Contents .0 Executive Summary 3 2.0 Introduction and Research Objectives 4 3.0 Previous Research 6 4.0 Research Design 8 5.0 Analysis 12 6.0 Limitations of the study 24 7.0 Conclusion 25 8.0 References 26 9.0 Appendices 27 - Humour Questionnaire 28 - Table of Results 30 . "Explore the different types of humour that are used in television advertising". 2. e .0 Executive Summary This report aims to investigate which types of humour are more prevalent in television advertising. Codruta & Gail's (2001) study of the seven classifications of humour was used to compare the study's findings. It was discovered that silliness was used mostly in television advertising and this was similar to the results of Codruta & Gail's own research. Observation was carried out over four
"Firms are usually proposing too few products." Discuss in the light of Harold Hotelling's Linear City Model and Richard Schmalensee's 1978 Paper on breakfast cereals.
Industrial Economics: Topic 3 "Firms are usually proposing too few products." Discuss in the light of Harold Hotelling's Linear City Model and Richard Schmalensee's 1978 Paper on breakfast cereals. Russell Manley: Tutorial Group Many firms in industries face a downward sloping residual demand curve. They engage in monopolistic competition, they have market power and yet still, they make no economic profit. One of the most important reasons why this is the case is product differentiation. Consumers view the products in an industry as different, as imperfect substitutes. These goods are said to be differentiated or heterogeneous. I f customers view the products in an industry as different then it is possible for a firm to raise it's price above that of its competitors without losing all its customers. These industries are characterised by monopolistic as opposed to oligopolistic competition and therefore there is free entry and exit. The number of firms in an industry is determined within the model by entry behaviour rather than being decided exogenously. With firms producing differentiated goods the entry of a new firm helps to widen the choice of products for customers and it also helps lower price. There are essentially two types of monopolistic competition with differentiated products and free entry and exit; non-address and address/location models. The non-address or
"Food Retailers will need to go global to succeed." Terry Leahy, CEO, Tesco. Looking at Carrefour-Promodes and Wal-mart.
International Retailing "Food Retailers will need to go global to succeed." Terry Leahy, CEO, Tesco Word Count: 3582 November 2002 Introduction In recent years, two major retailers have been in the headlines of the specialised press, namely Carrefour-Promodes and Wal-Mart. According to the most recent rankings, they are, respectively, numbers one and two in terms of turnover and employment. Global retailer ranking Rank Rank by turnover Company 2 Carrefour 2 5 Ahold 3 Wal-Mart 4 4 Metro 5 0 Tesco 6 8 Ito-Yokado (incl 7-Eleven) 7 21 Dehlaize 8 20 Casino 9 7 Auchan 0 3 Aldi 1 6 Tengelmann 2 1 Costco Global Retail Index, 2002 Wal-Mart is by far the largest retailer in turnover size, but has not yet expanded as far internationally as Carrefour, which has a wider geographical presence and achieves a higher proportion of their turnover outside their home market. This report is split into three main sections. Firstly we set out to compare and contrast the motives and internationalisation strategies of Wal-Mart and Carrefour. Secondly we move on to discuss the problems that these retailers have had in establishing themselves in foreign markets. Finally we discuss the statement "Food retailers will need to go global to succeed." Compare and Contrast the motives and internationalisation strategies of Wal-Mart and Carrefour-Promodes
"Contract Creation and Management" A contract is formed any time two people make an agreement to do, or not to do something. Contracts can take on many forms, from a verbal agreement sealed with a handshake, to a formal complex written contract. Certain types of contracts, involving commercial transactions, must be in writing in order to be valid. The parties may only modify written contracts through written agreement. In addition, if an estimate is incorrect or the scope of work changes in a contract, the parties need to write an addendum and both parties need to sign it to modify the original agreement. Business clients can rarely define every requirement and foresee every implication that may result. Project managers cannot foresee every risk or problem that may come up on their projects. The key to successfully managing the project is to make sure that there is agreement on a process for revising the requirements when needed. Amendments should contain the same degree of specificity for changes that the original contract contained. The principle areas where changes are made and for which amendments are required include scope of work, costs, and period or performance. (www.ofm.wa.gov) The contract between Span and Citizen-Schwarz (C-S) is a very complex contract which involved the efforts of many people over an extended period of time. While the goal of every reputable
"In oligopoly markets price and output decisions are indeterminate." Explain and discuss. Introduction An oligopoly is a market with only a few sellers, each offering a product similar or identical to the others. If the product is homogenous1, there is a pure oligopoly. If the product is differentiated, there is a differentiated oligopoly. Since there are only a few sellers of a product, the actions of each seller affect the others. That is, the firms are usually mutually interdependent. The key point to make regarding markets price and output decisions are that there is no single theory of oligopoly (equivalent to that of perfect competition or monopoly) that exists because the behaviour of oligopolistic firms are determined by the strategic reaction and behaviour of their rivals and these reactions will differ according to the market situation. Therefore the markets price and output decisions are indeterminate2. Under conditions of oligopoly, the industry is likely to exhibit the following features: * It will only have a few sellers - a few firms are so large relative to the total market that they can affect the market price. This relatively small number of large scale firms, sell branded products. * There would be significant entry barriers into the market in the long run which reduce the contestability of the market. * Within the market each firm must take into
"International business: the new bottom line" Written by Bruce Kogut for Foreign Policy, 1998 - Summary of the article.
Greg Jenkins International Business Research Article December 17, 2003 "International business: the new bottom line." Written by Bruce Kogut for Foreign Policy, 1998 SUMMARY OF THE ARTICLE Bruce Kogut is a professor of management and codirector of the Reginald H. Jones center at the Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. In his article, "International business: the new bottom line" which he writes for Foreign Policy he looks at the importance of firms to pursue international business and the factors that help shape what doing business in that manor is all about. In the world today, multinational corporations are more likely to guide foreign policy than follow it. This is evident because according to Kogut, they tend to dominate trade and world production, where international business focuses on how managers deal with their employees in the very different cultural marketplaces. Kogut then breaks the article into sections; why invest in another country, what it takes to be multinational, recognizing competitive advantage, technology and its life cycle, and the global division of mental labor. It is important to look at each of these segments to understand why international business is the new bottom line. The first reason according to Kogut to invest in another country deals with the differences in the rates of return to capital among countries. This helps to
I ntroduction and Background: Punjab Government set up Burewala Textile mills limited at Burewala with 51200 spindles. A company under the same name and style "The Burewala Textile Mills Limited " was incorporated in the same year to acquire the mills from the Punjab government. The company started with authorized capital of the Authorized Capital of Rupees 33.5 million and a paid-up Capital of Rupees 15.00 million. The company was taken over by Dawood Group in 1957 and production facilities were expanded by installation of 1036 looms and a most modern cotton Ginning Factory. At present the company has an installed capacity of 62912 spindles and 312 looms in its textile division with annual production capacity of 15.542 million Kds of cotton yarn of an average count of 20s and 11.828 million meters of cloth of an average 50 picks per inch respectively while Ginning factory has annual capacity to gin 144000 bales of cotton. The company is well known for the quality of its products in local as well as foreign markets. The previous policy of producing coarse and medium varieties has been changed and the company is now concentrating on production of super class counts (unto to 120s) of yarn and high value added Fabrics. BTML undertook implementation of ISO 9000 in September 1996 and has recently been awarded ISO 9002 certification, which will help in boosting the export of
Procedures For Obtaining Licensing For A New Drug When a new drug is discovered there is a very complex and drawn out process that must be carried out ion order to obtain manufacturing and product licences. In the interest of public safety, the guidelines that are set out are extremely rigid and must be strictly adhered to. Safety, Quality & Efficacy The first issue to be dealt with is the quality, safety and efficacy of the drug in question. The quality is very important where particular significance is put on product purity. Since the drug will eventually be administered to humans the nature of all impurities must be investigated and the effects of such impurities. The choice of excipient must also be carefully considered. At this point, the manufacturing procedure should be decided. It is recommended that a procedure is used that will produce a product of the desired quality, that also exhibits batch uniformity and adherence to the specifications that are set out by the regulatory authorities. These include the European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) and the Committee on Safety of Medicines (CSM). Safety issues are taken extremely seriously and it is a prerequisite that safety must be more than just freedom from hazard. Safety encompasses all long-term effects of the product and involves being able to foresee all possible problems before they arise. Medicine has
INTRODUCTION Global marketing offers a way for companies of all sizes to grow by expanding their customer base beyond the domestic market. However the complexities of global marketing, demand careful planning and proper implementation. Tata Motors will plan to launch its Rs.0.1 million (USD $2,300) small car, dubbed the people's car (X1) would be introduced in the Indian Market by 2008. Tata's new small car would be exported to other developing countries after observing the car's success in India. This study has been conducted to gain knowledge about the potential strength of Tata's X1 car to foreign countries. The demand scenario, domestic car industry and the present and possible role of India was analyzed in case of South Africa. Expansion strategy in market like South Africa, Tata' invests in nations where there is a need for company's existing products or the market is too small to interest other multinationals. The company's tremendous record of south-south investments is impressive. In African countries in particular, the striking characteristic of this successful company's presence is not only that it is long-standing but that it emphasizes social responsibility just as much as growth. COMPANY BACKGROUND Tata Motors Ltd is the largest commercial vehicle manufacturer in India and one of the top three players in the passenger vehicles segment. It was established
The financial performance of The Body Shop (TBS) was less than stellar last year. In 2002 it only made 5.4£m in profit and if they paid dividends they were in the red, but they appear to have gained financially so far in 2003.
Introduction The financial performance of The Body Shop (TBS) was less than stellar last year. In 2002 it only made 5.4£m in profit and if they paid dividends they were in the red, but they appear to have gained financially so far in 2003. (The Body Shop 2003:34) This report will explain the key market strengths of (TBS), and how the organization may take advantage of these strengths by concentrating on them and turning them into opportunities to improve financial performance and generally strengthen TBS's business. Because of the need for financial improvements, this report will concentrate on certain areas of the marking mix and the directions we believe the company should take in these areas. Recommendations will be both quantitative and qualitative. Some will have immediate financial rewards, while others will provide a long-term marketing strategy with emphasis on gaining market share which will improve long-term financial performance Body - Choice We chose segmentation targeting, positioning (STP) (see glossary) because they are strengths of (TBS) and play a critical role in the short and long-term financial position of (TBS). Since (STP) is the base of marketing and all its elements are interrelated, if any element fails the business will fail. Having survived for 27 years (Methven: 2003) clearly (TBS) did STP correctly and should capitalize on them. TBS is