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In the current business environment, what role do job design and workforce diversity play in attempts to improve individual and organizational performance.

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Assignment 1 "In the current business environment, what role do job design and workforce diversity play in attempts to improve individual and organizational performance." Human Resource Management (HRM 502) Zaved Mannan D-6 Tower Bhaban, Fuller Road Dhaka University Campus Dhaka 1000 Bangladesh Student ID: 11320053 Date: 29.08.2010 Charles Sturt University Australia Table of Contents Introduction 4 Job Design Defined 5 Workforce Defined 6 Workforce Diversity Defined 6 Performance Management 8 Role of Job Design in attempts To Improve Performance 9 Job Specialization 9 Rotation 9 Job Enlargement 11 Job Enrichment 11 Job Characteristics Model 12 Empowerment 13 Role of Workforce Diversity in Attempts to Improve Performance 15 High Quality Decision Making 15 Better Understanding and Service of Customers 15 More Satisfied Workforce 16 Higher Stock Prices 16 Lower Litigation Expenses 17 Higher Company Performance 17 Job Design and Workforce Diversity 18 Tracking Diversity Metrics and Diversity-Related Goals 18 Explicit Rewards for Increasing Diversity and Diversity Training Programs 19 Review Recruitment Practices 19 Conclusion 20 References 22 Introduction Appropriately managed diverse workforce can represent a resource to the firm. The diverse workforce may represent a unique combination of skills, experiences and attributes that is not easily replicable or appropriable. Several surveys and researches into effective diversity use and management suggests the difference inherent in a diverse workforce can be a positive influence on organizations, particularly in relation decision-making, innovation, creativity and globalization. Job design is important to influence employee motivation. HR manager must consider motivational issues in designing jobs to achieve effective performance of both individual and organization. The first purpose of this review is to define and analyze few key HR concepts. Research on job design, workforce diversity and performance management will be reviewed. The second purpose of this review is to critically evaluate the role of both job design and workforce diversity in attempts to improve individual and organizational performance. The third purpose of this review is to integrate job design and workforce diversity. ...read more.


K., 1998). There is some evidence that job enlargement is beneficial, because it is positively related to employee satisfaction and higher quality customer services, and it increases the chances of catching mistakes (Campion, M. A., & McClelland, C. L., 1991). At the same time, job enlargement consisting of adding tasks that are very simple in nature had negative consequences on employee satisfaction with the job and resulted in fewer errors being caught. Alternatively, giving employees more tasks that require them to be knowledgeable in different areas seemed to have more positive effects (Campion, M. A., & McClelland, C. L., 1993). Job Enrichment Job enrichmentjob enrichmentA job redesign technique allowing workers more control over how they perform their own tasks. is a job redesign technique that allows workers more control over how they perform their own tasks. This approach allows employees to take on more responsibility. Companies using job enrichment may experience positive outcomes, such as reduced turnover, increased productivity, and reduced absences (McEvoy, G. M., & Cascio, W. F., 1985). This may be because employees who have the authority and responsibility over their work can be more efficient, eliminate unnecessary tasks, take shortcuts, and increase their overall performance. At the same time, there is evidence that job enrichment may sometimes cause dissatisfaction among certain employees (Locke, E. A., Sirota, D., & Wolfson, A. D., 1976). The reason may be that employees who are given additional autonomy and responsibility may expect greater levels of pay or other types of compensation, and if this expectation is not met they may feel frustrated. One more thing to remember is that job enrichment is not suitable for everyone (Cherrington, D. J., & Lynn, E. J., 1980). Job Characteristics Model The job characteristics modeljob characteristics modelFive core job dimensions, leading to three critical psychological states, which lead to work-related outcomes. is one of the most influential attempts to design jobs with increased motivational properties (Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R., 1975). An integrated view (Robertson and Smith 1985) ...read more.


Explicit Rewards for Increasing Diversity and Diversity Training Programs A study of over 700 companies found that programs with a higher perceived success rate were those that occurred in companies where top management believed in the importance of diversity, where there were explicit rewards for increasing diversity of the company, and where managers were required to attend the diversity training programs (Rynes, S., & Rosen, B., 1995). Review Recruitment Practices Companies may want to increase diversity by targeting a pool that is more diverse. There are many minority professional groups such as the National Black MBA Association or the Chinese Software Professionals Association. By building relations with these occupational groups, organizations may attract a more diverse group of candidates to choose from. The auditing company Ernst & Young Global Ltd. increases diversity of job candidates by mentoring undergraduate students (Nussenbaum, E., 2003). Companies may also benefit from reviewing their employment advertising, selection procedures, tests and interviewing process to ensure that diversity is important at all levels of the company (Avery, D. R., 2003). Conclusion Early alternatives to job specialization include job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment. Research shows that there are five job components that increase the motivating potential of a job: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Finally, empowerment is a contemporary way of motivating employees through job design. These approaches increase worker motivation and have the potential to increase performance for both individual and organization. Organizations managing diverse workforce effectively benefit from diversity because they achieve higher creativity, better customer service, higher job satisfaction, higher stock prices, lower litigation expenses and higher company performances. Management of diversity effectively promises a number of benefits for employees and organizations. Organizations can manage workfroce diversity more effectively through job design by building a culture of respect, making managers accountable for diversity, creating diversity-training programs, reviewing recruitment practices, and under some conditions, utilizing affirmative action programs. ...read more.

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