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Final Control Element. FCE may be referred as actuator such as valve, gate, motor or relay. It enables an operator of a plant to achieve a desired process variable
The most common FCE in industrial control system is control valve which is used to control fluid flow in pipeline. In petrochemical industry, control valve has known on its well performance in adjust the flow of the fluid in the production process. Energy costs is the major operating expense in petrochemical plants, so, poor valve control can lead to low plant profits. Therefore, valves such as gate valve with electric actuator and that with manual actuator, gate valve with pneumatic membrane actuator and pressure relief valve play an important role in ensure the optimum process conditions is achieved during the benzene distillation.
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For example, the ignition temperature of PVC is as high as 455°C, and is a material with less risk for fire incidents since it is not ignited easily. Furthermore, the heat released in burning is considerably lower with PVC, when compared with those for PE and PP. PVC therefore contributes much less to spreading fire to nearby materials even while burning. Durability Under normal conditions of use, the factor most strongly influencing the durability of a material is resistance to oxidation by atmospheric oxygen.
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Technology Management Report - EcoRes is an independent project designed to reach the goal of energy saving in student accommodation sectors.
Solar power is a kind of green energy which can be installed easily and widely in student accommodation. Wind power can be utilized by wind turbine. A wind turbine plays a role of converting wind energy into mechanical energy. Different type of wind turbine can be used according to different circumstances. Another technology solution is LED installation. By installing LED lights, a large amount of energy bills can be saved. Cycle by cycle laundry equipment could also be considered as a technology solution. Biomass is another technology solution can be considered. Biomass can either be used directed or convert into other energy forms. Garbage, wood, waste, landfill gases and alcohol fuels are the main resources of biomass. 1.
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An example of this type of application is in the turbine rotors of jet engines. Rupture limited applications are where precise dimensions are not particularly essential. However it is essential that fracture cannot occur to the material. An example of this is the need for high pressure steam tubes and pipes to withstand any break in their structure. Stress relaxation limited applications are needed where the initial tension in component relaxes with time. An example of where this application occurs is in the pretensioning of cables on bridges or in the pretensioning of bolts. Buckling limited applications of creep are needed in slender columns or panels which carry compressive loads.
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The collected data can then be used for various purposes such as constructing digital models for a wide variety of applications. The key capabilities of the chosen 3D scanning solution rely on its ability to effectively capture the required digital definition of the object with the required accuracy and data clarity to support the required deliverable. For most situations, a single scan will not produce a complete model of the object so subsequent scans are needed. All the scans need to be brought into a common reference system via a process called ?alignment?, and then merged to create the complete model via computer software.
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But when considering the history of this profession, the origin of quantity surveying carries us way back to the 17th century. In 1666 after the Great Fire, London was under restoration process it needed huge no. of workers like masons, carpenters and other tradesmen. Before the 1666 all the workers mentioned above got paid daily basis. But the large amount of labor needed to restore the city after the fire, it made governors to think twice and decided to pay each worker for the quantity of work they had done.
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In addition, it also significantly reduces the amount of maintenance and inspections required. Panel construction in aircraft such as the Boeing 707 requires additional joints, fasteners and splice plates, resulting in increased weight and inspections. An example of a composite, which is used on the Boeing 787 is carbon laminate. It comprises of layers of carbon fibre that are impregnated with a polymer. Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopaedia.. 2011. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/composite+material. [Accessed 20th Novemberr 2011]. The use of composite materials ensures many advantages. They are lighter, stronger, do not corrode or fatigue, resist impacts better and are easier to examine during an inspection, compared with aluminium.
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Random Mat ? This is when the fibres are arranges in a random fashion. This can potentially be quite strong as a strain in any direction can more than likely be dealt with. Epoxy Resin ? This is a heat-set resin with appropriate toughness, adhesiveness, chemical resistance, dielectric properties, and dimensional stability; several modified types are used as denture base material. The diagram above shows the Mer unit commonly found in an epoxy resin.to form an epoxy polymer this Mer unit must repeat to form a long chain structure (commonly cross linked).
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Project cost management entails four major processes, which are closely related: resource planning, cost estimation, cost budgeting and cost control.
It is important to consider how project decisions can affect the cost of employing the project?s product. This wider view of cost management is referred to as life cycle costing (PMI, 2000). Life cycle costing can be used to cut cost and time, improve quality, performance and decision-making. Stakeholders measure costs in different ways and at different times. Therefore, it is important for the project manager to consider what kind of information the stakeholders require. In some projects, the four processes of project cost management are carried out as a single process.
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During the same time, UK Engineering Council amended its standards for chartered and incorporated engineers, in order to increase awareness of ethical issues. It appears that this has resulted in having a profound effect as many universities have incorporated ethical perspective in their studies. Professional Engineers strive to develop solutions that improve the health and safety conditions for the welfare of society. The statement of Ethical Principles sets standards for professional Engineers (Statement of Ethical Principles. 2005). It presents four principles that guide engineers in their professional duties.
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Pendulums ? Although not often seen in today?s world the content of this experiment relates closely to the operations of pendulums, again making the design process and understandings of their workings easier and clearer. Oil Pumping ? Again the motion involved in some large scale oil pumps is not dissimilar to content covered in this experiment making it important to understand how the moment of inertia relates to periodic time. The Aim of this Lab experiment was to calculate the polar moment of inertia of an assembly and using the results to predict the periodic time of a trifilar suspension.
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With this in mind, the individual components that will be used on the communications system are detailed in the following sections Antennas: There will be both an omnidirectional S-band helical antenna, specifically designed for telemetry and commands, as well as a 2.2 metre high-gain antenna, akin to the Rosetta satellite antenna. This antenna has optimal performance within both S- and X-band frequencies and both are manufactured by RUAG Space AG, based in Switzerland. Transponder: The system will incorporate two redundant small deep-space transponders (SDST?s) , developed by General Dynamics and NASA?s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
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The benefits of Value Management contribute towards this project especially since the project is still in its early stages. Some of the concepts through which SBEinnovations Ltd can obtain value for money (VFM) are mentioned below; 1. Reduced Learning Curve 2. Improved communications and decision procedures 3. Improved quality and programming This report also includes a recommendation on Value Engineering Study conducted before the completed design stage and construction activities. Issues targeted during VE study include: 1. Design Optimization 2. Selection of Procurement Route 3. Cost, Quality and Time 4. Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS) Study 5. Stakeholders Coordination ________________ 1.
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EPANET is a computer program that performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behaviour within pressurized pipe networks
These include colour-coded network maps, data tables, time series graphs, and contour plots. Procedure of drawing Our first task is to create a new project in EPANET and make sure that certain default options are selected. After launching EPANET, we select File >> New (from the menu bar) to create a new project. Then select Project >> Defaults to open the dialog form shown below. This dialog automatically labels new objects with consecutive numbers starting from 1 as they are added to the network.
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By using dimensional analysis, we can show that for low speeds, the flow pattern and viscosity on a cylinder are functions of the Reynolds number (Re) ? a dimensionless number which determines the flow pattern. This is defined as: Where V is a velocity, D is the diameter of the cylinder and nu (?) is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. At reasonably high values of Reynolds number in a real flow, a thin layer known as the boundary layer is formed on the body surface as shown in figure 3.This boundary layer inevitably detaches from the solid body to form a boundary layer separation which increases the drag on the body.
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Many people liked the idea but they was lots of campaigns against it by the ferry company and there was no funding by the government. Therefore to get the financing they needed and to help promote the bridge the three started a special district which took them six year through all the courts to finally get the go ahead to build the structure on the 4 December 1929?.The way they financed the bridge was through many construction bonds off numerous companies and the only way of repaying this money was to charge bridge tolls for using the bridge.
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Design of Experiments - The goal of the project was to constructively design a completely randomized experiment consisting of one independent variable that may affect the performance of a paper helicopter
Randomization is one of the most important basic principles of designing an experiment. When using the principle of randomization, trials are completed in a random order to balance out the effect of ?lurking? variables, and to reduce bias. Lurking variables consist of items that would cause variance to the outcome of the experiment. Replication helps to reduce random error by improving precision of effect estimation of error or background noise. Replication consists of multiple copies of the original test design.
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Q = heat transferred per unit time (W)A = heat transfer area (m²) 2. ΔTlm = log mean temperature difference. And â³Tlm=T1- t2-T2- t1ln(T1- t2)T2- t1 1. Uexperimental = Experimental overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m².ËC) 2. To calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient from empirical correlations, use the equation: Where: 1. Uo = Overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area of the tube (W/m².°C) 2. ho = outside (shell side) film coefficient (W/m².°C) 3. hi = inside (shell side) film coefficient (W/m².°C) 4. hod = outside dirt coefficient (fouling factor) (W/m².°C) 5. hid = inside dirt coefficient (W/m².°C)
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DC-DC converters are commonly used in applications requiring regulated DC power, such as computers, medical instrumentation and communication devices . DC-DC converters are also used for traction motor in electric automobiles, trolley cars, ships, aircraft, hybrid electric cars and buses, trucks . DC-DC converters can be divided into two broad categories as non-isolated and isolated converters. Boost topologies have characteristics, such as continuous input current, low input ripple current, good clamping of output diodes requiring less than half of the voltage rating of rectifier diodes .
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This report booklet contains the detailed procedures and results of the experiment on the determination of the density of kerosene (dpk), petrol (pms), crude oil and soap solution using a pycometer and balance
It uses a working liquid with well-known density, such as water. For the purpose of this experiment, distilled water was used. The pycnometer is a glass flask with a close-fitting ground glass stopper with a capillary hole through it. This fine hole releases a spare liquid after closing a top-filled pycnometer and allows for obtaining a given volume of measured and/or working liquid with a high accuracy. The mass density or density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume.
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Until recently, the only joining methods used in space were mechanical fastening and adhesive bonding. However, the improvement of our actual in-space welding capability is crucial for the continuation of major projects such as the International Space Station1 or the Russian Station MIR and the future development of space exploration projects such as FLO (First Lunar Outpost) or MMM (Manned Mission to Mars). 1. Discussion 2.1 General review of welding techniques It is difficult to precisely categorize welding techniques as several of them are in between two or more categories.
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This is available in the Web CT drop box. A sample output can be found in the appendix (figure 3). 2. Equations The sum of the angle BOC (α) and the angle between OA and the horizontal (Ï) is said to be: (1) C1 and C2 are parameters which are used to calculate values of a and b using constants rmin, rmax ,θmin, θmax, α and varying values of Ï as shown below. These parameters are derived using the cosine rule: (2)
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The derivation of the equation of interest, equation 1 can be seen in 2.1. 2.1 Derivation of equation 1 (1): Consider a generic cross section (figure 2), where elementary cross section dA can be located. Let X-X, Y-Y be the principal centroidal axis and x-x, y-y are any pair of centroidal rectangular axes. Phi (Ï) angle between X-X and x-x axes. Assuming the origin is the centroid of the shape, Ixx,Iyy and Ixy can be easily calculated. XOY is considered as the principal axis system.
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