Schools as Organisations. Summarise entitlement and provision for early years education.

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Schools as Organisations

Summarise entitlement and provision for early year’s education.

Since 2004 all children in the UK aged three and four years old have been entitled to free places at nursery or another preschool setting (including child-minders). From 1st September 2010 the Government extended these hours from 12.5 to 15 hours for up to 38 weeks of the year. The free entitlement provides universal access to early childhood education and care, ensuring that all children have the opportunity to benefit from early years education. The extended hours also supports parents who wish to go back to work or develop their careers through further education by providing affordable day care. (Ref

Almost 1,000 two-year-olds are to benefit from free childcare a year early, after it was decided to bring forward trials in 10 areas in England to this September 2012 the government has announced. They unveiled the changes to introduce greater flexibility to allow more parents to take advantage of the scheme – already used by more than 800,000 three- and four-year-olds. It is intended that 150,000 of the most disadvantaged two-year-olds will receive up to 15 hours a week of free preschool education from September 2013, rising to 260,000 in 2014. (Ref

There are different types of childcare options available for 0-5 year olds, these include:

Sure Start Children’s Centre:

Working with parent’s right from the birth of their child, providing early years education for children, full day care, short-term care, health and family support, parenting advice as well as training and employment advice.

• Nursery schools:

Provide early learning and childcare for children between three and five years old. They are often based at Sure Start Children’s Centres or linked to a primary school. They follow the early year’s curriculum. The EYFS differs from Key Stage 1 it’s based on learning through play rather than formal education.

• Preschools and playgroups:

Usually run by voluntary groups providing part-time play and early learning for the under-fives. Three and four year olds can get their 15 hours of weekly free early year’s education at these providers.

• Day Nurseries:

Often based in workplaces and run by businesses or voluntary groups providing care and learning activities for children from birth to five years old.

• Child-minders:

Look after children under 12 in the child-minder’s own home. They can look after up to six children under eight years old, although no more than three of them must be under the age of five.

• Nannies and home-based carers:

Provide care for children in your home and can look after children of any age. (Ref )

Explain the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to education stage(s) and school governance.

Community schools are run and owned by the Local Authority, which may support the school through the local community and also by providing a support service. They will determine the admission policy; also, they will develop the use of school facilities by local groups for example.
-        Adult education.
-         Childcare classes.

Foundation and trust schools are mostly run by the school governing body; they will call the shots on the school admission policy with the local education authority.

The school, buildings and the land will be owned by the governing body or may be a charitable foundation.

A trust school which is kind of like a foundation school, which will form a charitable trust with an outside business, although the school will have to provide any additional support services which the school may require.

It is up to the governing body and parents on whether the school becomes a trust school or not.

There are two types of voluntary schools which are voluntary aided and voluntary controlled.

Voluntary aided schools are mainly religious or faith schools,

although anyone can apply for a place their no matter what their background is. As with a foundation school, the governing body.
- Employs the staff.
- Sets the admission criteria.

They are funded partly by the governing body, partly by a charity and partly by the Local Education Authority.

The governing body helps contribute for any wear and tear on the building, whereas the school building and land are owned by a charitable organisation, which will generally be of a religious background.

Voluntary –controlled schools are funded and run by the Local Authority, like above the school.
- Employs the school’s staff.
- Sets the admissions criteria.

The school land and building is owned by a charity, this will often be a religious organisation, which also appoints some of the members of governing body.

The special educational needs (SEN) team are supported by a very active group who make sure that they provide a range of activities to meet the needs of our ever growing community of special schools, as well as colleagues in mainstream primary and secondary schools.

Their aim is to work together to ensure good practice to promote effective approaches to enhance the students learning with Special Educational Needs.

Independent schools sets out their own curriculum and admission policies as the Head Teacher and the governors decide on the admissions policy. These schools are funded by parents and also from income from investments; half of them have charitable status.

All the independent school must be registered with the Department for Education.

Academy schools are set up by sponsors from businesses and are independently managed schools, which jointly funds the land and buildings, they do still have very close links with the Local Education Authority, and the government does still cover the running costs.

Until a few years ago the only options open for young children leaving school was either to continue with their education or to leave school and try to find full time employment.

In 2007 the government tried to change this so it reduced the number of young children who was not only leaving education but not in full time education or a training scheme, so the government introduced the ‘September guarantee’. Basically what this means is that all 16 to 19 year olds leaving school are guaranteed a place to further their education if this is the route the young person would like to take, this then was modified to give the opportunity to 17 year olds who had finished or even left a short time course they may have chosen at the age of 16.

Explain the post-16 options for young people and adults.

Once a young person has reached year 11 there are a number of choices to make about their future, this could be choosing a new course at school or college or entering employment and training. These options will give them a good base on building a future career.

Post 16:- Continue in full time education either sixth form or at a local college. Depending on their results they can choose from the list below:-

Post 17:- If they have just completed a one-year course, following Year 12, they may decide to continue their studies full time or look for jobs and training:-

Post 18:- Following Year 13, they will have a number of choices to make about their future. They may decide to continue their studies full time or look for jobs or training.

List of options for post 16, 17 and 18.

Course at entry level- Entry level courses do not require any exam passes and usually take one or two years to complete, a course at this level is an – Entry Level Certificate.

Course at Level 1(foundation Level) - Foundation level courses do not usually require any exam passes. Depending on which course they do it usually takes either one or two years to complete. Examples of courses at this level are:
-Introductory Certificates/Diplomas
-National First Award (level 1)
-National certificate/Award (level 1)
-NVQ Level 1
-Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification (foundation Level)

All foundation Level courses can lead to higher level courses or work and training.

Courses at level 2 (intermediate level) - Intermediate Level courses may require two or three passes at grades D–G and they usually take two years to complete.

Examples of courses at this level are:
- First Certificates/Diplomas
- National Certificates/Awards (Level 2)
- NVQ Level 2 – Foundation Apprenticeship
- Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification (Intermediate)

All Intermediate Level courses can lead to higher level course or jobs with training. (Providing they get the grades required).

Courses at level 3 (advanced level) Four or five GCSEs at grades A*- C or equivalents are usually required for entry. Depending on the type of course, they generally take either one or two years to complete.

Examples of courses at this level are:
- AS/A levels, including applied A levels
- National Diploma
- International Baccalaureate
- Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification (Advanced)
• NVQ Level 3 – Apprenticeship.

All Advanced Level courses can lead to higher education or jobs and training (providing they get the grades required in the appropriate subjects).

Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification:-
The Welsh Bac is now becoming available to more learners throughout Wales in schools, colleges and work-based settings. It allows for more flexibility in their studies. They will also develop skills and learning styles that prepare you for further and higher education, as well as the world of work.

The Welsh Bac consists of two parts:
Core – consisting of five components:
An Individual Investigation (which is like a project) into a subject of their own choice.
- Wales, Europe and the World
- Key Skills
- Work-related education
- Personal and social education.

Options – where they choose from course/programmes that are currently offered, for example:

- AS/A levels
- VCE (Vocational A levels)
- New Principal Learning and Project Qualification will also be available as option within the Welsh Bac.

Apprenticeships bring them formal qualifications and highly specific work skills. They must be employed so they will be earning while they learn. They can also use Apprenticeship as a stepping stone to higher qualifications. As an Apprentice, their skills and role are respected, many top managers started out by learning a trade and understanding how the organisation works from the ground up.

To gain access to an apprenticeship applicants would need: -
- Four or five GCSEs at grade C or above are usually needed.
- They’d be paid while they learn the skills that employers are looking for.
- They’d gain an NVQ Level 3 qualification as an Apprentice or a Level 2 qualification as a foundation Apprentice. Higher Apprenticeships are also available at a Level 4 or above.

If the student was leaving school or college a Traineeship could help them get the skills needed to get a job or progress to further learning at a higher level, for example Apprenticeships or further education. In most cases they can start on a Traineeship at any point during the year and they don’t need any formal qualifications to access the programme.

There are different levels of Traineeship. (Post 18)
• Engagement:

If they are finding it difficult to find the right job, get into work or develop their skills and learning, this level will help prepare them for the world of work or full time learning. This level can include work placements, community projects or training.

Level 1:

If they know what career they want to follow and are ready for full-time learning at Level 1, this level will allow them to progress their skills further in their chosen subject and can also include work placements and community projects. If they have successfully completed a Level 1 and are still out of work, they may be eligible to start learning at Level 2.

Voluntary work:
As well as doing something worthwhile and rewarding in its own right, voluntary work can also be a good way of gaining skills and experience, especially if they don’t find a job or training right away. It also looks good on a CV.

Youth Gateway:
If they need some extra help and support before applying for a course, job or training, Youth Gateway is a short programme run by Careers Wales to help them with identifying and developing skills, job search, making applications and choosing suitable courses. Information on this can found at the local Careers Wales Centre.

Explain the strategic purpose of

School governors

Schools are run by a governing body working with the head teacher and senior management team to ensure pupils get a good education. Becoming a governor could be a way of contributing to your local school and learning new skills.

Who can become a school governor?
You don't need to have a child at a school to become a governor. All types of people can become school governors. No special qualifications are required, but you must be 18 or over on the date when you are elected or appointed.

Join now!

Enthusiasm, commitment and an interest in education are the most important qualities. You don't need to have a child at the school.

Many schools would particularly welcome new governors who have transferable skills developed at work, or who have a particularly good understanding of the community served by the school.

What do school governors do?
The governing body of a school is responsible for ensuring that it is run to promote pupil achievement. Its duties include:
• setting strategic direction, policies and objectives
• approving the school budget
• reviewing progress against the school's budget and objectives
• appointing, challenging and supporting the ...

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