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Training systems - theory and 2 case studies.

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Introduction Today, it is widely recognized that human capital are the most valued assets and resources of business. Training and development are essential parts of work in different kinds of human resource management departments. Increasing investment in training and development is expected to lead to higher productivity and profitability; however, links between investment in training and business performance are more difficult to demonstrate. It is still discussed and evaluated to what extent the returns on investment in human capital will contribute to the achievement of organisations. This essay explores the alignment of training and development processes with organisational priorities in order to evaluate the impact of training to business organisation. Literature review Michael Armstrong's definition of training is still used in many human resource management textbooks, which explains "Training is the formal and systemic modification of behaviour through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience." (Durai, 2010, p.210) Meanwhile, from a long-term prospective, "Development is a continuation of education and training, for the purpose of gaining sufficient experience and skills as well as the correct attitude, in order to be admitted to the highest managerial positions" (G. Van Der Waldt & D.F.P. du Toit, 2007, p.397). Both of them concern with effective human resource processes and organisation activities aiming at improving individual and organisations' performance. A large range of literature findings cover different aspects of training, such as the types of training, the time when we need training, the conduct of training, the measurement of training results and so on. However, there is a relative limited number of research material focusing on the impact of training, especially the role of vocational training. Many of them are rather superficial and general. Initially, In terms of the benefits of training, current academic researches provide evidence for the improvement of individual trainees both in morale and skill. Buckley and Caple (1990) ...read more.


Regarded to the fast expansion, some problems would appear. One of them was the large demand for providing new managers. In that case, company's training program was launched. At the beginning, the company decided to use common training method for managerial manpower which was widespread used in many food, drug, and retail chains. The total training period would last from 30 weeks to almost a full year. The fundamental training was to learn by doing and to explore a whole picture of store operations. For instance, trainees would practise in four to six main departments as a clerk or helper. However, this round of training failed, by the end of 1971, the required 50 new managerial candidates were likely to fall short, and solely ten people met the requirement. In addition, the cost was as high as 6000 pounds per person, which was unacceptable by the company. Afterwards the company took out a new training program which was operated by the vice president of personnel, Rick Baron, who consequently assumed central responsibility for company training. With Rick's managerial experience at Frank's Drug, blended with his research on training literature, a new training program was built. Concluded by Burack (1978), the new program contained four elements: "programmed instruction materials and approaches to permit self-paced study; less 'doing' by trainees and more control over their own efforts in the store; identification of performance objectives that all managers must demonstrate; identification of performance activities that all managers must be able to perform in their store in order to permit more flexible autonomous operation in the new stores." In this new program, managerial performance objectives, which were drawn up based on the performance coping with store operation, were clearly stated rather than some general statement or vague term. Instead, the objectives indicated what managers should do in stores. Moreover, the training techniques were changed, by summarising the company's earlier efforts and other companies' programs. ...read more.


It is suggested that companies should concern more on training and development as a substantial development. Reference 1. Anderson V., (2008). The Value of Learning: From return on investment to return on expectation, 2nd edition, London, U.K.: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development 2. Buckley R. & Caple J., (1990). The theory and practice of training, London, U.K.: Kogan Page Ltd. 3. Burack E. H., (1978). Personnel Management: Cases and Exercises, U.S.A.: West Publishing Co. 4. Dobson P. C. & Tosh M., (1998). Creating a learning organization: Training and development in British Steel's universal bean mill, Total Quality Management, 9(4&5) p.66-70. 5. Durai P, (2010), Human Resource Management, India: Dorling Kinderslwy Pvt. Ltd., p.210. 6. G. Van Der Waldt & D.F.P. du Toit, (2007). Managing for excellence in the public sector, 2nd edition, Lansdowne: Juta & Co. Ltd. 7. Hansson B., Johanson U., Leitner K. H., (2004). 'The impact of human capital and human investments on company performance: Evidence from literature and European survey results', Descy P. and Tessaring M., Impact of education and training: Third report on vocational training research in Europe: background report, p.261-319. 8. Heise M. & Meyer W., (2004). 'The benefits of education, training and skills from an individual life-course perspective with a particular focus on life-course and biographical research', Descy P. and Tessaring M., Impact of education and training: Third report on vocational training research in Europe: background report, p.321-381. 9. Kryprianou A. & Kasket J., (1998). 'Training, the essential ingredient'. Cowling A. and Mailer C., Managing Human Resources, 3rd Edition, p.59-76. 10. Lambert L. L., (1985). 'Nine reasons that most training programs fail', Memphis: The University of Tennessee Centre for the Health Sciences, TN, Personnel Journal 11. Mcdowall A. & Saunders M.N.K., (2010). "UK managers' conceptions of employee training and development', Journal of European Industrial Training, 34(7), p.609-630 12. Mincer J., (1962). 'On-the-Job training: Costs, Returns, and some Implications', The Journal of political Economy, 70(5), p.50-79. 13. Stevens, M., (1999). Human capital theory and UK vocational training policy. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 15(1), p. 16-32. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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