Research method report -attitudes to GM technology.

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Appendix C: Observation Sheet        

Appendix D: Observation Sheet        

1. Introduction

Genetically modified crops are produced by addition of other genetic material from other organisms, and the bad genes are removed, resulting in better quality crops Usually genetically modified crops would increase crop yields, improve quality, increase drought resistance, and cold resistance and other features. However, nowadays, the effectiveness and value of the genetically modified crops are controversial. The research aims to elicit the students' perception of the genetically modified crops. The thesis would try to realize the aim by means of answering the questions of the genetically modified crops, is it good for the agriculturally poor land to yield products and the analysis of its impact on nature.

2. Literature review and knowledge underpinning the research questions

Genetically modified crops (Genetically Modified Foods, GMF) due to its cold and  drought resistance, and insect resistance ability, has been praised those countries that  lack national crops storage, Munzer (2006). However, the opponents said that the research on the safety of genetically modified food is in a short term, thus, it is hard to can not foresee the risks of the genetically modified crops in a long term in a decade in future for instance. And they are also worried about that the genetically modified crops are not the natural development of the agricultural products, and it does not have the original varieties. For the ecosystem in the world, it is the alien organism. What they are more anxious about is the possibility that such self-breeding and hybridization would get close to other species, which might lead to the genetic contamination when that exotic species spread to the traditional biological system. Apparently, genetically modified crops are not different from the ordinary plants, and it just has more additional features with regard to the gene. In Europe the opposite voice against the genetically engineered crops is common to hear. Even the European Union has cautioned the public that the rational and reasonable attitude toward the genetically engineered crops should be taken in that the Europeans have suffered from the genetically engineered crops, Schubert (2002). Of course, there are also some Europeans regardless of the tremendous harm of the modified genes, try to spread the genetically modified crops within and outside the Europe. Within Europe, genetically engineered crops are usually perceived as an example of scientists meddling with nature while outside Europe it is often presented as significant for poor agricultural land. Bear the controversial debate in mind, the author would try to find out where the controversial opinions lie in and how the genetically modified crop is controversial. In addition, in order to elicit the viewpoints of the student of those differences in perception on the genetically modified crops, the quantitative research and qualitative research method are employed. The research method could be principally the quantitative method and the qualitative research method, Creswell, (2008). The thesis would implement the quantitative research method and the qualitative research method. To be more specific, the interview and questionnaire would be adopted. On the other hand, an interview would be undertaken for the purpose of the elicitation of information of the perception of the students, including their understanding of the genetically modified crops; the attitude toward the genetically modified crops; etc. The questionnaire is an instrument that commonly used in the academic research, Foddy (1994), it consists of a list of  in order to gather information from the participants. The insurance of the ethic procedures would make the interviewees feel free to talk. Therefore, more objective answer should be obtained.

3. Presentation of findings and analysis

According to the interview of two students and the questionnaire data, it could be said that as to the genetically modified crops with regard to mainly two aspects, the positive effect on agricultural production and the negative impact on nature, different students have different perceptions.

3.1 Data findings of the interview

3.1.1 Perception on positive effect on agricultural production of the poor land

As to the perception on positive effect on agricultural production of the poor land, two attitudes are taken by the participants. The one is in the support of that positive impact and the other is opposite to that statement. On the one hand, the as the interviewee A has ascertained the importance of the genetically modified crops particular in terms of that the introduction of the genetically modified crops have solved the starvation of most under-developed countries. The genetically modified crops results from the development of the transgenic technology. To evaluate if the product of a technology is good or bad, the first concern is who enjoys the technology, the second is dependent upon whether it is cost-effective. In order to answer those two questions, not only the scientific analysis must be considered, but also the analysis should go beyond the scientific traditions. That is to say, the analysis of the genetically modified crops should be based on the perspective of the society and the environment. The success of any technology must allow users to get benefits.

For example, the genetically modified crops growing in Philippine, where the weather is very hot all year around. In 2000, she said that she has read from the books that Philippine had experienced the unprecedented drought. The Philippine Government had sent out a work team to publicize the genetically modified corn. The local people are very interested in that corn which does not require spraying, they take the initiative to apply the experimental planting of genetically modified corn to their own fields. At that time, genetically modified corn has not yet been approved, the non-governmental organization (NGO) in Philippine was preparing a large-scale protest. However, the genetically modified corn at last had been growing in Philippine. In addition, the multinational corporation, for example, Monsanto, Syngenta, Pioneer and Bayer as well as Corn World and Bioseed have entered into the Philippine genetically modified market. There is another factor that could not be overlooked. The eating habits of the Filipino is a strange East-West combination. They usually eat rice, meat and fish, rarely eat vegetables and tofu, which requires a very large demand for animal feed. Among the various animal feed, the corn is undoubtedly the most cost-effective, while corn is the earliest, the most technically mature genetically modified food. The successful introduction of the genetically modified corn by Philippine government is closely related to the above-mentioned factors.

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However, on the other hand, as stated by the interviewee B, the transgenic technology in medicine has achieved a lot. However, in agriculture it has gone wrong. The commercialization of genetically modified crops are designed mainly for farmers' need, they reduce the labor intensity of the farmers, reduce the cost of farming and increase the profits of agriculture. For consumers, that is, ordinary people who all eat food, genetically modified crops is more like an invisible monster, no one can tell where it merits lie in, nor why should farmers grow it. No wonder there are a considerable number ...

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