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How can a manager use process theories of motivation to better motivate a work group? Mention at least two specific theories in your answer.

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The responsibility of managers is to achieve aims and objectives of their organization. However, these goals will be achieved through the efforts of other people, employees. One management role is concerned with changing their workers' behavior, co-coordinating them and making things happen. Today, management no longer means giving orders. On the contrast, what a manager has to do is planning, controlling, coordinating and motivating. Managers try to motivate people in the organization to perform at high levels. This means making them work hard, effectively and to make positive contributions to the organization's mission. In return, people want to have relevant salary, good working conditions, promotion, or praise, sense of achievement, etc. As a role of studying these factors, which influence the behavior of people in the workplace, motivation theory can be really useful for Human Resource Management. Compared with money, the only motivator of workforce over 1000 years ago, motivation theories have become much more diversified and complicated not only in managing mission but also in competing strategies. This essay will focus on how process theories of motivation can help to lead employees to behave in the way managers want them to do. As mentioned above, Process theory is one of many motivation theories which study how people choose among behavioral alternatives, what makes them come to work regularly and get them to make an effort to work. ...read more.


Performance results in two kinds of rewards, namely intrinsic and extrinsic. The former involves individual achievement, responsibility and recognition while the latter focuses on salary, working condition and supervision. However, the reward is, again, valued individually, which is quite similar to the term of valence defined by Vroom. Consequently, expectancy theory presents a key role in managing workforce, in general, and in motivating employees, in particular. This theory has offered managers a number of important guidelines to orient people's behavior to do what they want them to do. It is really helpful to establish clear links between performance and rewards, to determine the primary outcome each employee wants, to make sure the rewards are large enough, to analyze the situation for conflicting expectancies and to minimize undesirable outcomes. We continue to discuss process motivation theories with the other kind, equity theory. In the book of "Essentials of organizational behavior", Laurie J. Mullins wrote "Equity theory focuses on people's feeling of how fairly they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others." (Mullins Laurie J., 2006, p.207). Indeed, if they are responsible for equivalent work, they expect equivalent rewards. However, equity perception is also a personal term. First, an employee evaluates how they are treated in the organization. ...read more.


For example, it is too difficult to test expectancy theory logically and scientifically. People tend to be subjective in choosing behaviors. Similarly, equity theory also includes personal perceptions. Moreover, this theory is sometimes focused narrowly on overpayment or underpayment. Such drawbacks can result in wrong predictions and then wrong decisions. In conclusion, both expectancy and equity theory are among very important aspects influencing managers when making reinforcement and motivating their employees. Managers must consider a lot of different motivation theories to find out individual differences in what a worker thinks is a motivating reward. They can take advantage of these combined theories, which means they give workers a clear understanding of what level of performance is required of employees and motivate them to make efforts, and then achieve the organization's goal. Reference list Boddy David, 2008, Management An Introduction, 4th ed. Prentice Hall (Source: European Industrial Relations Review, issue 271 (1996), p.24; Financial Times, 26 January 2001; The Times, 8 February 2001) Griffin W. Ricky and Moorhead Gregory, 2001. Organizational behavior: managing people and organizations. 6th ed. New York, Houghton Mifflin Company Meudell Karen and Callen Tony, 1996, Management and Organizational behavior A student workbook, 2nd ed. Pitman publishing (Source: "Holiday on Ice: Stuck at the Office", USA Today, November 18, 1998, p.B5; "Employees without kids say they have lives, too", USA Today, November 12, 1997, pp. 1B, 2A) Mullins Laurie J., 2006, Essentials of organizational behavior, Prentice Hall ...read more.

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