Coefficients of elasticity used in principles of economics OWN PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND This is a measure of the percentage change in the quantity demanded "caused" by a percentage change in price. Because the demand function is an inverse relationship between price and quantity the coefficient of price elasticity will always be negative: change in price change in Quantity Demanded PED = %?

    • Word count: 974
  20. Energy Trends of Asia

    On the other hand, the consumption of energy has increased tenfold in the last 10 years, an increase of over 60% in energy usage (70% of which is coal). Due to the wide abundance of coal India has, economist estimate that the supply could last them centuries which is why the country is so adamant on sticking to coal as their main energy component (India is also the 3rd largest coal producer on the planet). The growing economy and population in India have demanded an increased amount of energy usage in the past 10 years which has led to a growth of 45% extra coal being produced and used.

    • Word count: 5050
  21. Subprime Effect on U.S. Unemployment

    2006, p.12). Increased foreclosures resonated from borrowers' inability to meet their increased loan installments through Adjustable Rate Mortgages (ARMs). Example, ARMs offer low fixed interest rate for two years with periodically adjustments based on selected indexes (BBC, 2007). Appendix B shows an expected subprime ARMs reset of $282 billions in 2007 and $210 billions 2008. The upward trend in foreclosures had steepened from June 2007 because of the increasing ARMs reset before June 2007 (Appendix C). Subsequently, increased vacancy rates; downward trend in building permits; housing starts and new home sales, indicated lower demands for labor in construction (Appendix D & E).

    • Word count: 2264
  22. deflation in japan

    Now the interest rate was only 0.5%. It has fallen a lot since 1990s. No interest or low interest rates savings seem to be good investments in deflation years. There still were 51% of Japanese households' financial assets which were invested in this way. However, because of inflation, the real interest rates were negative. It would change Japanese investing behaviour to invest in other investments such as shares and property. Inflation would take some form such as external shock to change Japanese group behaviour. It had already happened which to prevent rising interest rate.

    • Word count: 1275
  23. Free essay

    The Republic of Ireland's Economy Past, Present and Possible Future and Ryanair

    The nation was hugely affected by harsh poverty and emigration until the 1960s, however, in the 1960s, under the leadership of Sean Lemass, the economy significantly expanded. In 1973, Ireland joined the European Economic Community (EC) and was set to profit from its Common Agricultural Policy. The state would benefit from this membership as it would guarantee high prices and secure access for Irish agricultural exports to the EC markets. (Munck, 1993, pp.109-110) However, the 1970s was a difficult period for the Irish economy as there were two major oil price increases - one "towards the end of 1973 and the second beginning late in 1979".

    • Word count: 2248

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