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University Degree: Music

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  1. What opportunities does the music of Shostakovich offer for a discussion on tradition and dissent?

    Tradition refers to a custom or style formed by one person and then followed by other generations and dissent is an expression or holding of opinion against a commonly held view. Music is quite commonly talked about in relation to tradition, much of the music around today could be said to be based on tradition. Music such as hymns, Christmas carols, folks songs are all musical traditions passed on through time and place. Even more conventionally, pop music can be seen as affected by tradition but at the same time been reinvented to make it current.

    • Word count: 1491
  2. Analysis of Haydn's Piano Sonata in E Flat, Hob XVI/49

    In this case, bars 1 to 2, which is the start of the first subject would be labelled as motive A and bars 12 to 13, which is the beginning of the transition would be considered as motive B. Motive C would be located at bars 24 to 25, where the 2nd subject begins, and motive D (which is reminiscent of the "fate" motive used by Beethoven) is located at bars 53 to 54. Bars 53 to 54 and bar 60 would be considered as motive E and F respectively. Haydn manipulates those motives craftily to develop this section extensively.

    • Word count: 1818
  3. Analysis of Debussy Trois Nocturnes Sirnes

    In fact, only the central chord is tonally conceived in its own structure. The central chord is interpreted here in bar 41 as a dominant chord with a raised fifth (F# - A# - D - E - G#), which resolves in bar 42 to a second inversion tonic harmony in B with an added G# shown clearly by the harp (fig. 3), oscillating between major and minor through sharpening and neutralising of third with a F# pedal. Debussy also uses notes from whole tone scale extensively to further enrich the harmonic colour.

    • Word count: 1363
  4. Analysis of Prokofiev Sonata No. 7

    Two main Grundgestalt motives were used extensively in this seventh sonata, with most of the sonata's motivic content being derived from them. Thus, these two motives appear as the unifying gesture in all three movements of this sonata. The first motive, which its derivations clearly dominate the first movement, is called the "fate motive" and referred to as (c). It is the strongest unifying element throughout the first movement. The motive here is rhythmically similar to the first and famous motive from the Beethoven's Fifth Symphony.

    • Word count: 1165
  5. Music Industry Roles - it is by analyzing some of the roles in the music industry that we can understand properly what is the structure of the business, how its component parts interrelate, and how insuring yourself, being conscious of wher

    People who make a living out of things they are talented in or they even created, try to find ways to make sure their gifts, inventions or belongings are protected somehow throughout their lifetime and sometimes even beyond their decease. In musical terms the most used device is the 'copyright'. This method consists on rules that protect the creation to be reproduced, copied, imitated, resembled, distributed, sold, or any other kind of transfer such as renting or transmitting. PRS (2011)

    • Word count: 2691
  6. FUTURISTIC MINDS: GILLESPIE & McLAUGHLIN Essay on the development of jazz.

    Ostendorf, Berndt (1979) provided information about early Jazz history. Due to the success of theses bands and the music that they were making white bands started to copy them reflecting the racial tensions of America at the time that gave birth to the Jazz and the Blues. Over time the Jazz bands and orchestras became bigger and bigger, clearly reflecting the social and cultural climate of the 1920s. Vincent, Ted (2009) provided information about r****t violence in The Jazz Age.

    • Word count: 2321
  7. Current Trends in Music Education

    Some research indicates that smaller high schools are better settings for meeting adolescent needs and helping students reach their full academic potential. In an attempt to break down large comprehensive high schools, a number of options are being tried. Small school alternatives include schools-within-schools and parallel schools sharing the same physical space with distinct missions and programsii. Some large high schools separate students by grade level into separate wings. Along with having high standards in core subjects and other areas, the arts and aesthetic programs are either brought along with it, ignored, or stomped out.

    • Word count: 821
  8. Depiction of character through music and words

    It is said that the original draft of the novel was written extremely quickly. Lloyd Osbourne, Stevenson's stepson, remembers; "I don't believe that there was ever such a literary feat before as the writing of Dr Jekyll. I remember the first reading as if it were yesterday. Louis came downstairs in a fever; read nearly half the book aloud; and then, while we were still gasping, he was away again, and busy writing. I doubt if the first draft took so long as three days" This sounds almost as if Stevenson was gripped by a fever, a compulsion, just as Jekyll was in the novel.

    • Word count: 4289
  9. Microphones - different types and their uses in performances.

    The two most used Dynamic microphones are the Shure SM-57 and SM-58. The SM-57 is mainly used for capturing guitar amplifiers and snare drums as it has a large frequency range and can withstand the high gain. The SM-57 is suited for guitar amplifiers as it can pick up the lower frequencies of an electric guitar, but is also very good at picking up the higher frequencies used on the higher frets and even harmonics, as shown in the grid below - The SM-57 can be placed against a guitar amplifier in a number of ways to pick up the desired audio signal for the user.

    • Word count: 2307
  10. If you want to know about the Sixties, play the music of The Beatles (Aaron Copland) How accurate is this statement in relation to the development of popular music in Britain?

    They were later described as "the four most famous and musical men on earth, the best dressed and on a good day the most captivating people anyone can remember" (Taylor, n.d.) and "witty, irreverent, young and lovable moptops" (p86, Frontani, 2007). This look attracted thousands of young men and women, many of whom would copy them in an attempt to idolise this new band. It is therefore possible that the visual change in the sixties was indeed down to The Beatles and they were "a catalyst for much of the change that occurred during the 1960s" (p231, Frontani, 2007).

    • Word count: 3299
  11. Beethoven and his influence on Schubert

    "Beethoven's story is one of personal triumph over tragedy and supreme musical achievement. A complex and brilliant man, no composer before or since has exerted greater influence" ( Lane, 2006). The life that he had been through, his hearing disorder and as a result the loneliness inside his personality were the parts of the tragedy, which Beethoven successfully amalgamated with his enormous talent and produced works that have still been respected in the 21th century. Even if the later composers tried to resist the influence of Beethoven, they were quite failed to do that.

    • Word count: 1876
  12. Live Music and Festivals

    (Frew, E & Robertson, M. (2008) Events and Festivals - Current Trends and Issues, Routledge: London). Festivals and events can be generated the private or corporate sectors. 1.1 Key Moments and Shift over the Last 50 years Key movements and shifts that have occurred within the Live Music and Festival Event sector motivate visits as well as enhancing peoples' lives. However like many things, live events and festivals have both positive and negative sides, with the actions of people attending the events and the media coverage of these events being the make or break of any future events consisting.

    • Word count: 1966
  13. Jazz vs Classical Music

    European because most of the major composers up till the 20th century was European. Vivaldi was Italian, Bach was German, Mozart and Beethoven were Austrian; they are some of the more prominent composers. Not until the twentieth century with Gershwin and a few others do we find American composers writing this kind of art music. For the sake of convention, we can refer to Western Art Music as Classical music. Jazz is a distinctively American form of music, and it's history occupies a much smaller span of time.

    • Word count: 1752
  14. Band Review

    El Policia consists of 3 members: Sam Wall, Al Wheatley and Hugh Thomas, who together have formed a great relationship to create some innovative music.

    • Word count: 600
  15. Sonic Arts Repetoire Essay- Poeme Electronique

    This separation is illustrated by the two main contrasting electronic interpretations, which are present throughout the piece. The use of various musical cues indicate the change in story and section. These cues take the form of what appears to sounds like a pitch-transformed 'animal cry' loop, which gradually fades into the background with increasing densities of reverb effects that reflect this (for example, at '00:56'). Alternatively, it can take the form of a certain sound in the piece that also gradually fades into the background,but is artificially enhanced with delay and attack effects.

    • Word count: 2140
  16. Hey, Soul Sister.

    ain't that mister mister on the radio, stereo The way you move ain't fair you know Hey soul sister, I don't wanna miss a single thing you do tonight Heeey heeeey heeeey Just in time, I'm so glad you have a one track mind like

    • Word count: 295
  17. Research Dissertation:how is the live events industry dealing with negative impacts effecting the enviroment?

    Its time all involved started to take responsibility and the heavy responsibilities lay with the event organisers, it is wise for them to involve all stake holders and other industry figures to pull together and make a change. Introduction Two of the main Management issues discuss in this report are how are event organisations lowering Co2 emissions and what waste management techniques and applications are being used. Both issues are becoming increasingly more important within this sector. Both indirectly relate to each other.

    • Word count: 7742
  18. Concert review

    Thus at the year of 1964, it was entitle again as the 'Rock Music' (infoplease.com, 2006). As for being a musician, the genre 'Rock' is the category and direction of music that I have been associated and familiarize with. Therefore, this concert review would be based on my experience, my knowledge upon 'Rock' and also certain readings that could define the further meaning 'Rock' and it's characteristics. The band was formed during the year of 2005 and is quite well known around Malaysia as the band has won several titles for best Rock category. The band members were Rich as vocalist, Din Hormatov as rhythm guitarist, Nor Hanafi as lead guitarist, Azwin Andy as the drummer and Chow Ken Chung as bassist.

    • Word count: 1618
  19. Why has Richard Wagner been a controversial composer even today?

    He used a complex system of what are called "Leitmotifs", or melodic ideas which stand for characters , things or ideas in the drama. With Wagner, harmonies became more complex than ever before, and his revolutionary use of this element influenced composers everywhere, and led to the music of the 20th century. As I already mentioned, Wagner is the most controversial composer of 19th century. He divides people as no other composer did it before. A lot of people and musical critics find his work magnificent, but there are a lot of others who can't stand his music, because of his ideas, mostly political opinions in the real life.

    • Word count: 978
  20. Can Debussy's Music be accurately described as Impressionist?

    Impressionism as a visual art form grew out of a frustration with traditional 19th Century styles of painting, resulting in vivid, colourful works where the artist's interpretation of the subject have had great influence upon the final result, with a particular focus on nature in all its forms rather than more traditional subjects. Oscar Thompson, cited in Schmitz, states that the aim of Impressionism is 'to mirror not the object but the emotional reaction to the object; to interpret a fugitive impression rather than to seize upon and fix the permanent reality'.2 Palmer argues that an important focus of Impressionistic

    • Word count: 2301
  21. To what extent can The Rite's innovations be boiled down to rhythm alone?

    I had dreamed a scene of pagan ritual in which a chosen sacrificial virgin danced herself to death. This vision was not accompanied by concrete musical ideas, however...1 One could surmise that the order in which the two entities - music and storyline - arrived is of great relevance. However, although the above quote is the most recent and the best-known, other accounts given by the composer seem to contradict it, suggesting that it was the musical ideas that came first.2 Nonetheless, when compared to The Firebird or the works of Tchaikovsky, which were specifically commissioned, the desired musical effect to be composed presented to the composer half-formed, it is understandable that Stravinsky's decision to choose a radical and original plot (in terms of subject matter previously covered by the arts)

    • Word count: 1881
  22. Discuss in detail the Fugue from Bach(TM)s Well-Tempered Clavier Book 1 no. 24

    The six pairs of quavers, slurring the interval of a minor second are described by Keller as a 'sigh-motive.' 7 Each pair gives the listener a feel of resolution but followed by immediate continuation, building up tension in the subject alone and as a whole the subject depicts the feeling of misery to the listener. The subject and its tonal answer both enter in full a number of times. In order to increase tension further Bach uses small fragments of the subject, teasing the listener into thinking that the subject has returned but then cutting it short.

    • Word count: 1255
  23. Kt(TM)a Kabanov(TM)s psychological state fluctuates throughout Leo Janek(TM)s opera. How is this indicated in the music?

    1 Jan�cek, K�t'a Kabanov�. Vocal Score p. 11 Towards the end of Act 1 Scene 1 K�t'a enters. The music which accompanies this is shown in figure 2 and as it is a variation of K�t'a's theme it is pentatonic. Mellers describes it as meandering, but becoming 'increasingly wayward, suggesting a straining at the leash.'5 A crescendo coupled with an accelerando helps to build up tension and imitate the effect of straining at the leash. This helps to convey K�t'a's confused mental state about her love for another man, a fact not revealed until the next scene, however.

    • Word count: 2454
  24. What are the essential features of Chopin(TM)s style?

    in figure 2 but the listener also feels as if the piano is crying out.5 In contrast to Kleczynski's view Samson writes: 'because of the earlier simplicity of presentation, this reprise emerges as one of the supreme achievements of Chopin's ornamental melody.'6 For some listeners, however, these trills may seem a little overdone and unimaginative and even justify Kleczynski's opinion that Chopin's creativity was lacking at this point. Fig. 2 F. Chopin Nocturne Op. 62 No. 1 Bars 69 - 71 Despite the possible differences of opinion regarding the melody shown above Chopin's characteristic transplantation of bel canto into his

    • Word count: 1907
  25. A Critical Review on the Publication of Ethnicity, Identity and Music(TM)

    The discussion flows onto the monograph by Seeger (1987) where Stokes goes on to say that researchers in this sector can overcome the theoretical divide between the study of music and the study of society. Stokes makes it clear that anthropologists should take on board music and performance as an essential aspect of their discipline. The collection of essays in this book supports his case unerringly. The remainder of the introduction is split up into subsections which draw out the themes of the book: Performance and Place; Ethnicity; Identity and Nation State; Hybridity and Difference; Ethnicity, Class and Media; Gender and Identity.

    • Word count: 2285

"Where words fail, music speaks."

-Hans Christian Andersen

If you can correctly guess most of Bach's cantatas within a few bars, or you'd happily spend an entire weekend composing electronic music, then you might want to consider a university degree in music. Depending on the course, you might study musicology, performance, composition and music technology.

Alongside songs, music students will be expected to compose plenty of essays. If your writing doesn't flow as well as your melodies then you might want to consider studying Marked by Teachers' collection of creative arts and design essays. Reading our real student essays and the teacher's annotations will give you techniques for smarter editing and better writing, prestissimo.

Students of music can stay in the field via teaching,recording, arts administration and performing; or pursue further study and careers in unrelated fields like medicine or marketing. But whatever direction your career might take, musical knowledge will never stop enriching your life.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "A notation should be directed to a large extent towards the people who read it, rather than towards the sounds they will make." (Cornelius Cardew, 1961) Discuss.

    "As we have seen, 'simple' notation does not necessarily equal many possible interpretations, and on the same line, an elaborate notation such as Cardew's can permit varied interpretation. The psychological impact of how the music looks on the page invites varied readings; the printed page is a storage medium where an inevitably incomplete representation of 'notateable' ideas can be retained for the future. The fact that this aspect of the work does not change over time, like a painting or a book, does not mean that the piece will not change and evolve. Art's ability to carry societal properties, to evolve and reflect changing times is surely part of its value. The search for greater notational control led to greater complexity, yet the early influence of the possibilities of electronic music must have contributed to this pursuit. Peter Zinofieff spoke of an early ideal, satisfied by electronic composition, where 'we can each have our own private language specially tailored for our own machines and individual needs or frustrations' 21 Ultimately, though, the performer's job is 'to make the relationships and patterns in the music clear to the listener's mind and ear'22. This hope, though, displaces the enduring problems which lie between composers and those who are employed to realise the work, be they human or otherwise."

  • To what extent did the composers of symphonies in the Soviet Unionmanage to comply with the strictures of state control of music whilst retaining a degree of creative individuality?

    "Therefore in conclusion, the early work of Shostakovich constructs a narrative in which the strictures of the state can be discerned but this didn't stop many aspects of his work to achieving distinct individuality. The referring back to the conservatism of his first symphony and at the same time embracing the rebellion of the intermediate Symphonies enabled Shostakovich to strike a balance between conforming to state policy and maintaining his individuality. Thus, the ambiguous nature of music enabled this composer the means to challenge state musical policy without the regime taking noticing."

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