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University Degree: Management Studies

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  1. Review of Article: "Integrated Resource Planning and Competitive Power Markets An American Viewpoint" By Vikram S. Budhraja

    Having the 'Blue Book' deregulation proposal, they were able to achieve their goal. Which made it favorable for both parties, the consumers and the producers or the electric industry. The creation of blue book was not that easy, just like Vikram's qouting Machivelli. But they were able to do it through planning. Enterprise resource planning systems integrate internal and external management information across an entire organization, embracing finance/accounting, manufacturing, sales and service, customer relationship management. Enterprise resource planning systems automate this activity with an integrated software application.

    • Word count: 936
  2. This essay discusses whether or not a company should be aware of changes in external environment. It explores different aspects of external environment and its effect on organization.

    Considering its complexity, a PEST analysis (stand for political, economic, social, technological) can make it more simplified. First, political system refers to the government's relationship with the company and its attitude on the industry (Laurie J, 2002:109). It will to some extent determine the status of the business: monopoly, oligarch or competition. It can also affect international trading, for instance, trading barrier and import duty. Second, economic system mainly involves macroeconomic policy, economic structure and level of development. In the passage the external environment (the times 100, 2007) it was noted that 'Business prosper when the economy is booming and living standards are rising'.

    • Word count: 648
  3. Miller Corporation Case Study. This paper shall discuss the actions Miller (the beer company) has taken to maintain profitability in times of economic downturn. It shall also develop a list of best practices, which are being used by brewing organizations

    However, it has survived the test of time, and proved to withstand the challenges, which the external factors posed. The main tool used by brewing organizations (like Miller Brewing Company) in such times is to concentrate more on their marketing policy with the intention to focus on a specific product (like (Miller Lite") and a specific target market. This helps in concentrating focus of the company towards the drastic increase in revenue of the company by increasing sales in such hard times. (Buhner ,2003)The rise in revenue helps these brewing companies to offset the challenges posed by the macroeconomic factors like GDP, unemployment, inflation and interest rates.

    • Word count: 643
  4. Article Summary of A Day in the Life of Alex Sander: Driving in the Fast Lane at Landon Care Products by Larry E. Greiner, Elizabeth Collins

    Alex is a highly talented individual, a fast learner, has entrepreneurial skills with extensive market and product knowledge, is self confident, and self driven. He successfully rebranded two skin care products in over a year's time. However, Alex is emotionally immature and aloof from his colleagues at work. He has a commanding personality as he not only micromanages people but also derides them if he is not satisfied with their work output and this behavior alienates him from other people in the organization.

    • Word count: 551
  5. This paper is an in-depth business analysis of Apple Inc (AAPL). In this analysis, many areas of AAPLs business will be discussed to determine the risk level associated with investing a portion of a mutual fund in this company.

    AAPL: A Business Analysis SWOT Strengths Concerning strengths, AAPL has an abundance of them. AAPL is one of the most powerful companies in the world, if not the most powerful. AAPL has amassed a cash reserve of $76.2 billion dollars, which is roughly $2.5 billion more than the United States Government's coffers (Phillips, 2011). This cash reserve is mainly attributed to AAPL possessing some of the most loyal follows of any company on the planet. AAPL does not make products that are in high demand, but rather Apple products are in high demand because Apple makes them.

    • Word count: 828
  6. Proposal For Assembly Plant Closure The responsibility for the abrupt closure of the plant demonstrates mismanagement and lack of communication on the part of Company Management.

    The argument that the primary responsibility of corporate managers is towards its shareholders and as such they have a duty to minimize losses ignores the fact that any business conducted and revenue generated comes from the resources that communities provides, as such, corporations have a moral obligation to ensure that any decisions taken do not adversely affect the well being of these communities. In case the business environment places the company in a situation that is unavoidable, the same should be clearly communicated to all stakeholders giving them ample notice to prepare themselves.

    • Word count: 800
  7. Leadership traits of Azim Premji. Azim Premji is the chairman and CEO of Wipro technologies.

    Leadership traits of Azim Premji Traits are individual characteristics of thought or feeling that gives rise to tendencies to act in certain ways. (Rollinson D 2004) Luther Bernard (1926) attempted to explain leadership traits in terms of internal qualities that a person is born with. Effective leaders show common characteristics that differ them from non leaders. (Roger Gill 2006) After analysing Azim Premjis personality and applying trait theory some important traits emerged such as: Intelligence: intelligence is one of the key traits of successful leaders.

    • Word count: 874
  8. Global Aluminum Industry. The world production of bauxite dropped by 7% in 2009 compared to 2008, alumina decreased with 6% from 2008 to 2009, and aluminum fell by almost 7% in the same period, due to the global financial crisis and global recession.

    Aluminum is produced from two sources: ore (primary), also called bauxite, and scrap (recycled aluminum / secondary). Due to high energy requirements, the primary producers locate in areas with access to low energy costs sources, e.g. hydroelectric power, and the secondary near industrial centersv. Alumina, the main source of aluminum, is sold on both spot and contract terms, and the price is quoted on London Metal Exchange. Asia is the largest region of aluminum production with 43% market share, followed by Europe (24%) and America (22%)vi. Transportation (26% market share), packaging (22%)

    • Word count: 624
  9. This paper will briefly analyze Hydros acquisition of Vale in Brazil by using relevant theory. First, the OLI-paradigm will show why they chose a FDI, then we will focus on the type of strategy they follow, and lastly, why they chose an acquisition.

    Location-advantages, such as low-cost factors in Brazil, are essential, whilst internalization advantages implies a cost-benefit analysis of different entry-methods by trading off savings in transactions, hold-up and monitoring costs of a wholly-owned subsidiary, compared to other methods. Thus Hydro found acquisition most appropriate when pursuing a vertical FDI, a resource-seeking investment (Reinert et. al 2009). Hydro pursues a global strategy, with a high level of globalization and focus on national markets with economies of scale (Harzing 2002:212). Ghemawat (2007) highlights the importance of managing large differences that arises when pursuing a global strategy.

    • Word count: 933
  10. Laura Ashley Case Study - ROCE Ratio analysis and Laure Ashley's American market.

    the last two years is not only a clear indication of the company's capital investments are inefficient and unprofitable but also company is having a very poor financial performance and it is bleeding so much. To upside-down the current poor financial problems, Laura Ashley appointed Ann Iverson and David h***e June respectively between June 1995 and February 1999, however both could not be a remedy for the company to stop the financial losses. In April 1998, 40% of Laura Ashley's equity sold to MUI Group for �43.5million and �7.9million was raised from the sale of shares in Laura Ashley Japan.

    • Word count: 945
  11. Impacts of E-Business. Any organization that is doing business online needs to develop and implement a strategic plan that will ensure a successful business.

    The organization needs to have the means to have secure payments, delivery of product and services, CRM tool, and effective marketing strategies. E-Business has impacted an organizations culture, societal cultures, and individual relationships in business. It is up to the management of an organization to properly and effectively introduce changes to the organization and each department needs to have a clear understanding of what their role is. When in an e-business environment, the organization is essentially doing business in the global marketplace and therefore needs to know and follow all of the laws with conducting business internationally.

    • Word count: 836
  12. E-Business Models. This paper will address organizational strategies and trends for business to business (B2B), Business to Consumer (B2C), Consumer to Consumer (C2C), and Mobile commerce.

    This can also be classified as Electronic business to Business or EB2B. Electronic Business to Business has provided a new way for organizations to interact with each other on supplies, managing inventory, production, and products. This has opened the door for specialized services where information can be transferred on a minute by minute basis. This gives a business direct communication with speed, accuracy, and efficiency. This is especially helpful for supply chain management. The strategies that are used in Business to Business are to add revenue from the use of the internet, build and strengthen relationships, and improve efficiency.

    • Word count: 915
  13. Skate Park Project. Project objective: To construct a high quality skate park with a concession area that will include a coffee shop with a bar, and a rent shop with an additional shower and locker room

    Reward criteria Performance Other 8. Conflict tolerance Low High 9. Means - ends orientation Means Ends 10. Open system focus Internal External Project Scope: 1- Project objective: To construct a high quality skate park with a concession area that will include a coffee shop with a bar, and a rent shop with an additional shower and locker room and a green area, within 4 months, at a cost that should not exceed $ 500,000. 2- Deliverables: - A 2450m�, half pipe, rails and concession area with a green area, as shown in the picture below. - A finished parking - A finished installation for the bar and coffee shop - Finished installation for the showers 3- Milestones:

    • Word count: 977
  14. China vs The US Dollar- Managed Float

    In turn, the cheap Yuan was helping to fuel a boom in Chinese exports to the West, particularly to the United States where the trade deficit with China expanded to a record $10 billion in 2004. Job losses among American manufacturing companies created political pressures in the United States for the government to push Chinese to let the Yuan float freely against the dollar. American manufacturers complained that they could not compete against "artificially cheap" Chinese imports. In early 2005 Senator Charles Schumer and Lindsey Graham tried to get the Senate to impose a 27.5% tariff on imports from China unless the Chinese agreed to revalue the currency against the U.S.

    • Word count: 755
  15. In order for a business to be successful in the world today, they should possess all four of the functions of management. These four functions are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.

    Bateman and Snell (2009) stated "Planning activities include analyzing current situations, anticipating the future, determining objectives, deciding in what types of activities the company will engage, choosing corporate and business strategies, and determining the resources needed to achieve the organization's goals." Planning is a continuous process that a business must perform to be knowledgeable about their customers, suppliers, and others. This will allow a business to be able to identify any open opportunities, therefore creating an advantage that is considered competitive. At Spirit Manufacturing, the top-level managers, have to decide what products will sell and what products will not sell through marketing.

    • Word count: 949
  16. Emerging Technology in E-business

    According to Fadden (2009) a virtual marketplace brings together buyers and sellers through the Internet. At its highest level, a virtual marketplace gives a purchaser and supplier the opportunity to re-engineer the sales administration process, improve forecasting and scheduling, renew its go-to-market approach, shorten its order-to-cash cycle, and enhance customer service. As more consumers are attracted to social media websites businesses need to increase its knowledge of virtual marketplaces and implement new marketing technology that will allow them to capture the millions of people visiting these sites and adjust their supply chains to stay current with the demand that will continue to grow if this technology is use correctly.

    • Word count: 912
  17. Culture and International Business

    There are many cultural differences that can lead to mistakes such as gestures, eating habits, body language used in greetings. All of these things are important but not as commonplace in today's business environment due to increased international commerce and training. "There is probably nothing more common than a Japanese executive extending his arm for a handshake just as his American counterpart leans over to bow. (2004)." This is one example of how business people from all cultures have taken the time to learn about each other and avoid some of the mistakes of the past.

    • Word count: 901
  18. Outsourcing Advantages

    "Yet much of this discussion is beside the point. Offshoring is here to stay (as long as the cost savings are for real) and there's little point in hand-wringing over whether it should or shouldn't take place." (Reingold, 2004) Successful businesses make a profit and labor cost is a major factor in outsourcing. It is the most obvious and the reason outsourcing is here to stay. It is also a main reason that government in the U.S., both at the national and state levels have sought to regulate. "The momentum against the export of white-collar U.S.

    • Word count: 739
  19. Privacy Laws

    They also requested access to his email which was denied by Yahoo, the service provider to Ellsworth's email account. When Yahoo refused, the family sued in court and eventually won. The question to be answered is what are considered "personal effects". Is email the same as a written letter? Here is how the DOD defines personal effects: "17-4. Personal effects The PE are the movable personal property of the deceased or missing person. a. PE include- (1) Jewelry (watch, rings, bracelets, ear rings, and so forth), (2) Personal clothing, (3) Personal papers (letters, receipts, will, and so forth), (4)

    • Word count: 704
  20. Zappos Core Competencies

    Manufacturing is closely linked to product development which in turn feeds the retailers controlled by the sales people and managers. The designers are then able to use the information in the new season when turning over stock. The Zara business model differs from that of its competitors as Zara may not have the economies of scale relying more on in house production it may not be able to compete with low cost retailers. Some of Zara's main competitors such as H&M and large European retailers have been able to expand internationally where in Zara's business model this has not been a priority, although in the article it is mentioned there were plans, it is noteworthy.

    • Word count: 610
  21. Examine the benefits of doing case studies on post-graduate business programmes? Explain some of the most common weaknesses to be found in poor responses to case studies. Suggest how they can be addressed.

    Quinton S and Smallbone T (2006) observe case studies help the students to drop the habit of taking statements as such without questioning. They start to think critically and search answers for the basic questions 'why' and 'how'. Shift From Theoretical Aspects To Practical Business Post Graduate students are supposed to have good base in theoretical matters. So case studies provide them a firm ground to test their theoretical knowledge in practical business situations. Case studies act as the link between theories and practice as far as a postgraduate student is concerned.

    • Word count: 902
  22. Types of Businesses

    1. Sole Proprietorship It is the type of business which is owned and generally operated by the single person. It is the simplest form of the business and easy to start. Some of the sole proprietorships are large and have many employees but normally it is the small type of business. It is commonly prevailed in retailing, services and agriculture (Russell, 2002). The advantages of sole proprietorship are: easy to start-up and closure, pride of ownership, retention of all profits, flexibility of being your own boss and no special taxes. On the other hand, it has few disadvantages such as unlimited liability, lack of continuity, lack of money, limited management skills and having difficulty in hiring the employees.

    • Word count: 657
  23. DHL in China

    No matter in Australia or China, large number of competitors is the major problem for DHL to survive in the logistic market. DHL knows that their main marketing strategic is not the lowest price but they really aim to meet customers' entire express delivery needs. DHL states in their 2008 annual report that they are not only logistics experts but also specialists in their customers' industries (DHL, 2008). In deep, DHL offers some special programs like providing bulk-breaking facilities and planned production support for precision delivery schedules, in order to match the needs and wants for different customers' industries (Conley, 1996).

    • Word count: 726
  24. Business objectives

    However, depends on the market, business operates in, it may adopt a specific objectives, related only to a business. These are more related to a tactics, because reaching these objectives will lead to an advantage in competition. A god example might be when business wants to reach 80% capacity utilization of its premises, factory, machinery etc. First of all it means that they are aiming to sell all their output, and receive more profit, but also good capacity utilization will lead to a greater degree of efficiency, as far as business will benefit from economies of scale and bring it unit costs lower, which is the one way to be more competitive.

    • Word count: 867

"If you do things well, do them better. Be daring, be first, be different, be just."

-Anita Roddick

Business and administrative studies is an incredibly broad discipline; from management studies and HR to economics and finance, a great many careers will findthemselves beneath its generous umbrella. So if you're ambitious and career focused, one of the field's many specialties could be a good choice for your university degree.

Students of these subjects should be confident communicators, and persuasive writers. If your writing needs any help, don't hesitate to tap into the riches of Marked by Teachers' collection of business and administrative studies essays. These teacher-marked essays will lead by example, teaching you to whip your own essays into shape in no time.

Naturally, business and administrative studies students tend to pursue careers within the world of business, but some may opt for further study and careersin fields like politics, law and media.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Discuss what you consider to be the most important qualities of a modern organisational leader and to what extent you agree with the assertation that effective leadership is now critical to organisational success.

    "In conclusion there are certain qualities and skills both personal and non-personal which leaders must possess in order to be a leader.. They are usually learned and along with the knowledge of knowing when and where to use them. Different leaders will have different styles depending on the organisation they operate in, the task or company objective and types of followers they enlist. History has shown us undeniable proof of what can result from good and bad leadership. Keith Grint sums up a leader as someone who " causes others to act " . With regards to the positive effects of good leadership this is encapsulated in a statement from Daniel Dafoe when he says that " An army of lions led by a sheep is no match for an army of sheep led by a Lion ! " ( Grint, 1995 )"

  • "Information technology vitally assists in overcoming barriers to entry to competition in most industries." Critically discuss this statement stating whether you agree or disagree.

    "Conclusion Although a firm can enter in the market quickly with the help of IT, but it will not sustain in the market without 'right' model or competitive strategy. If a firm is not armed with right competitive strategy to counter the threats of five forces , then "IT doesn't matter" (Carr 2003)."

  • "The business of family business in Asia is the family." Discuss

    "In conclusion, this essay has examined the case that CFBs main concern is the family and not of business prosperity and profits. This was evident as CFBs have many structures and methods of doing business that did not lend itself to maximising the success of the business. However, CFBs dominate the corporate world of Asia and so a paradox was created in how a business model that did not place success or profits as its main concern or motive has managed to become so successful and dominate the Asian markets. This was examined and argued that focusing on the family and traditional Confucius values led to extremely successful businesses. The family was a tool for business success and therefore CFBs did not place family above profit but used it as a mechanism for profit gains and therefore they went hand-in-hand. However, the essay concludes that in today's modern, global market, CFBs that wish to stay competitive and enter the increasingly Westernised and standardised business practices must move away from the CFB model. This is apparent and so concluding that CFBs do not place family above profit as when it comes down to it, CFBs are gradually converging to western practices for the reason of business success and profits."

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